Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/tewtéh₂

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search
Asterisk.svg
This entry contains Proto-Indo-European reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Reconstruction[edit]

Clear cognates are found only in Italo-Celtic, Baltic and Germanic, which points to an old European substratum word,[1] geographically confined to the west and center of IE world.

Persian توده (toda, masses; heap; stack, hill, rick, tumulus) is sometimes listed as a cognate but a large semantic divergence remains unexplainable.[2]

The supposed Hittite cognate 𒌅𒍖𒍣𒅖 (tuzziš, army; camp) with the semantic shift "people" > "army" > "camp" has been criticized to be unlikely (the normal development would be "camp" > "army").[3] Kloekhorst furthermore argues that Hittite word can formally only reflect an i-stem tewt-i-, and finally endorses an alternative etymology proposed by Melchert, from PIE *dʰh₁-uti-.

Often a derivation from the roots *tewh₂- (to be strong; swell)[4] (referring to the strength of community) and *tewH- (to look favorably; protect; observe)[5] is considered, but the presence of a laryngeal renders that suspect.[6]

Noun[edit]

*tewtéh₂ f[7]

  1. people, tribe

Coordinate terms[edit]

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Anatolian:
  • Baltic:
  • Celtic: *toutā
  • Germanic: *þeudō (see there for further descendants)
  • Italic: *toutā
    • Oscan: [script?] (touto, community)
    • Umbrian: [script?] (totam, citizenry (acc.))
  • Indo-Iranian
    • Persian: توده (toda, masses, heap, pile)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kloekhorst 2008: 908
  2. ^ EIEC: 417
  3. ^ Benveniste (1962: 122-5) apud Kloekhorst 2008: 908
  4. ^ LIV2: 639
  5. ^ LIV2: 639
  6. ^ EIEC: 417
  7. ^ Don Ringe, From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press, 2006

References[edit]