Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European nouns

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This is a semasiological index of Proto-Indo-European nominal stems. See Appendix:List of Proto-Indo-European roots for an alphabetical list of roots.

Kinship[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*mánus person Sanskrit मनु (manu), Avestan Manuščiθra, English mann/man, German man/Mann, Gothic manna, Old Norse maðr, Latin mas, Old Church Slavonic мѫжь (mǫžĭ), Russian муж (muž), Lithuanian žmogus, Kamviri mânša, Polish mąż, Czech muž, Pashto merrë
*h₁nómn̥ name Tocharian ñom/ñem, Latin nōmen, French nom, Spanish nombre, Portuguese nome, Umbrian nome, English nama/name, German namo/Name, Old Norse nafn, Gothic namo, Sanskrit nāman, Avestan nąman, Ancient Greek όνομα (onoma), Old Church Slavonic имѧ (imę), Russian имя (ímja), Albanian emër/êmën, Irish ainm/ainm, Welsh anu/enw, Hittite lāman, Kamviri nom, Persian nāma/nām, Old Armenian անուն (anun), Polish imię, Old Prussian emnes, Pashto num
*wiHrós man Sanskrit vīra, Avestan vīra, Latin vir, Umbrian viru, Lithuanian vyras, Latvian vīrs, Tocharian wir, German wer/Werwolf, Gothic wair, Old Norse verr, English wer/werewolf, Old Prussian wirs, Irish fer/fear, Welsh gŵr, Gaulish uiro-, Albanian burrë, Kurdish miro
*gʷḗn woman Russian жена (žená), Polish żona, Czech žena, Avestan gənā, Ancient Greek γυνή (gynē), English cwēn/queen, Sanskrit gnā;jani, Old Prussian genno, Old Armenian կին (kin), Albanian zonjë, Irish ben/bean, Welsh benyw, Kashmiri zanānū', Old Church Slavonic жєна (žena), Gothic qinō, Old Norse kona, German quena/--, Persian /zan, Phrygian knaik, Tocharian śäṁ/śana, Luwian wanatti-, Pashto šëdza/khëdza, Kurdish jin
*h₂en- ancestor Ancient Greek annis/anōn, Latin anus, Illyr. ana, German ano/ahn, Lithuanian anyta, Hittite hannas, Old Armenian հան (han), Russian внук (vnuk), Old Prussian ane, Pashto nikë
*ph₂tḗr father Albanian atë Latin pater, French père, Spanish padre Oscan patír, Umbrian pater, Ancient Greek πατήρ (patēr), Tocharian pācar/pācer, Gaulish ātir, Sanskrit pitṛ, German fater/Vater, Irish athir/athair, English fæder/father, Welsh gwaladr, Kashmiri petū'r, Persian pitā/pedar, Ossetian fyd/, Old Norse faðir, Gothic faðar, Gaulish Ateronius, Pashto plaar
*méh₂tēr mother Old Armenian մայր (mayr), Albanian ama, Lithuanian moteris, Latvian māte, Old Prussian mūti, Gaulish mātir, Irish máthir/máthair, Kashmiri mā.j, Latin māter, French mère, Spanish madre, Oscan maatreís, Umbrian matrer, Ancient Greek μήτηρ (mētēr)), Russian мать (mat’), Sanskrit mātṛ, Avestan mātar, Tocharian mācar/mācer, German muoter/Mutter, English mōdor/mother, Welsh modryb, Kamviri motr, Old Norse móðir, Persian /mādar, Phrygian mater, Ossetian mad/madæ, Polish matka, Czech matka, Old Church Slavonic мати (mati), Serb. mater/majka/mati, Pashto mor
