Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots/s

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Root Meaning Derivatives
*(s)mey- to laugh OCS smĕjǫ, Russ. сме́яться (sméjatʹsja), Skr. स्मयते (smayate), Lith. smagintis, Ltv. smaids, Toch. smi/smi, Lat. mīrus, Gk. μεῖδος (meîdos), Ir. míad/, Polish śmiech, Eng. smearcian/smirk
*(s)mer- to remember Eng. murnan/mourn, Skr. स्मरति (smarati), Av. smaraiti, Lat. memor, Ir. airmmert/, Welsh armerth, Gaul. Smerius, Goth. maúrnan, ON Mímir, Gm. mornēn/, Gk. μέρμερος (mérmeros), Arm. մորմոք (mormokʿ), Lith. pamiršti, Kurd. bír
*(s)neh₁- to spin Ltv. snāte, Skr. स्नायति (snāyati), Ir. snáthat/snáthad, Eng. nǣdl/needle, Gm. nādala/Nadel, Goth. 𐌽𐌴𐌸𐌻𐌰 (nēþla), ON nál, Russ. нить (nitʹ), Lat. neō, Gk. νήθω (nḗthō), Welsh nodwydd
*(s)táwros, *(s)téh₂wros bison, bull Av. staora, Goth. stiur, Lith. tauras, Ltv. tauriņš, Gk. ταῦρος (taûros), Gaul. Tarbos, OCS turu, Russ. тур (tur), Polish tur, Eng. steor/steer, Gm. stior/Stier, Old Prussian tauris, Welsh tarw, ON stjórr, þjórr, Lat. taurus, Oscan turuf, Alb. taroç, Ir. tarb/
*(s)teg- to cover Gk. στέγω (stégō), Lat. tegō, Skr. स्थगति (sthagati), Lith. stogas, Ltv. stags, Ir. tech/teach, Gm. thecken/decken, Eng. þæc/thatch, ON þekja, Russ. стог (stog), Polish stóg, Old Prussian stogis, Umbrian tehteřim, Welsh ty
*(s)teh₂-i- to hide Skr. स्तायत् (stāyat), Av. tāyu, Russ. таить (tait'), Ir. táid/, Hitt. tayezzi, Gk. τηΰσιος (tēǘsios)/, Toch. /enestai
*(s)ter- sterile Gk. στεῖρα (steîra), Lat. sterilis, Arm. ստերջ (sterǰ), Alb. shtjerre, Gm. stero/, Skr. स्तरी (starī), Goth. 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌹𐍂𐍉 (stairō), Eng. stierc/, Bulg. sterica
*(sm̥-)ǵʰéslo-m thousand Skr. सहस्रम् (sahasram), Av. hazarəm, Pers. /hāzar, Gk. χίλιοι (khílioi), Lat. mīlle, Toch. wälts/yaltse
*saws- to dry Alb. tha, Lith. sausa, Ltv. sauss, Old Prussian sausā, Eng. sēar/sear, Gm. sōrēn/—, Skr. शुष्यति (śuyati), Av. haoš, Pers. uška/xošk, Russ. сухо́й (suxój), Gk. αὗος (haûos)/, Lat. sūdus
*sed- to sit OCS сѣдѣти (sěděti), Russ. сиде́ть (sidétʹ), Polish siedzieć, Lat. sedeō, Lith. sėdėti, Ltv. sēdēt, Gaul. essedum, Eng. sittan/sit, Gm. sizzan/sitzen; sezzal/, ON sitja, Goth. 𐍃𐌹𐍄𐌰𐌽 (sitan), Gk. ἕζομαι (hézomai)/, Ir. saidim/suidh, Welsh seddu, Skr. सीदति (sīdati), Av. nišaðayeiti, Pers. niyašayadan/nešastan, Arm. նիստ (nist), Old Prussian sīdons, Umbrian sersitu, Toch. sätk/
*segʰ- to hold Skr. सहते (sahate), Gk. ἔχω (ékhō), Gm. sigu/Sieg, ON. sigr, Eng. sige/—
