Appendix:Proto-Germanic/beuną

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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Germanic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *bʰew- (to grow, become, come into being, appear). Cognate with Latin fuī (have been, verb), Latin futūrus (becoming, imminent, future).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

*beuną

  1. to be
  2. to become

Conjugation[edit]

This verb is suppletive. The past is declined with the strong class 5 stem wes-, the remainder with an irregular stem beu-.

Synonyms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

In each of these descendants, only certain forms remain as part of a larger paradigm. Only the forms with initial b- descend from this verb.

  • Old English: bēon (all present tense forms)
  • Old Frisian: wesa (bim, bist)
    • West Frisian: wêze (bin, bist)
  • Old Saxon: wesan (bium, bis(t))
  • Old Dutch: wesan (bim, bis(t))
  • Old High German: wesan (bim, bis(t))
    • German: sein (bin, bist)
    • Luxembourgish: sinn (bass)
    • Yiddish: זײַן (zayn) (בין bin, ביסט bist)