*bʰréh₂tēr brother Old Armenian եղբայր (ełbayr), English brōþor/brother, Kashmiri boy, Latin frāter, French frère, Umbrian fratrom, Ancient Greek phrātēr, Tocharian pracar/procer, Kamviri bṛo, Russian брат (brat), German bruoder/Bruder, Welsh brawd, Sanskrit bhrātṛ, Irish bráthir/bráthair, Lithuanian brolis, Latvian brālis, Gaulish brātir, Persian brātar/barādar, Phrygian brater, Illyr. bra, Gothic brōþar, Old Norse bróðir, Old Prussian brāti, Old Church Slavonic братръ (bratrŭ), Ossetian ærvad/, Avestan brātar, Oscan fratrúm, Polish brat, Czech bratr, Kurdish bira, Venetic vhraterei, Lydian brafr-, Pashto wror
*swésōr sister Albanian motër, English sweostor/sister, German swester/Schwester, Sanskrit svasṛ, Old Church Slavonic сєстра (sestra), Russian сестра (sestrá), Polish siostra, Czech sestra, Latin soror, French sœur, Kamviri sus, Irish siur/siur, Old Armenian քոյր (kʿoyr), Tocharian ṣar/ṣer, Ancient Greek eor/--, Welsh chwaer, Gaulish suiior, Old Norse systir, Gothic swistar, Avestan xvaṅhar, Lithuanian sesuo, Old Prussian swestro, Persian /xāhar, Pashto khor, Kurdish xwişk
*suHnús son Sanskrit sūnu, Avestan hunu, Lithuanian sūnus, Old Prussian sūnus, soūns, English sunu/son, German sunu/Sohn, Gothic sunus, Old Norse sonr, Old Church Slavonic сꙑнъ (synŭ), Russian сын (syn), Polish syn, Czech syn, Ancient Greek nios, Tocharian se/soṃśke, Irish suth/suth, Thracian sukis, Pashto zoy
*dʰugh₂tḗr daughter Sanskrit duhitṛ, Ancient Greek thugatēr, Tocharian ckācar/tkācer, English dohtor/daughter, Russian дочь (doč’), Old Armenian դուստր (dustr), German tohter/Tochter, Kamviri jü, Gaulish duxtīr, Persian /doxtar, Lithuanian duktė, Old Prussian duckti, Old Church Slavonic дъщи (dŭšti), Old Norse dóttir, Gothic daúhtar, Avestan duydar, Luwian tuwatar, duttariyata, Hittite duttariyatiyaš, Pashto lur
*daywer- husband's brother Sanskrit devar, Russian деверь (déver’), Polish dziewierz, Lithuanian dieveris, Latvian dieveris, Latin lēvir, German zeihhur/--, English tācor/--, Ancient Greek dāēr/, Old Armenian տայգր (taygr), Old Church Slavonic dĕverĭ, Serb. dever, Pashto lewar
*sweḱruH father-/mother-in-law Russian свекровь (svekróv’), Sanskrit śvaśura;śvaśrū, Lithuanian šešuras, German swigur/Schwäher, Welsh chwegr, Old Armenian սկեսուր (skesur), Latin socrus, Spanish suegra, Ancient Greek hekuros, Albanian vjehërr, Kamviri č.uč., English swēor/--, Avestan xvasura-, Polish świekra, Czech švagr(m)/švagrová(f), Gothic swaíhrō, Old Norse svǽra, Serb. svekar(m)/svekrva(f), Pashto skhër(m) / khwaašëi/khwaakhëi(f)
*snúsos daughter-in-law Sanskrit snuṣā, Old Church Slavonic snŭxa, English snoru/--, Latin nurus, Spanish nuera, Ancient Greek nuos, Old Armenian նու (nu), Polish snecha, Czech snacha, Russian сноха (snoxá), Albanian nusa, Crimean Gothic schuos, Old Norse snor, German snur/Schnur, Serb. snaja/snaha, Pashto nžor/ngor
*ǵh₂lōw- brother's wife Old Church Slavonic zlŭva, Russian золовка (zolóvka), Ancient Greek galōs, Latin glōs, Phrygian gelaros, Polish zełwa, Serbo-Croatian zaova
