Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/m

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*magʰ- to be able Pers. magus/, Lith. magėti, Ltv. megt, Eng. meaht/might; mæg/may, OCS mogǫ, Gm. magan/mögen, Polish mogę, ON mega, Russ. мочь (moč'), Skr. मघ (magha), Toch. mokats/, Gk. μῆχος (mêkhos), Goth. magan, Arm. մարթանք (martʿankʿ)
*magʰó- young Goth. magus, Gaul. Magurīx, Ir. maug/mogh, Av. maġava, Alb. makth; meksh Ltv. mač, Gm. magad/Magd, Eng. mægð/maid, Welsh meudwy, ON mǫgr
*mak- pouch Lith. maišas, Ltv. maks, Ir. mén/, Welsh megin, Gm. mago/Magen, Eng. maga/maw, ON magi, OCS mosina, Russ. мошна (mošna), Polish moszna, Old Prussian dantimax
*mar/n- hand Gk. μάρη (márē), Lat. manus, Eng. mund/—, Gm. munt/Vormund, ON mundr, Welsh mwn, Alb. marr
*marko- horse Gaul. markan, Ir. marc/marcach, Welsh march, Eng. mere/mare, Gm. marah/Mähre, ON marr
*mat- mattock Lat. mateola; metere Skr. मत्य (matya), Russ. мотыга (motyga), Polish motyka, Gm. modela, 'Welsh' medi
*me me Alb. mua, Lat. me, Umbrian mehe, Eng. mec/me, Gm. mih/mich, Ir. mé/mé, Russ. меня, мне, мной (menja; mne; mnoj), Hitt. ammuk, Lyc. amu, Lyd. amu, Goth. mik, ON mik; mér, Polish mi; mię; mnie, Gk. eme, Skr. मम् (mam), Av. mam, Welsh mi, Pers. /man, Venetic mego, Lith. man, Kurd. (i)m(in)
*med- measure, consider Lat. meditārī; medērī, Welsh meddwl, Gk. μέδω (médō), ON meta, Eng. metan/mete; ǣmtig/empty, Arm. միտ (mit), Skr. मस्ति (masti), Av. azdā, Pers. azdā/, Umbrian meřs, Oscan meddiss, Av. midiur/, Toch. mem/maim, Goth. mitan, Gm. mezzan/messen
*médʰu mead Skr. मधु (madhu), OCS medŭ, Russ. мёд (mjod), Lith. medus, Ltv. medus, Eng. meodu/mead, Gk. μέθυ (méthu), Av. maðu, Kamviri mura, Kashmiri mäch, Polish miód, Welsh medd, Toch. mit, Gm. metu/Met, ON mjǫðr, Ir. mid/miodh, Old Prussian meddo, Osset. myd/mud, Luw. maddu-
*medʰyo- between Gaul. Mediolānum, Eng. ælemidde/middle, Russ. между (meždu), Gm. mitti/Mitte, Skr. मध्य (madhya), Kamviri pâmüč, Goth. midjis, ON meðal, Polish między, Illyr. metu, Lith. medis, Ltv. mežs, Arm. մէջ (mēǰ), Oscan mefiaí, Pers. /mēān, Old Prussian median, Lat. medius, Oscan mefiaí, Welsh mewnin, Ir. mid/, Av. maiðya, OCS mežda, Alb. mes; mjet Gk. μέσος (mésos)
*mḗh₁n̥s moon, month Gk. μήν (mḗn), Toch. mañ/meñe, Lat. mēnsis, Eng. mōna/moon, OCS meseci, Polish miesiąc, Russ. месяц (mesjats), Skr. मास (māsa), Arm. ամիս (amis), Av. maoh, Ir. mí/mí, ON mani, Gm. mano/Mond, Goth. mena, Alb. muaj, Lith. mėnuo, Ltv. meness, Welsh mis, Kamviri mos, Pers. /māh, Osset. мæй (mæj), Old Prussian menig, Kurd. mang
*mey- small Hitt. meiu-, Lat. minuere, Gk. μείων (meíōn), OCS mĭnii, Russ. менее (menee), Gm. min/minder, Goth. mins, ON minnr, Skr. मिनाति (mināti), Oscan menvum, Toch. /maiwe, Eng. /minnow, Luw. mawa, Ir. min/mion