*seh₁- to sow Russ. се́ять (séjatʹ); семя (semja), Lith. sėti, Ltv. sēt, Eng. sāwan/sow, Old Prussian semen, OCS сѣти (sěti), Gm. sāen/säen, ON , Goth. 𐍃𐌰𐌹𐌰𐌽 (saian), Lat. serere, Umbrian semenies, Polish siać, Welsh hil, Ir. sí/síol, Toch. sāry/, Hitt. sai, Skr. सायक (sāyaka), Umbrian semenies
*seh₁i- to sift Alb. shosh, Lith. sietas, Ltv. siets, Ir. sithlad/síolthughadh, Welsh hidl, ON sáld, Gk. ἠθέω (ēthéō), Russ. си́то (síto), Polish sito, OCS sito
*seh₂g- to seek out Hitt. šak(k), Eng. sǣcan/beseech, Gm. suohhen/suchen, Goth. 𐍃𐍉𐌺𐌾𐌰𐌽 (sōkjan), ON sǿkja, Gk. ἡγέομαι (hēgéomai), Ir. saigim/, Welsh haeddu, Lat. sagīre
*sekʷ- to follow Lat. sequor, Lith. sekti, Ltv. sekt, Gk. ἕπομαι (hépomai), Ir. sech/seach, Welsh hep, ON seggr, Skr. सचते (sacate), Av. hačaitē, Eng. secg/—, Pers. hačā/, Toch. säk/, Alb. shoh, Gm. beinsegga/
*selp- butter Toch. älyp/alype, Gk. ἔλπος (élpos), Hitt. salpa-, Alb. gjalpë, Skr. सर्पिस् (sarpis), Eng. sealf/salve, Osset. carv/, Pers. /čarbi, Gm. salba/Salbe, Goth. 𐍃𐌰𐌻𐌱𐍉𐌽 (salbōn)
*sem- summer Skr. समा (samā), Eng. sumor/summer, Av. ham, Arm. ամառն (amaṙn), Gm. sumar/Sommer, ON sumar, Welsh haf, Ir. samrad/samhradh, Toch. me/māye
*sḗm, *sm̥- [prefix] one, together Lat. semel, Arm. մի (mi), Alb. gjithë, Lith. sa, Eng. sum/some, Gm. saman/zusammen, Gk. εἷς (heîs), Hitt. san, Av. hakeret, Ir. samail/samhail, Lyc. sñta, Kamviri sâ~, Pers. hama/hamin, Russ. сам (sam), Skr. सकृत् (sakt), Toch. sas/e, Welsh hafal, ON sami, Goth. 𐍃𐌰𐌼𐌰 (sama)
*semi- half Lat. sēmis, Gm. sami/—, Eng. sām-/sand-blind, Goth. sami-, Skr. समि (sami), Gk. ἥμισυς (hḗmisus), Kamviri sâmaũ, 'Alb.' gjysmë
*sénos old Lat. senex, Lith. senas, Ltv. sens, Gaul. Senognatus, ON sina, Skr. सन (sana), Av. hana, Arm. հին (hin), Gk. ἕνος (hénos), Welsh hyn, Goth. 𐍃𐌹𐌽𐌴𐌹𐌲𐍃 (sineigs), Ir. sen/sean
*septḿ̥ seven Arm. եաւթն (eawtʿn), Alb. shtatë/shtatë, Lith. septyni, Ltv. septiņi, Gaul. sextan, Gm. sibun/sieben, Eng. seofon/seven, Gk. ἑπτά (heptá), Av. hapta, Ir. secht/seacht, Hitt. šipta-, Kashmiri sath, Kamviri sut, Lat. septem, Oscan 𐌔𐌄𐌚𐌕𐌄𐌍 (seften), ON sjau, Old Prussian septīnjai, Osset. avd/avd, Pers. /haft, OCS сєдмь (sedmĭ), Polish siedem, Russ. семь (semʹ), Skr. सप्तन् (saptán), Toch. pät/ukt, Goth. 𐍃𐌹𐌱𐌿𐌽 (sibun), Welsh saith
*septm̥-ḱómt-h₂ seventy Lat. septuāgintā, Gk. ἑβδομήκοντα (hebdomḗkonta), Ir. /seachtó, Skr. सप्तति (saptati)
*serpe- to creep Alb. gjarpër/gjarpën, Gk. ἕρπω (hérpō), Lat. serpō, Skr. सृप् (sp), Kashmiri so.rūph
*sewyós left (direction), left-hand Skr. सव्य (savya), Welsh aswy, Av. haoya, Toch. —/saiwai, OCS šujĭ
*skand- to leap Skr. स्कन्दति (skandati), Gk. σκάνδαλον (skándalon), Ir. scendim/scinn, Lat. scandere