*yenh₂ter- brother-in-law's wife Latin ianitrīcēs, Ancient Greek einatēr, Lithuanian jentė, Latvian ietere, Russian ятровь (játrov’), Sanskrit yātar, Kamviri iâri, Old Armenian ներ (ner), Phrygian ianatera, Polish jątrew, Serb. jetrva, Pashto yor
*h₂ewon- grandfather/mother's brother Latin avus ;avunculus, Spanish Abuelo, Gaulish avontīr, Ancient Greek aia, Lithuanian avynas, Old Prussian awis, Welsh ewythr, Old Armenian հաւ (haw), Old Church Slavonic uy, English ēam/--, Irish aue/ó, Gothic awó, German ōheim/Oheim, Russian уй (uj), Polish wuj, Serb. ujak
*nepeh₃t- grandson/nephew Latin nepōs, French neveu, Catalan nebot, Spanish nieto, Sanskrit napāt, Avestan napāt, Ancient Greek anepsios/, Albanian nip, Russian нестера (nestera), English nefa/neve, Gaulish nei, German nevo/Neffe, Welsh nai, Kamviri nâvo, Persian napā/nave, Lithuanian nepuotis, Irish necht/; níath/, Old Church Slavonic nestera, Polish nieściora, Serb. nećak
*h₁widʰéwh₂ widow Sanskrit vidhyati, Avestan viðavā, Gothic widuwō, Old Prussian widdewu, Russian вдова (vdová), Latin vidua;dīvidō, French veuve, Spanish viuda, Irish fedb/, German wituwa/Witwe, Welsh gweddw, Polish wdowa, English widuwe/widow, Old Church Slavonic въдова (vŭdova), Persian /bēve(h), Ancient Greek eitheos, Umbrian uef, Lithuanian vidus, Latvian vidus, Serb. udova/udovica, Czech vdova
*gʰostis stranger/guest Russian гость (gost’), Latin hostis, French hôte, German gast/Gast, Gothic gasts, Polish gość, Old Church Slavonic гость (gostĭ), English gæst/guest, Old Norse gestr, Luwian gaši, Serb. gost, Czech host

Body parts[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*ḱer- skull Latin cerĕbrum, Russian череп (čérep), Old Prussian kerpetis, Ancient Greek kare, Avestan sarah, Sanskrit śiras, Old Armenian սար (sar), Breton kern, German hirni/Hirn, Old Norse hjarni, Persian /sar, Tocharian /krāñi, Ossetian sær, Albanian krye
*kaput- head Sanskrit kapucchala, Latin caput, English heafod/head, German houbit/Haupt, Old Norse haufuð, Gothic haubiþ, Waziri kaparai
*pula- hair Sanskrit pula, Irish ulcha/ulcha, Latin pilus, Ancient Greek puligges/, Kurdish por
*h₃bʰrúHs brow Sanskrit bhrus, Lithuanian bruvis, Irish bru/bruach, English brū/brow, Russian бровь (brov’), Ancient Macedonian abroutes, Ancient Greek ophrus, German /Braue, Tocharian pärwāṃ/pärwāne, Old Prussian wubri, Polish brew, Old Church Slavonic bruvi, Old Norse brún, Persian /abru, Pashto wridzëi
*h₃ews- ear Hittite istāman, Ancient Greek ous, Sanskrit usi, Russian уши (úši), Gothic auso, Lithuanian ausis, Latvian auss, Gaulish ausia-, Latin auris, Albanian vesh, German ōra/Ohr, Old Church Slavonic ucho, Irish au/, Avestan usi, Persian gaušā/guš, Kurdish guh/goh, English éare/ear, Old Norse eyra, Old Armenian ունկն (unkn), ականջ (akanǰ), Old Prussian āusins, Pashto ghwaž/ghwag, Ormuri goi
*h₃ekʷ- eye Russian око (óko), Latin oculus, Tocharian ak/ek, Old Armenian ակն (akn), աչք (ačʿkʿ), Sanskrit ákṣi, akṣan, Ancient Greek ophthalmos, English ēge/eye, German ouga/Auge, Gothic augo, Albanian sy, Lithuanian akis, Latvian acs, Kamviri âčẽ, Irish enech/oineach, Welsh enep, Old Church Slavonic oko, Old Norse auga, Polish oko, Old Prussian ackis