*mey- to change Lat. mūnus, Eng. gemǣne/mean, Gm. gimeini/gemein, Goth. gamains, Skr. मयते (mayate); मेनि (meni), OCS mĕna, Russ. менять (menjat'), Lith. mainyti, Ltv. mains, Ir. móin/, Welsh mwyn, Polish zmiana, Av. maēni, Hitt. immiya-
*meiǵʰ- to urinate Skr. मेहति (mehati), Av. maēsati, Lith. myžti; miglà, Ltv. mīzt, Russ. мезга (mezga), Arm. մէզ (mēz), Toch. —/miśo, Gk. ὀμείχω (omeíkhō), ON míga, Goth. maihstus, Eng. māsc/mash, /mist, Gm. /Maisch; miskan/mischen, Lat. meiere, Kurd. méz, Alb. mjegull; përmjerr
*meldʰ- lightning Old Prussian mealde, Lith. milna, Russ. молния (molnija), ON myln; Mjollnir, Welsh mellt; mellen
*melh₂- to grind, rub, break up OCS melję, Russ. мелю (melju), Lith. malti, Ltv. malt, Toch. malyw-/mely-, Eng. melo/meal, Alb. miell, Arm. մալեմ (malem), Gk. μύλη (múlē), Goth. malan, ON mala, Gm. malan/mahlen, Lat. molere, Umbrian kumaltu, Welsh malu, Ir. melim/meilim, Hitt. malla, Polish mleć. ""Urdu"": ملنا،malna /məlna/, مالش,malɪsh /maləsh/,ملائم، molaɪm /mʊla.ɪm/
*melk- wet->milk Lith. malkas, Ltv. malks, Gk. μέλκιον (mélkion), OCS mlĕko, Russ. молоко (moloko), Polish mleko
*melǵ- to milk Lat. mulgeō, Eng. melcan/milk, Gm. melcan/melken, Goth. miluks, ON mjölk, Toch. malke/malkwer, Gk. amelgō, Ir. melg/; bligim/, Welsh blith, Lith. melžti, Russ. молозиво (molozivo), Skr. मर्जति (marjati), Alb. mjel
*memso- flesh Skr. मांस (māsa), Lat. membrum, Old Prussian mensā, Goth. mimz, Russ. мясо (mjaso), Alb. mish, Arm. միս (mis), Toch. /mīsa, Gk. μῆνιγξ (mêninks), Kashmiri maz, Lith. mėsa, Ltv. miesa, Ir. mír
*men- mind Gk. μένος (ménos), Lat. mēns, Skr. मनस् (manas), Av. manah, Eng. gemynd/mind, Goth. muns, ON minni; man, Gm. minna/Minne, Lith. mintis, Ltv. minēt, Old Prussian mēntimai, OCS mineti, Russ. мнить (mnit'), Alb. mund, Pers. mainyāhay/, Toch. mnu/mañu, Ir. do-moiniur/; dermet/dearmad, Welsh cof, Arm. իմանամ (imanam)
*mendyos- horse Alb. mëz/mâz, Illyr. mandos, Thracian Mezēnai, Messapic Menzanas
*mer- to die Lat. mortŭus, OCS mrĭtvŭ, Russ. мереть (meret'), Lith. mirti, Ltv. mirt, Skr. मरति (marati), Av. miryeite, Arm. մեռանիմ (meṙanim), Gk. βροτός (brotós) < *μροτός (*mrotos), Eng. morþor/murder, Gm. mord/Mord, ON morð, Goth. maurþr, Gaul. marvos, Kamviri me, Osset. марын (maryn), Polish mor/martwy/umrzeć, Ir. marb/marbh, Welsh marw, Pers. amariyata/mordan, Hitt. mer, Kurd. mirin, Alb. mërshë
*meǵ- great Gk. μέγας (mégas), Lat. magnus, Arm. մեծ (mec), Gaul. Magiorīx, Alb. madh, Skr. महयति (mahayati), Toch. māk/mākā, Goth. mikils, Phryg. meka-, Eng. micil/much, ON mikill, Av. mazant, Pers. mazant/meh, Hitt. makkes; mekkish Ir. maige/, Welsh Maclgwn, Gm. mihhil/— Kurd. mezin
*misdʰo- fee Skr. मीढ (mīha), Av. mīžda, Goth. mizdō, Russ. мзда (mzda), Gk. μισθός (misthós), Gm. mieta/Miete, Pers. /muzd, Eng. mēd/meed, OCS mĭzda