*skap- tool Russ. щепа́ (ščepá), Lith. kapoti, Ltv. kaplis, Gm. skaft/, Gk. σκεπάρνιον (skepárnion), Lat. capus, Pers. /kāfad, Alb. kep, Old Prussian warnaycopo, ON skapt, OCS kopajǫ
*(s)kend- to shine Alb. hënë/hânë, Middle Bret. cann, Welsh cann, Skr. candra
*smek- chin Ir. smech/smeach, Lith. smakras, Ltv. smakrs, Skr. श्मश्रु (śmaśru), Hitt. zamakur, Arm. մաւրուք (mawrukʿ), Alb. mjekër, Lat. maxilla
*smeru- grease Ir. smiur/, Gk. σμύρις (smúris), Lat. medulla, Gm. smero/Schmer, Welsh mer, Eng. smerian/smear, Polish smar, Toch. /mare, Lith. smarsas, ON smjǫr, Goth. smaírþr
*sneygʷʰ- (to) snow Lith. sniegas, Ltv. sniegs, Old Prussian snaygis, Russ. снег (sneg), Ir. snechta/sneachta, Skr. स्नेह (sneha), Eng. snāw/snow, Gk. νίφα (nípha), Gm. sneo/Schnee, ON snjór, Goth. 𐍃𐌽𐌰𐌹𐍅𐍃 (snaiws), Polish śnieg, Welsh nyf, Av. snaēža, Toch. /śiñcatstse
*snewdʰ- mist Av. snaoða, Welsh nudd, Gk. νοῦθος (noûthos), Lat. nūbēs
*snusós daughter-in-law Skr. स्नुषा (snuā), Eng. snoru/—, Gk. νυός (nuós), Lat. nurus, Arm. նու (nu), OCS snŭxa, Polish snecha, Russ. сноха́ (snoxá), Alb. nusa, Crimean Gothic schuos, ON snor, Gm. snur/Schnur
*sáls, *séh₂ls salt Lat. sāl, Umbrian salu, Toch. sāle/sālyiye, Lith. saldus, Ltv. sāļš, Eng. sealt/salt, Gk. ἅλς (háls), Arm. աղ (), Ir. salann/, OCS соль (solĭ), Russ. соль (solʹ), Gm. salz/Salz, Polish sól, Welsh halen, Alb. ngjelmët; gjelbson, ON salt, Goth. salt, Old Prussian sal, Skr. सलिल (salila), Illyr. Salapia
*s(w)okʷós sap, resin Alb. gjak, Gk. ὀπός (opós), Toch. sak/sekwe, Russ. сок (sok), Lith. sakai, OCS сокъ (sokŭ)
*solwo- whole Toch. salu/solme, Gk. ὅλος (hólos), Arm. ողջ (ołǰ), Ir. slán/slán, Alb. gjallë, Skr. सर्व (sarva), Av. haurva, Kamviri sũdi, Polish sowity, Welsh holl, Lat. salvus, Oscan salavs, Umbrian saluvom, Russ. сулей (sulej), Pers. haluva/, OCS sulĕi
*sp(y)ew- to spit Lat. spuere, Gk. πτύω (ptúō), OCS pljujǫ, Lith. spjauti, Ltv. spļaut, Eng. spiwan/spew, Gm. spīwan/speien, ON spýja, Goth. 𐍃𐍀𐌴𐌹𐍅𐌰𐌽 (speiwan), Skr. ष्ठीवति (hīvati), Av. spāma, Arm. թուք (tʿukʿ), Pers. /tuf, Osset. thu, Russ. плюю (pljuju), Polish pluć
*sperg- sparrow Gm. sperk/sperling, Eng. spearwa/sparrow, Goth. sparwa, ON spǫrr, Toch. pār/pāra-, Gk. sparasion?, Old Prussian spurglis, Pers. /parasto, Lat. parra, Umbrian parfam, Ir. serriach/
*splenǵʰ- spleen Gk. σπλήν (splḗn), Lat. liēn, Ir. selg/sealg, Av. sparazan, Skr. प्लीहन् (plīhan), Lith. blužnis, Old Prussian blusne, Kamviri pu, Arm. փայծաղն (pʿaycałn), OCS slĕzena, Russ. селезёнка (selezjónka), Polish śledziona, Bret. felc'h