*nas- nose Sanskrit nasa, Latin nasus, Russian нос (nos), Lithuanian nosis, Latvian nāss, English nosu/nose, Avestan nah, German nasa/Nase, Kamviri nâsuṛ, Old Prussian nazy, Persian nāham/, Old Church Slavonic nasu, Old Norse nös, Ormuri nene
*h₃es- mouth Sanskrit ās;oṣṭha, Avestan aosta, Latin ōs, Lithuanian uosta (modern: uostas), Latvian osta, Russian уста (ustá), Kamviri âša, Old Prussian austo, English ōr/--, Hittite aiš, Old Norse oss
*leb- lip Latin labĭum, German /Lippe; lefs/Lefze English lippa/lip, Kurdish lêv, Welsh llefaru, Russian лобзать (lobzát’), Persian /lab, Lithuanian lūpa
*h₃dónts tooth Latin dentis, Ancient Greek odous/donti, Welsh dant, Lithuanian dantis, Sanskrit dantam, Old Armenian ատամն (atamn), English tōþ/tooth, German zand/Zahn, Gothic tunþus, Russian десна (desná), Welsh dant, Kamviri dut, Persian /dandān, Kashmiri dãd, Irish dét/déad, Old Norse tǫnn, Ossetian dændag, Kurdish didan/digan
*dn̥ǵʰwéh₂s tongue Albanian giuha, Latin lingua, Irish tenge/teanga, English tunge/tongue, Gothic tuggo, Old Norse tunga, Sanskrit jihvā, Avestan hizvā, Russian язык (jazýk), Lithuanian liežuvis, Old Armenian լեզու (lezu), German zunga/Zunge, Kurdish ziman, Welsh tafod, Kamviri dic, Persian hizbāna/zabān, Old Prussian insuwis, Tocharian käntu/kantwo, Pashto zhëba
*ǵenu- cheek Latin gena, Welsh genou, Ancient Greek genos, Gothic kinnus, Sanskrit hanu, Avestan zanu, Lithuanian žandas, Latvian zods, Phrygian azon, Tocharian śanwem/, Old Armenian ծնաւտ (cnawt), English cin/chin, German chinni/Kinn, Irish gin/gionach, Old Norse kinn, Persian /goune(h), Ancient Macedonian kanadoi
*ǵebʰ- jaw Russian зоб (zob), Serb. gubica, Irish gopchóel/gob, German /Kiefer, English ceafl/jowl, Old Norse keptr, Avestan zafana
*smek- chin Irish smech/smeach, Lithuanian smakras, Latvian smakrs, Sanskrit śmaśru, Hittite zamakur, Old Armenian մաւրուք (mawrukʿ), Albanian mjekër, Latin maxilla
*bʰardʰeh₂- beard Lithuanian barzda, Latvian bārda, Old Church Slavonic brada, Russian борода (borodá), Latin barba, English beard/beard, German bart/Bart, Welsh barf, Polish broda, Old Norse barðr, Crimean Gothic Bars
*moni neck Sanskrit manyā, Latin monīle, English manu/mane, German mana/Mähne, Irish muin/muin, Ancient Greek mannon, Russian монисто (monísto), Welsh mwnwgl, Gaulish maniakēs, Old Norse mǫn, Avestan minu
*h₃emesos shoulder Ancient Greek ōmos, Sanskrit aṃsa, Gothic ams, Old Norse ass, Latin umĕrus, Tocharian es/āntse, Old Armenian ուս (us), Pashto uža/uga
*ḱub- shoulder Albanian sup, German huf/Hüfte, English hype/hip, Ancient Greek kubos, Avestan supti, Latin cubitus, Sanskrit śupti, Gothic hups, Welsh gogof, Persian /šāne
*h₂erm- arm Ossetian arm, Old Armenian արմուկն (armukn), Latin armus, Gothic arms, English earm/arm, Sanskrit irmas, Old Prussian irmo, Old Church Slavonic ramo, German aram/Arm, Old Norse armr, Ancient Greek arthron/
