Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/éǵh₂

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Reconstruction[edit]

The presence of the laryngeal is confirmed by the –h- in Sanskrit ahám. Instead of the unknown medial laryngeal *-H-, *-h₂- is often reconstructed here, but there is no secure evidence that would prove such assumption.

Three forms can be reconstructed formally, using the comparative method:

  • *éǵ (Hittite ūg, Old Lithuanian , Slavic ja, Avestan azə)
  • *eǵHóm (Sanskrit ahám, Avestan azə̄m, OCS azъ, Homeric Greek ἐγών (egṓn))
  • *eǵóh₂ (Latin egō, Greek ἐγώ (egṓ), Venetic ego)

There seem to be no grounds for assuming an initial *h₁ in PIE (although it is not impossible) or a final *-H in the form *éǵ. The form *éǵ is obviously the most archaic one, with *eǵHóm and *eǵóh₂ being younger, dialectal variants. The sandhi form of *éǵ - *éḱ, with a final devoiced plosive, is attested in Baltic (Old Prussian as, es) and apparently in the Hittite variant [script needed] (ugga).

Pronoun[edit]

*éǵ(h₂) or *eǵHóm or *eǵóh₂

  1. I (first-person pronoun)

Declension[edit]

Declension of *éǵh₂ Singular Dual Plural
Nominative *éǵ(h₂), *eǵHóm, *eǵóh₂ *wé *wéy
Accusative *m̥(m)é ~ me *n̥h₃mé ~ noh₃ *n̥smé ~ nos
Genitive *méme ~ *moy  ?  ? ~ *nos
Dative *méǵʰye ~ moy  ?  ? ~ *nos

Descendants[edit]

  • Albanian:
    • Old Albanian: u (< *udh < *)
      • Albanian: unë (< u + -)
  • Armenian:
    • Old Armenian: ես (es)
      • Armenian: ես (es)
  • Balto-Slavic: *eź, *aź
  • Germanic: *ek, *ik (see for further descendants)
  • Hellenic
  • Indo-Iranian: *ajʰam
    • Indo-Aryan
    • Iranian: *adzam
      • Avestan: azə̄m, azə
      • Kurdish
      • Old Persian: adam
      • Ossetian: ӕз (æz)
  • Italic: *egō
    • Faliscan: [script needed] (eqo), [script needed] (eko), [script needed] (eco)
    • Latin: ego
    • South Picene: [script needed] (ekú)
    • (Possibly) Venetic: [script needed] (ego)
  • Tocharian:

References[edit]