*mon- neck Skr. मन्या (manyā), Lat. monīle; eminere Eng. manu/mane, Gm. mana/Mähne, ON mǫn, Ir. muin/muin, Gk. mannon, Russ. монисто (monisto), Welsh mwng; mwnwgl, Gaul. maniakēs, OCS monisto, Av. manaothri
*mor- blackberry Gk. μόρον (móron), Arm. մոր (mor), Lat. mōrum, Hitt. muri, Ir. smér/smeur, Welsh mwyaren
*móri sea, lake Lat. mare, Polish morze, Russ. море (more), Gaul. Aremorici, Lith. marios, Ltv. mare, Skr. मर्यादा (maryādā), Eng. mere/mere; mersc/marsh, Gm. meri/Meer, Old Prussian mary, Welsh môr, Ir. muir/muir, Goth. marei, ON marr
*morwi- ant Lat. formīca, Ir. /moirbant, Av. maoiri, Skr. वम्र (vamra), Gk. μύρμηξ (múrmēks)/μυρμήγκι (mirmigi), ON maurr, Crimean Gothic miera, Arm. մրջիւն (mrǰiwn), Polish mrówka, Alb. morr, Pers. /murče, OCS mravie, Russ. муравей (muravej), Toch. /warme, Kurd. Mérú, Bret. merien
*mosgo- brain Russ. мозг (mozg), Av. mazga, Skr. मज्जन् (majjan), Kashmiri massunt, Old Prussian musgeno, Gm. marag/Mark, Pers. /maġz, Polish mózg, Toch. mäśśunt/, Lith. smagenės, Ltv. smadzenis, Eng. mearg/marrow, ON mergr, Kurd. méšk, Ir. medg/meadhg
*mreǵʰú- short Lat. brevis, Av. mərəzujiti, Gm. murgi/, Eng. mirige/merry, Gk. βραχύς (brakhús), Gk. gamaúrgjan
*mu- fly Lith. musė, Ltv. muša, Lat. musca, Russ. муха (muxa), Gm. mucka/Mücke, Eng. mycg/midge, Alb. mizë, Gk. μυῖα (muîa), Arm. մուն (mun), Kashmiri ma.čh, OCS mŭšĭ, Polish mucha, ON mý, Pers. /magas, Old Prussian muso
*muH₁s- mouse Skr. मूष् (mū), Av. mus, Lat. mūs, Gk. mūs, Russ. мышь (myš'), Arm. մուկն (mukn), Alb. mi, Gm. mus/Maus, Eng. mūs/mouse, Kamviri musa, Pers. /muš, ON mús, Polish mysz, Lith. musė, Osset. мыст (myst)/mistæ
*méh₂tēr mother Arm. մայր (mayr), Alb. motër, Lith. motina, Ltv. māte, Old Prussian mūti, Gaul. mātir, Ir. máthir/máthair, Kashmiri mā.j, Lat. māter, Oscan maatreís, Umbrian matrer, Gk. μήτηρ (mḗtēr), Russ. мать (mat'), Skr. मातृ (mā́tṛ), Av. mātar, Toch. mācar/mācer, Gm. muoter/Mutter, Eng. mōdor/mother, Welsh modryb, Kamviri motr, ON móðir, Pers. 𐎶𐎠𐎫𐎠 (mātā) / مادر (mādar), Phryg. ματαρ (matar), Osset. мад (mad)/мадæл (madæl), Polish matka, OCS мати (mati)
*mánu- person Skr. मनु (manu), Av. Manuščiθra, Eng. mann/man, Gm. man/Mann, Goth. manna, ON maðr, OCS мѫжь (mǫžĭ), Russ. муж (muž), Kamviri mânša, Pers. /mard, Polish mąż, Kurd. mér, Gk. Amazón
*mélh₁-it- honey Gk. μέλι (méli), Lat. mel, Arm. մեղր (mełr), Alb. mjaltë, Gaul. Melissus, Ir. mil/, Goth. 𐌼𐌹𐌻𐌹𐌸 (miliþ), Eng. mildēaw/mildew, Gm. milltou/Mehltau, Welsh mêl, Hitt. milit, Luw. mallit-, Palaic malit-
*méne, *me-ós my, mine Eng. /mine, Gm. /mein, Kurd. ímin, Alb. /imi,
*móyso- (animal) hide Lith. maišas, Ltv. maiss, Skr. मेष (mea), Av. maēša, ON meiss, Russ. мех (mex), Gm. meissa/, Old Prussian moasis, Alb. meshinë; mill