*eh₃l- elbow German elina/elle, Ancient Greek ōlenē, Old Armenian ոլոք (olokʿ), Latin ulna, Lithuanian uolektis, Latvian olekts, Russian локоть (lókot’), Sanskrit āṇi, Welsh elin, English eln/ell, Irish uilin/uille, Gothic aleina, Old Norse aln, Albanian llërë/llânë, Avestan arəθna, Old Prussian woaltis, Old Church Slavonic pakŭtĭ, Polish łokieć, Persian /āran
*dows- forearm Sanskrit doṣnas, Avestan daoš, Irish doít/doíd, Lithuanian dilbis, Latvian paduse, Russian пазуха (pázuxa), Persian /doš
*ǵʰes- hand Sanskrit hasta, Avestan zasta, Lithuanian žastas, Latin praesto, Hittite kessar, Lycian izre, Luwian iššari-, Ancient Greek kheir, Old Armenian ձեռն (jeṙn), Kamviri düšt, Albanian dorë, Pashto laas
*men- hand Latin manus, Ancient Greek mane, English mund/--, German munt/Vormund
*h₃enogʰ- nail Ancient Greek onohos, Sanskrit aṅghri, Latin unguis, German nagel/Nagel, Russian ноготь (nógot’), Lithuanian nagas, Latvian nags, Avestan nakhara, Old Armenian եղունգն (ełungn), Welsh ewin, English nægl/nail, Persian /nāxun, Old Church Slavonic noguti, Irish inga/ionga, Pashto nuk, Ormuri nakhkche
*psten- breast Ancient Greek stēthos, Old Armenian ստին (stin), Sanskrit stana, Avestan fštāna, Lithuanian spenys, Latvian spenis, Old Norse speni, German spunni/Spanferkel, Irish sine/sine, Albanian gji, Old Prussian spenis, Persian /pestan, English spane/--
*eh₂udʰr̥ udder Lithuanian ūdroti, English ūder/udder, German ūtir/Euter, Old Norse jūgr, Ancient Greek outhar/, Sanskrit ūdhar, Latin ūber, Russian вымя (výmja), Polish wymię
*perḱ- rib Old Church Slavonic persi, Lithuanian piršys, Sanskrit parśus, Avestan parəsu, Ossetian fars
*pog- lap Sanskrit pakṣas, Latvian paksis, Latin pectus, Russian пах (pax), Tocharian päśśäṃ/päšcane
*h₃enbʰ- navel Sanskrit nabhya, Avestan nāba, Latvian naba, German nabalo/Nabel, English nafela/navel, Old Norse nafli, Ancient Greek omphalos, Latin umbilīcus, Irish imbliu/imleacán, Kashmiri naf, Old Prussian nabis, Persian /nāf
*udero- belly Latin uterus; venter, Ancient Greek otheros, Sanskrit udara, Avestan udaras, Lithuanian vėdaras, Latvian vēders, German wanast/Wanst, Pashto nas
*pisda vulva Russian пизда (pizdá), Lithuanian pyzda, Latvian pīzda, Albanian pidh
*pes- penis Ancient Greek peos, Latin pēnis, German faselt/Fasel, Old Norse fösull, English fæsl/--, Sanskrit pasas
*h₃erǵʰi- testicle Ancient Greek orkhēs, Old Armenian որձիք (orjikʿ), Irish uirge/, Lithuanian aržilas (modern: eržilas), Latvian erzelis, Avestan ərəzi, Albanian herdhe
*h₃ers- arse Ancient Greek oura, Old Armenian ոռ (oṙ), Hittite arras, English ears/arse, Irish err/earr, German ars/Arsch, Old Norse ars
*ḱlowni- buttock Latin clūnis, Old Norse hlaun, Kamviri slaunis, Sanskrit śroṇi, Avestan sraoni, Welsh clun, Lithuanian šlaunis, Pashto kunattai
*kroksko- leg Albanian krah, Lithuanian kirkaliai, Old Church Slavonic kraka, Russian окорок (ókorok), Sanskrit kiṣku
