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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Of unclear origin. Many regard the forms without the medial *-t- or *-d-* as the older ones because the Slavic and Lithuanian loans do not show the reflex of a medial obstruent, which makes it difficult to connect with *pandan- (pledge) (from Latin pondus (weight)). Possibly a loanword from one of these Latin words:

  • panna (pan), with a semantic shift explained as a penny being a "coin with a concave form" (De Vries/De Tollenaere), or
  • pannus (piece of cloth), because cloth was often used as means of payment


*panningaz, *pandingaz, *pantingaz m

  1. a coin, penny




  • пенязь in Max Vasmer (1986), Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkogo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language], in 4 vols (second edition), Moscow: Progress — Translated from German and supplemented by O. N. Trubačóv
  • Saskia Pronk-Tiethoff (2013), The Germanic loanwords in Proto-Slavic, Rodopi: Amsterdam/New York, page 91f