Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/ǵʰortós

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From *ǵʰer-.

Noun[edit]

*ǵʰortós m (non-ablauting)

  1. enclosure

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • *gʰórts < *gʰórdʰs (nominative)
  • *gʰórdʰos (oblique)
    • Albanian: gardh (fence)
    • Balto-Slavic: *gardas (enclosure)
      • Lithuanian: gar̃das (pen, enclosure)
      • Slavic: *gȏrdъ (town) (See there for further descendants.)
    • Germanic: *gardaz (See there for further descendants.)
    • Romanian: gard
    • Tocharian B: kerccī (palace) (< *gʰórdʰijo)
  • *gʰr̥dʰó
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: [script needed] (gurtas, citadel)
      • Luwian: [script needed] (gurta)
    • Indo-Iranian:
      • Indic:
      • Iranian:
        • Avestan: 𐬔𐬆𐬭𐬆𐬛𐬵𐬀 (gərədha, daeva cave)
        • Middle Persian: gʾl (gāl, the gang, the villeins labouring on the estates of the kings, the satraps, the magnates, etc.; in war their military crew)
        • → Old Armenian: գերդաստան (gerdastan, body of servants and captives) (direct inheritance is also possible)
        • Old Persian: *gardu- (household slaves)
          • → Akkadian: [script needed] (gardu)
          • → Aramaic: [script needed] (grdʾ)
          • → Elamite: [script needed] (kurtaš)

References[edit]

  • “gāl” in Henrik Samuel Nyberg (1974), A Manual of Pahlavi, Part II: Glossary, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, page 80ab