*ǵenu- knee Albanian Gju Russian звено (zvenó), Latin genū, Hittite genu, Palaic ginu-, English cnēo/knee, Ancient Greek gonu, Sanskrit jānu, Illyr. Genusus, German kniu/Knie, Persian /zānu, Old Norse kne, Avestan znum, Tocharian kanweṃ/kenīne, Gothic kniu, Old Armenian ծունր (cunr), ծունկք (cunkkʿ)
*kenk- kneecap Sanskrit kañkāla, Lithuanian kenklė, Latvian cinksla, English hēla/heel, Old Norse hǽll
*persna- heel Sanskrit pārṣni, Latin perna/pernis, Hittite parsina, Gothic fairsna, German fërsana/Ferse, Ancient Greek ptera, English fiersn/-- , Persian /pāšne(h), Lithuanian pentinas
*pṓds foot Lithuanian pėda, Latvian pēda, Latin pēs, Umbrian peři, Sanskrit pāda, English fōt/foot, Old Armenian ոտն (otn), Ancient Greek podi, Albanian poshtë, Tocharian peṃ/paiyye, Ossetian fad/, German fuoz/Fuß, Old Church Slavonic pĕšĭ, Russian пеший (péšij), Polish pieszy, Old Prussian pe'da', Hittite patas, Lycian pede-, Luwian pati-, Avestan pâdha, Old Norse fótr, Kurdish pê, Gothic fotus, Persian /pa, Gaulish candetum, Ancient Macedonian argiopus, Pashto pša/pkha

Body organs[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*kʷrep- body Sanskrit kṛpā, Avestan kərəfš, Albanian shkrep, German href/, Latin corpus, English hrif/midriff, Ancient Greek prapis, Welsh corff, Irish crí/, Russian труп (trup)
*naw- corpse Tocharian nut/naut, Gothic naus, Russian навь (nav’), Welsh newyn, German not/, Old Norse nār, English néo-/--, Old Church Slavonic navi, Old Prussian nowis, Lithuanian novyti, Latvian nāve, Irish núne/
*neḱ- dead person, death Sanskrit naśyati, Avestan nasyeiti, Ancient Greek nekros, Lithuanian našlys, Latin nex, Tocharian näk/näk, Irish éc/eug, Welsh angeu, Old Norse Naglfar
*pel- skin Ancient Greek pelos; pilon, Latin pellis, Russian пелена (pelená), Gothic fill, German fël/Fell, English filmen/film, Lithuanian plėnė, Latvian plēne, Old Prussian pleynis, Old Norse feldr
*twakos skin Sanskrit tvacas, Hittite tuekkas, Ancient Greek sakos
*h₃est- bone Albanian asht, Latin os; costa, Ancient Greek ostoun, Russian кость (kost’); остов (óstov), Sanskrit asthan, Avestan asti, Hittite ḫastāi, Welsh asgwrn, Kamviri âṭi, Persian /ostexān, Polish kość, Kurdish hestî, Tocharian /ásta, Old Armenian ոսկր (oskr), Luwian ḫāš
*gʷeyH- sinew Old Church Slavonic žitsa, Russian жила (žíla), Old Armenian ջիլ (ǰil), ջիղ (ǰił), Lithuanian gija, Latvian dzija, Latin fīlum, Welsh giau, Old Church Slavonic žila, Polish żyła
*gʷiyeh₂ sinew Ancient Greek bios, Sanskrit jyā, Avestan jyā, Kamviri ja
*memso flesh Sanskrit māṃsa, Old Prussian mensā, Gothic mimz, Russian мясо (mjáso), Albanian mish, Old Armenian միս (mis), Tocharian /mīsa, Latin membrum, Ancient Greek mēnigks, Kashmiri maz, Lithuanian mėsa, Latvian miesa, Irish mír/mír
*krew- blood Sanskrit kravis, Lithuanian kraujas, Latvian krevele, Russian кровь (krov’), Latin cruor, Irish cró/creo, Ancient Greek kreas, Old Norse hrár, Avestan xrūva, Welsh crau, Polish krew, German hrāo/roh, Old Church Slavonic kruvi, Old Prussian crauyo, English hrēaw/raw
*h₁ésh₂r̥ blood Sanskrit asṛj, Old Latin aser, Latvian asinis, Hittite ešar, Lycian esêne-, Luwian ašhar-, Tocharian ysār/yasar, Ancient Greek eiar, Old Armenian արիւն (ariwn)
