Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/p

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*peg- breast Skr. पक्ष (pakṣá), Lat. pectus, Ltv. paksis, Russ. пах (pax), Toch. päśśäṃ/päścane, OIr. ucht
*peh₂- to protect Skr. पाति (pā́ti); pātram, Toch. pās/pāsk, Gk. pōy; pōma; ποιμήν (poimḗn), Lat. pāstum, Gm. fōtar/Futter, Eng. fothor/; fōdder/, Lith. piemuō, Goth. fōdjan; fōdr, Av. pāiti, Pers. 𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎱𐎠𐎺𐎠 (xšaçapāvā)/پاییدن (pāyīdan), ON føða; fóðr, Arm. հաւրան (hawran)
*péh₂ur or *péh₂wr̥- (gen. *ph₂un-ós) bonfire Hitt. 𒉺𒀪𒄯 (paḫḫur), Toch. por/pūwar, Gk. πῦρ (pûr), Umbrian pir, ON fúrr, Eng. fȳr/fire, Czech pyr, Arm. հուր (hur), Gm. fiur/Feuer, Old Prussian panno, Oscan purasiai, Goth. 𐍆𐍉𐌽 (fōn)
*peh₃y- to drink Russ. пить (pit'), Skr. पिबति (píbati), Gk. πίνω (pínō), Alb. pi, Ir. ibim/ibh, Welsh yfed, Lith. puota, Old Prussian poieiti, Hitt. pas, Thrac. pinon, Arm. ըմպեմ (əmpem), Lat. bibere, Umbrian puni, OCS пити (piti), Pol. pić, poić
*peḱ- to pluck *peḱu- "cattle"; Gk. πόκος (pókos); πέκω (pékō), Lat. pecu; pecus, Lith. pekus, Old Prussian pecku, Skr. पशु (páśu), Kurd. pas, Av. pasu, Goth. 𐍆𐌰𐌹𐌷𐌿 (faihu), Eng. feoh/fee, ON , Gm. fihu/Vieh, Arm. ասր (asr), Gaul. equs
*pekʷ- to cook, become ripe Lat. coquere, Alb. pjek, Russ. пеку (peku), Skr. पचति (pácati), Toch. päk/päk, Welsh pobi, Gk. πέσσω (péssō), Kamviri puk, Lith. kepti, Ltv. cept, OCS pekǫ, Pol. piec, Pers. /پختن (pukhtan), Old Prussian pektis, Eng. āfigen/
*pel- flour Old Prussian pelwo, Lat. palea, Skr. पलाल (palāva), Lith. pelūs, Ltv. pelus, Russ. полова (polova)
*pel- gray Alb. plak, Arm. ալիք (alikʿ), Skr. पलित (palitá), Av. pouruša, Pers. /pūrū, Kurd. pêl, XMK pellus, Gk. πολιός (poliós); πελιτνός (pelitnós), Lat. palleō; pullus, Ir. liath, Welsh llwyd, Lith. pelekas, Ltv. pelēks, Old Prussian pelē, OCS плавъ (plavŭ) (plavŭ), Russ. пелёсый (pelësyj), Pol. płowy, ON fǫlr, Gm. falo/falb, Eng. fealu/fallow
*pel- skin Gk. pélas; πέλμα (pélma), Lat. pellis, Russ. пелена (pelena), Goth. fill, Gm. fël/Fell, Eng. filmen/film, ON fjall, Lith. palà; plėnė, Ltv. plēne, Old Prussian pleynis
*pelh₂- flat Hitt. pališ, Arm. հող (hoł); լայն (layn), Lith. plónas; platùs, Ltv. plãns; plañdît, Old Prussian plonis, Ir. lian/; lethan/; lethaid/, Welsh lleyn; llwyn; lledu, Eng. feld/field; /flat Gm. feld/feld, Gk. platýs; πλανάω (planáō); πλάσσω (plássō), Skr. पृथु (pṛthú), Av. fraθah, Lat. plānus, Russ. плоский (ploskij); nidar ploskŭ, OCS ploskŭ
*pénkʷe five Old Prussian pēnkjāi, Lith. penki, Ltv. pieci, Goth. fimf, Gm. fimf/fünf, Eng. fīf/five, ON fimm, Phryg. pinke, Gk. πέντε (pénte), Arm. հինգ (hing), Av. pača, Alb. pesë/pês, Kashmiri pā.~tsh, Kamviri puč, Luw. panta, Osset. фондз (fondz), Pers. پنج (panj), OCS пѧть (pętĭ) (pętĭ), Russ. пять (pjatʹ) (pjat'), Skr. पञ्चन् (páñcan), Toch. päñ/piś, Lat. quinque, Oscan pompe, Umbrian 𐌐𐌖𐌌𐌐𐌄 (pumpe), Welsh pump, Ir. cóic/cúig, Gaul. pempe
