Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/h₃

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₃el-no- alder Lat. alnus, Lith. alksnis, Ltv. elksnis, Russ. ольха (ol'xa), XMK aliza, ON alr, Gm. elira/Erle, Eng. alor/alder, OPruss. aliskande, Gaul. alisa, Hitt. alanzan, Pol. olcha, Alb. halë, Gk. Olixōn
*h₃em- bitter Gk. ὠμός (ōmos), Lat. amārus, Ir. om/amh, Arm. հում (hum), Skr. अम्ल (amlás), Eng. ampre/, ON apr, Ltv. amols, Alb. ëmbël, XMK abro-
*h₃engʷ- to anoint Skr. अनक्ति (anakti), Arm. աւծ (awc), Ir. imb/im, Lat. unguō, Umb. umtu, OPruss. anctan, Gm. ancho/Anke, Welsh ymenyn
*h₃ers- to protrude Gk. οὐρά (oura), Arm. ոռ (oṙ), Hitt. arras, Eng. ears/arse, Ir. err/earr, Gm. ars/Arsch, ON ars
*h₃eyó- multicolored, reddish Lith. ievà, Ltv. ieva, OPruss iuwis, Eng. īw/yew, Gm. īwa/Eibe, ON ýr, Gk. oiē, Gaul. ivo, Ir. éo/eó, Welsh yw, Russ. ива (iva), Arm. այգի (aygi), Hitt. eja
*h₃nobʰ- navel Lat. umbo; umbilīcus, Skr. नभ्य (nabhya), Av. nāba, Ltv. naba, Gm. nabalo/Nabel, Eng. nafela/navel, ON nafli, Gk. ὀμφαλός (omphálos), Ir. imbliu/imleac, Kashmiri naf, OPruss. nabis, Pers. nāf
*h₃nogʰ-, *h₃nógʰ-o-, *h₃nógʰ-ro-, *h₃nógʰ-i- nail Gk. ὄνυξ (onuks), Lat. unguis, Skr. नख (nakha), अङ्घ्रि (aghri), Gm. nagel/Nagel, OCS noguti, Russ. ноготь (nogot'), Lith. nagas, Ltv. nags, Av. nakhara, Arm. եղունգն (ełungn), Welsh ewin, Eng. nægl/nail, Pers. nāxun, Ir. inga/ionga
*h₃okʷ- eye Lat. oculus, OCS oko, Russ. око (oko), Toch. ak/ek, Arm. ակն (akn), աչք (ačʿkʿ), Skr. अक्षि (akṣi), Gk. ὄσσε (osse); ὀφθαλμός (ophthalmos), Eng. ēge/eye, Gm. ouga/Auge, Goth. augo, Alb. sy, Lith. akis, Ltv. acs, Kamviri âč, Ir. enech/oineach, Welsh enep, ON auga, Polish oko, Old Prussian ackis
*h₃órbʰos orphan; orphaned, bereft Lat. orbus, Arm. որբ (orb), Ir. orb(b)ae, orpe, Skr. अर्भ (árbha), Gk. ὀρφανός (orphanos), Gm. arbi/Arbeit, Eng. earfoþe/erf, OCS рабъ (rabŭ), Russ. работа (rabota), Gaul. Orbius, Goth. 𐌰𐍂𐌱𐌹 (arbi), ON arfr
*h₃or-no- eagle Gm. arn/Aar, Arm. որոր (oror), ուրուր (urur), Eng. earn/erne, Gk. órnis; ὄρνεον (órneon), Russ. орёл (orjol), Lith. erelis, Ltv. ērglis, Hitt. aran, Pol. orzeł, Welsh eryr, ON ari, Goth. ara, Alb. orë, OPruss. arelis, Ir. irar/
*h₃ost-, *kost- bone Lat. os; costa, Alb. asht, Gk. ὀστέον (osteon), Russ. кость; остов (kost'; ostov), Skr. अस्थि (asthi), Av. asti, Hitt. astāi, Welsh asgwrn, Kamviri âi, Pers. /ostexān, Polish kość, Toch. /ásta, Arm. ոսկր (oskr), Luw. āš
*h₃reǵ- to straighten Lat. regere, Gk. ὀρέγω (oregō), Eng. riht/right, Gm. reht/recht, ON réttr, Goth. raihts, Thrac. rhesus, Toch. räk/räk;
*h₃rēǵ-(h₃ón-) "ruler, king": Skr. राजन् (rājan), Oscan regaturei, Lat. rēx, Gaul. rīx, Ir. ríg/rígh, Welsh rhi, Av. raz, Pers. rahst, Alb. radhë
*h₃és-h₃en- (nom. *h₃esh₃ō, gen. *h₃esh₃nós) harvest Russ. осень (osen'), Old Prussian assanis, Eng. earnian/earn, Goth. asans, Gm. aran/Ernte, ON ǫnn, Gk. ὀπώρα (opōra), Polish jesień, Lat. annōna, Arm. աշուն (ašun)
*h₃és-no-, *h₃és-i- ash Lat. ornus, Lith. uosis, Ltv. osis, Russ. осина (osina), Pol. jesion, Gm. asc/Esche, Eng. æsc/ash, Old Prussian woasis, ON askr, Welsh onnen, Alb. ah, Arm. հացի (hacʿi), Gk. ἀχερωΐς (akherōïs)/