*mosgo brain Russian мозг (mozg), Avestan mazga, Sanskrit majjan, Kashmiri massunt, Old Prussian musgeno, German marag//Mark, Persian /maġz, Polish mózg, Tocharian mäśśunt/, Lithuanian smagenės (modern: smegenys), Kurdish mejî, Latvian smadzenis, English mearg/marrow, Old Norse mergr, Pashto maazghë
*gʷʰeleǵʰ- gland Old Armenian գեղձ (gełj), Lithuanian geležuones, Russian железа (železá), Polish zołza
*engʷ- gland Albanian angërr, Ancient Greek adēn, Latin inguen, Old Norse ökkvinn
*rewsmen- throat Sanskrit rōmantha, Welsh rhumen, Latin rūmen, Lithuanian raumuo, Latvian raumins
*plewmō lung Ancient Greek pleumōn, Sanskrit kloman, Lithuanian plaučiai, Latvian plaušas, Old East Slavic плюче (pljuče), Old Prussian plauti, Latin pulmō, Serbo-Croatian pluća
*ḱḗr heart Sanskrit hṛdaya, Avestan zərədā, Hittite karts, Lycian kride, Palaic kart-, Latin cor, Ancient Greek καρδία (kardia) English heorte/heart, Russian сердце (sérdce), Lithuanian širdis, Latvian sirds, Old Prussian seyr, Old Armenian սիրտ (sirt), Welsh craidd, Kamviri zâra, Irish cride/croidhe, Polish serce, German herza/Herz, Gothic hairto, Old Norse hjarta, Old Church Slavonic srĭdĭce, Ossetian zærdæ, Pashto zrrë, Ormuri zli
*yeh₁kʷr̥- liver Sanskrit yaknas, Lithuanian jeknos, Latvian aknas, Avestan yākarə, Latin iecur, Irish iuchair/iuchair, Ancient Greek ήπαρ (hēpar), Russian икра (ikrá), Kamviri iâñi, Persian /jegar, Pashto dzigar
*splenǵʰ- spleen Ancient Greek σπλήν (splēn), Irish selg/sealg, Old Church Slavonic slĕzena, Latin liēn, Avestan sparazan, Sanskrit plīhan, Lithuanian blužnis, Old Prussian blusne, Kamviri pṛu, Old Armenian փայծաղն (pʿaycałn), Russian селезёнка (selezjónka), Polish śledziona, Breton felc'h
*lendʰ- kidney German lenti/Lende, English lenden/--, Old Norse lend, Polish lędźwia, Russian лядвея (ljádveja), Latin lumbus
*gʷelbʰ- womb English wamb/womb, German wamba/Wamme, Gothic wamba, Old Norse vomb, Sanskrit garbhas, Ancient Greek delphus, Lithuanian gimda,
*gwrebʰ- womb Ancient Greek brephos, Irish brommach/, Old Church Slavonic žrĕbę, Russian жеребёнок (žerebjónok), Polish źrebię
*ǵʰer- bowels Latin hernia, Sanskrit hira, Ancient Greek khordē, Old Norse gǫrn, German garn/Garn, English gearn/yarn, Old Armenian ձառ (jaṙ), Lithuanian žarna, Latvian zarna, Albanian zorrë, Hittite karat
*eh₁ter- intestines Ancient Greek ētor/, Irish inathar/, Latin uterus, Old Norse ǽðr, English ǣdder/, German ādra/Ader
*kakka excrement Russian какать (kákat’), Ancient Greek kakkaō, Latin cacō, Old Armenian քակոր (kʿakor), Irish cacc/cac, German /Kacke, Welsh cach, Lithuanian kaka, Persian keke

Human feelings and qualities[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*ters- dry Sanskrit tṛṣyati, Avestan taršu, Old Armenian թառամիմ (tʿaṙamim), Ancient Greek tersomai/, Albanian ter, Latin terra;torrēre;torreō, English þurst/thirst, German durri/dürr, Gothic þaursus, Old Norse þurr, Eastern Baltic trōkšti, Lithuanian trokšti, Irish tírim/tirim, Kashmiri treśiho.t