*pent- road Lat. pons, Gk. πόντος (póntos), Skr. पथिन् (páthin), Av. pantå, Russ. путь (put'), Goth. 𐍆𐌹𐌽𐌸𐌰𐌽 (finþan) (finþan), Eng. findan/find, Gm. findan/finden, ON finna, Arm. հուն (hun), Kamviri put, Old Prussian pentes, OIr. étain; áitt, OCS пѫть (pǫtĭ), Pers. paθim
*perd- to fart Russ. пердеть (perdet'), Pol. pierdzieć, Skr. पर्दते (párdate), Lith. persti, Ltv. pirst, Phryg. perdomai, Alb. pjerth; pordhë, Eng. feortan/fart, Gm. ferzan/furzen, ON freta, Gk. πέρδομαι (pérdomai), Av. pərəðaiti, Welsh rhech
*perḱ- rib Lith. pìršys, Skr. पर्शु (párśu), Av. parəsu, Osset. фарс (fars), OCS prŭsi, Alb. parz(ëm)
*perkʷu- oak see Perkwunos. Lat. quercus, Lith. Perkúnas, Ltv. pērkons, Skr. पर्कटी (parkaṭī), ON fura, Eng. furh/fir, Gm. foraha/Föhre, Welsh perth, Goth. faírguni, Alb. shpardh/shparr
*pers- dust Toch. pärs/pärs, Av. paršuya, Lith. purkšti, Ltv. pārsla, ON fors, Hitt. pappars, Skr. पृषत् (pṛ́ṣat), OCS прахъ (praxŭ), Russ. прах (prax)
*persn-eh₂- heel Lat. perna/pernis, Skr. पार्ष्णि (pā́rṣṇi), Hitt. parsina, Goth. fairsna, Gm. fërsana/Ferse, Gk. πτέρνη (ptérnē), Eng. fiersn/— , Pers. -/پاشنا (pāshnā), Lith. pentinas, Russ. пятка (pjatka)
*pes- penis Gk. πέος (péos), Lat. pēnis, Gm. faselt/Fasel, ON fösull, Eng. fæsl/-, Skr. पसस् (pásas)
*peth₂- to fly Eng. feþer/feather, Gm. fedara/Feder, ON fjǫðr, Lat. peto; penna; accipiter, Skr. पतति (pátati), Hitt. pattar, Gk. πτερόν (pterón); πίπτω (píptō); πέτομαι (pétomai); ōkupétēs, Welsh eterin, Pers. udapatatā/, Arm. թիռ (tʿiṙ), Ir. ette/; én/, Welsh edn, Av. pataiti, Ltv. pētīt, Alb. shpendë
*pet- to open arms Gk. petannýnai, Lat. patēre; pandere, Av. paθana, OPruss pettis, Lith. petỹs, Eng. fæðm/fathom, ON faðmr, Gm. fadam/Faden; fademōn/, Scottish Gaelic aitheamh, Welsh edau, Alb. pjetem, Hitt. pattar
*ph₂tḗr father Lat. pater, Oscan 𐌐𐌀𐌕𐌝𐌓 (patír), Umbrian 𐌈𐌖𐌐𐌀𐌕𐌄𐌓 (iupater), Gk. πατήρ (patḗr), Toch. pācar/pācer,Alb. bace, Arm. հայր (hayr), Gaul. ātir; Ateronius, Skr. पितृ (pitṛ́), Gm. fater/Vater, Ir. athir/athair, Eng. fæder/father, Welsh gwaladr; edryd; edrydd; edryf, Kashmiri petū'r, Avest. ptā (dat. fədrōi), Pers. 𐎱𐎡𐎫𐎠 (pitā) / پدر (pedar), Osset. фыд (fyd)/fidæ, ON faðir, Goth. 𐍆𐌰𐌳𐌰𐍂 (fadar)
*pisd-eh₂- vulva Russ. пизда (pizdá), Lith. pyzdà, Ltv. pīzda, Alb. pidh, Nuristani pəṛí, Pol. pizda
*pleh₂k- to hit Lat. plangō; plága, Eng. flōk/fluke; flōcan/, Gk. plēgḗ; πλήσσω (plḗssō), OCS plakati, Russ. плакать (plakat', "to weep"), Lith. plakti, Ir. lén; léssaim, Alb. ploje, Goth. flōkan, ON flókinn, Gm. fluoh/Fluch
*pleḱ- to plait/braid Gk. πλέκω (plékō); plokē, Lat. plectere; plicare, ON flétta, Goth. flahto, Gm. flehtan/flechten, Eng. fleohtan/; /flax; /flex, Skr. प्रश्न (praśna), Av. ərəzato frašnəm, OCS плєсти (plestí), Russ. плести (plestí), Alb. plah; plaf, Lith. pinti
*pléw-mon- lung Lat. pulmō; pulmōnis, Gk. πλεύμων (pleúmōn), Skr. क्लोमन् (klóman), Lith. plaučiai, Ltv. plaušas, Russ. плюче (pljuče), Old Prussian plauti, Serb. pluća, Pol. płuco