*srebʰ- to gulp Lat. sorbēo, Arm. արբենամ (arbenam), Alb. gjerbë, Gk. ῥοφέω (rhophéō), Ir. srub, Lith. srėbti, Ltv. surbt; surbju, Russ. сёрбать (sjórbatʹ), Polish siorbać
*steh₂- to stand Av. hištaiti, Skr. तिष्ठति (tihati), Eng. standan/stand, Lat. stō, Umbrian stahmei, Oscan staíet, Lith. stoti, Ltv. stāt, Old Prussian stacle, OCS stati, Russ. стать (statʹ), Gm. stān/stehen, Polish stać, Phryg. eistani, Goth. 𐍃𐍄𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌰𐌽 (standan), ON stóð, Fo. standa, Pers. aištata/istādan, Alb. shtuara, Welsh gwastad, Toch. tām/stām, Gk. ἵστημι (hístēmi), Ir. tá/tá, Hitt. išta, Luw. išta-, Arm. ստանամ (stanam), Lyc. ta-
*steygʰ- to stride, to step Alb. shteg, Lith. stigti, Ltv. steigt, Ir. techt/teachd, Welsh taith, Goth. 𐍃𐍄𐌴𐌹𐌲𐌰𐌽 (steigan), ON stígan, Eng. stǣger/stair, Gm. stīgan/steigen, Gk. στείχω (steíkhō), Skr. स्तिघ्नोति (stighnoti), Russ. достига́ть (dostigátʹ), Polish ścigać, OCS postigǫnti
*suh₁- swine Eng. sū/sow, Ltv. sivēns, Russ. свин (svin), Skr. सूकर (sūkara), Alb. thi, Gk. ὗς (hûs), Gm. sū/Sau, Toch. —/suwo, Ir. socc/soc, Welsh hwch, Polish świnia, Lat. sūs, Umbrian sif, ON sýr, Goth. 𐍃𐍅𐌴𐌹𐌽 (swein), Av.
*suro- cheese Lith. sūris, Russ. сыр (syr), ON surr, Alb. hirrë, Polish ser
*swe- self, oneself (third person reflexive enclitic pronoun) Carian sfes, Lyd. śfa-, OPruss. sien; sin, Lith. savo, Latv sevi, Gm. sih/sich; sin/sein, Goth. 𐍃𐌹𐌺 (sik), Gk. ἑός (heós), Skr. sva, OCS se, Phryg. ve, ON sik; sinn, Eng. sīn/--, Alb. vetë, Lat. sē; sibi; suus, Oscan sífeí, Umbrian seso, Av. hva, Arm. ինքն (inkʿn), Russ. себя́ (sebjá)
*swésōr sister Eng. sweostor/sister, Gm. swester/Schwester, Skr. स्वसृ (svas), OCS сєстра (sestra), Russ. сестра́ (sestrá), Polish siostra, Kamviri sus, Ir. siur/siur, Arm. քոյր (kʿoyr), Toch. ar/er, Gk. ἔορ (éor)/—, Lat. soror. Welsh chwaer, Gaul. suiior, ON systir, Goth. 𐍃𐍅𐌹𐍃𐍄𐌰𐍂 (swistar), Av. xvahar, Lith. sesuo, Old Prussian swestro, Pers. /xāhar
*swȇḱuros father-/mother-in-law Russ. свекро́вь (svekróvʹ), Skr. श्वशुर (śvaśura); श्वश्रू (śvaśrū), Lith. šešuras, Gm. swigur/Schwieger, Welsh chwegr, Arm. սկեսուր (skesur), Gk. ἑκυρός (hekurós), Lat. socrus, Alb. vjehërr, Kamviri č.uč., Eng. swēor/—, Av. xvasura-, Polish świekra, Goth. 𐍃𐍅𐌰𐌹𐌷𐍂𐍉 (swaihrō), ON svǽra, OCS svekŭrŭ
*sweh₂d-u- sweet Eng. swēte/sweet, Gk. ἡδύς (hēdús), Lat. suāvis, Gaul. Suadurīx, Gm. suozi/süss, ON sœtr, Welsh chwant, Ir. sant/, Skr. स्वादु (svādu), Lith. sūdyti, Av. xʷāsta, Goth. 𐍃𐌿𐍄𐌹𐍃 (sutis), Toch. swār/swāre