*plus-, *psul-, *pusl-, *bʰlus- (the original form distorted by folk etymologies) flea Lat. pūlex, Lith. blusà, Ltv. blusa, Russ. блоха (bloxa) (blokhá), Arm. լու (lu), Skr. प्लुषि (plúṣi), Gk. ψύλλα (psúlla), Alb. plesht, Pashto vrāž.a, ON fló, Eng. flēah/flea, Gm. flōh/Floh, Yidgha frīgo, Pol. pchła
*pnew- to breathe Gk. πνεῦμα (pneûma), ON fnýsa, Eng. fnēosan/sneeze Gm. fnehan/
*pṓds foot Lith. pėda, Ltv. pēda, Lat. pēs, Umbrian 𐌐𐌄𐌛𐌉 (peři), Skr. पद् (pád), Eng. fōt/foot, Arm. ոտն (otn), հետ (het), Gk. πούς (poús), Alb. poshtë; për-posh, Toch. pe/paiyye, Osset. фад (fad), Gm. fuoz/Fuß, OCS pēs, Russ. пеший (pešij), Old Prussian pe'da', Hitt. pata, Lyc. pede-, Luw. pati-, Av. pâdha, ON fótr, Goth. 𐍆𐍉𐍄𐌿𐍃 (fōtus) (fotus), Pers. 𐎱𐎠𐎭 (pāda) / پا (), Gaul. candetum, MIr. ined, XMK argiopus
*pórḱos farrow Lat. porcus, Gk pórkos, Lith. paršas, Old Pruss. parstian, Russ. поросята (porosjata), Pol. prosić się, Eng. fearh/farrow, Ir. orc/orcán, Gm. farah/Ferkel, Umbrian purka, Kurd. purs, Saka pāsa
*poymno- foam Lat. pūmex; spuma, Lith. spaine, Skr. फेन (phéna), OCS pĕna, Russ. пена (pena), Pol. piana, Eng. fām/foam, Gm. feim/Feim, Osset. фынк (fynk), Old Prussian spoayno
*pray- to like Skr. प्रीणाति (prīṇā́ti), OCS prĕjǫ, Russ. прижать (prižat'), Pol. przać (Silesian regionalism), Ltv. prieks, Gk. πρᾶος (prâos), Av. frā/, Goth. freis; frijōn, Eng. /free; frēond/friend, Gm. friunt/Freund, ON Frigg, Welsh rhydd, Ir. ríar/
*preḱ- to ask, to pray Lat. poscō, Toch. prak/prek, Skr. पृच्छति (pṛccháti), Arm. հարց (harcʿ), OCS prositi, Russ. просить (prosit'), Lith. piršti, Ltv. pirstlis, Gm. frāga/fragen; forscōn/forschen, Eng. frignan/—, ON fregna, Goth. fraihnan, Pers. fraθ- / پرسیدن (pursīdan), Av. pərəsaiti, Oscan aparsam, MWelsh erchi/archaf, Ir. arco/, Toch. pärk/prek, Umbrian pepurkurent
*prew- to jump Russ. прыгать (prygat'), Skr. प्रवते (pravate), Gm. frosc/Frosch, Eng. frogga/frog, ON froskr, Lith. sprūgstu/sprūgti, Alb. fryj, Pers. (paredan) پریدن
*prih₁-mó- / *prō-to- foremost
(-> first)
Alb. parë, Av. parvō, Lith. pirmas, Ltv. pirmais, Gm. furist/Fürst; fruo/früh, Eng. fyrst/first, Gk. πρότερος (próteros), Hitt. para, Ir. rem/roimh, Kamviri pürük, Lyc. pri, OCS pĭrvŭ, Oscan perum, ON fyrstr, Old Prussian pariy, Osset. фыццаг (fyccag, "first"); фараст (farast, "nine"), Russ. первый (pervyj), Skr. pūrvā; प्रथम (prathamá), Toch. parwät/parwe, Lat. primus, Umbrian pert, Welsh rwyf, OIr. arsaid
*psten- breast Gk. στῆθος (stêthos), Arm. ստին (stin), Skr. स्तन (stána), Av. fštāna, Lith. spenys, Ltv. spenis, ON speni, Gm. spunni/Spanferkel, Ir. sine/sine, Old Pruss. spenis, Pers. /پستان (pestān), Eng. spane/
*puHr- wheat Skr. पूर (pūra), Gk. πυρός (purós)/, Lith. pūrai, Ltv. pūŗi, Old Prussian pure, Eng. fyrs/furze, OCS pyre, Russ. пырей (pyrej)
*pulh₂- hair Skr. pulakās; (पुलस्ति (pulastí), पुलक (pulaka)), Ir. ul/ulcha, Gk. pýligges; (πυλεών (puleṓn)), Kurd. pūr, Pashto pal