*swey- to whistle Russ. свист (svist), Lith. švilpti, Ltv. svilpiens, Skr. क्ष्वेडति (kveati), Ir. ind fet/fead, Welsh chwythu, Polish świst, Gk. σίζω (sízō)/, Lat. sibāre, Goth. 𐍃𐍅𐌹𐌲𐌻𐍉𐌽 (swiglōn), Gm. swegala/, Eng. swegalōn/, OCS svistati
*sweyd- sweat Arm. քիրտն (kʿirtn), Alb. djersë, Eng. swǣtan/sweat, Lith. saldus, Ltv. sviedri, Skr. स्वेदते (svedate), Gk. ἱδρόω (hidróō), Lat. sūdor, Gm. sweiz/Schweiss, Welsh chwys, ON sveiti, Av. xvaēda
*swel- to burn Ltv. svelt, Lith. sveltu, Goth. 𐍃𐍅𐌹𐌻𐍄𐌰𐌽 (swiltan), ON svalr, Eng. swelan, Gk. ἥλιος (hḗlios), Skr. स्वरति (svarati), Toch. slam/sleme
*swep- sleep Lith. sapnas, Skr. स्वप्न (svapna), Lat. somnus, ON svefn, Toch. /pane, Gk. ὕπνος (húpnos), Av. xvafna, Ir. suán/suan, OCS sunu, Russ. сон (son), Arm. քուն (kʿun), Alb. gjumë, Welsh hun, Eng. swefan/—, Pers. /xāb
*swep- to throw Lat. supāre, Skr. स्वपू (svapū), Lith. supti, Ltv. šūpāt, OCS svepiti sę, Russ. сы́пать (sýpatʹ), ON sófl, Polish sypać
*swergʰ- to be ill Goth. 𐍃𐌰𐌿𐍂𐌲𐌰 (saurga), Gm. soraga/Sorge, Skr. सूर्क्षति (sūrkati), Ir. serg/, Lith. sirgti, Ltv. sirgt, Eng. sorg/sorrow, ON sorg, Alb. dergjet, OCS sraga, Russ. сорога (soroga), Toch. särk/sark, Arm. երկն (erkn)
*swéḱs six Arm. վեց (vecʿ), Alb. gjashtë, Lith. šeši, Ltv. seši, Gaul. suex, Gm. sēhs/sechs, Eng. siex/six, Gk. ἕξ (héks), Av. xš.uuaš, Illyr. ses-, Ir. sé/sé, Kashmiri śe, Kamviri u, Lat. sex, Oscan 𐌔𐌄𐌇𐌔 (sehs), ON sex, Old Prussian usjai, Osset. æxsæz/æxsæz, Pers. /šeš, OCS šestĭ, Polish sześć, Russ. шесть (šestʹ), Skr. षष् (a), Toch. äk/kas, Umbrian 𐌔𐌄𐌇𐌔 (sehs), Goth. 𐍃𐌰𐌹𐌷𐍃 (saihs), Welsh chwech
*swonos- to sound Skr. स्वनति (svanati), Lat. sonāre, Eng. swan/swan, Gm. swan/Schwan, ON svanr, Av. xvanatčaxra, Ir. senim/seinm
*swordó- black Lat. sordēre, Eng. sweart/swarthy, Gm. swarz/schwarz, Goth. 𐍃𐍅𐌰𐍂𐍄𐍃 (swarts), ON svartr, Lith. sartas
*syuh₁- to sew Skr. सीव्यति (sīvyati), Lat. suere, Eng. seowian/sew, Lith. siūti, Ltv. šūt, Russ. шить (šit'), Polish szyć, ON sýja, Goth. 𐍃𐌹𐌿𐌾𐌰𐌽 (siujan), Gk. ὑμήν (ὑμήν), Old Prussian schumeno, Gm. siuwen/Saum, OCS šijǫ, Hitt. suel
*sóh₂wl̥ sun Lat. sōl, Lith. saulė, Ltv. saule, Welsh haul, Gk. ἥλιος (hḗlios), Eng. sigel/—; sunne/sun, OCS слъньцє (slŭnĭce), Russ. со́лнце (sólnce), Skr. सूर्य (sūrya), Av. hvarə, Gm. sunna/Sonne, ON sól; sunna, Goth. 𐍃𐌰𐌿𐌹𐌻 (sauil); 𐍃𐌿𐌽𐌽𐍉 (sunnō), Welsh haul, Ir. súil/súil, Toch. swāñce/swāñco, Kamviri su, Polish słońce, Old Prussian saule, Pers. -farnah-/
*suHnús, *suHyús, Hertzenberg: *seuh₃nús son Skr. सूनु (sūnú), Av. hunu-, Lith. sūnùs, Old Prussian souns, Eng. sunu/son, Gm. sunu/Sohn, Goth. 𐍃𐌿𐌽𐌿𐍃 (sunus), ON sonr, OCS сꙑнъ (synŭ), Russ. сын (syn), Gk. υἱύς (huiús), Toch. se/soy, soṃśke, Arm. ուստր (ustr)