*dakru- tear Ancient Greek dakru, Latin lacrĭma, German zahar/Zähre, English tēar/tear, Sanskrit aśru, Lithuanian ašara, Latvian asara, Welsh deigryn, Irish dér/déar, Tocharian ākär/akrūna, Gothic tagr, Old Norse tár, Old Armenian արտաւսր (artawsr), Avestan asrūazan
*ḱeh₂d- hate English hete/hate, German haz/haß, Gothic hatis, Old Norse hatr, Sanskrit riśadas, Avestan sādra/, Ancient Greek kēdos, Oscan cadeis amnud, Irish caiss/cais, Welsh câs
*ǵews- taste Latin dēgūnō, Gothic kiusan, German kiosan/kiesen, Sanskrit joṣati, Avestan zaošō, Albanian dashur, Polish gust, English ceosan/choose, Persian dauš/, Irish asagussim/--, Ancient Greek geusis
*gʰers- horror Old Norse gersta, Lithuanian grasa, grėsti, Latvian grasāt, Old Armenian գարշիմ (garšim), Avestan grəəhma, German gerstī/, Latin fastus, Tocharian krās/krās
*gʰowros fear Sanskrit ghora, Gothic gaurs, German gōrag/, Russian журить (žurít’), English gyrn/, Old Norse gaurr
*sweyd- sweat Old Armenian քիրտն (kʿirtn), Albanian djersë, English swǣtan/sweat, Lithuanian saldus, Latvian sviedri, Sanskrit svedate, Latin sūdor; sīdus, Ancient Greek hidros; sidēros, German sweiz/Schweiss, Welsh chwys, Old Norse sveiti, Avestan xvaēda, Pashto khwala
*swep- sleep Lithuanian sapnas, Sanskrit svapnas, Latin somnus, Old Norse svefn, Tocharian ṣpäṃ/ṣpane, Ancient Greek hupnos, Avestan xvafna, Irish suán/suan, Russian сон (son), Old Armenian քուն (kʿun), Albanian gjumë, Welsh hun, English swefan/sweven, Old Church Slavonic sunu, Persian /xāb, Pashto khob
*h₂egos- fault, sin Sanskrit āgas, Ancient Greek agos, English acan/ache, Russian грех
*h₂en- spirit Sanskrit ānas, Gothic uzanan; andi, Irish anál/anál, Latin animus, Ancient Greek anemos, Russian вонь (von’), Welsh anysbryd, Old Church Slavonic vonja, Old Norse anda; ǫnd, English eðian/--; ōþian/--, Welsh eneid, Avestan åntya, Lithuanian anuoti, Old Armenian հով (hov), Albanian ajë/âj, Oscan anamum, Tocharian āñcäm/āñme
*h₂eym- copy Hittite ḫimma, Latin aemulus; imāgō
*h₂eyw- vital force Sanskrit āyu, Avestan āyū, Tocharian āym/, Latin aevum, Dutch eeuw, English æfre/ever, German īo/je; êwig/ewig, Gothic aiws, Old Norse ei, Ancient Greek aiōn, Albanian eshë
*men- mind Latin mēns, Ancient Greek menos, Sanskrit manas, Avestan manah, English gemynd/mind, Gothic muns, Old Norse minni; man, German minna/Minne, Lithuanian mintis, Latvian minēt, Old Prussian mēntimai Old Church Slavonic mineti, Russian мнить (mnit’), Old Armenian միտ (mit), Albanian mund, Persian mainyāhay/, Tocharian mnu/mañu, Irish dermet/dearmad, Welsh cof

Celestial terms[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*telp- space Sanskrit talpa, Lithuanian tilpti; telpu, Latvian tilpt; telpu, Russian толпа (tolpá), Tocharian tsälp/tälp, Irish -tella/
*h₂stḗr star Ancient Greek astēr, German sterro/Stern, English steorra/star, Old Norse stjarna, Gothic stairno, Latin stella, Kurdish stêr, Old Armenian աստղ (astł), Sanskrit tāras;stṛbhis, Welsh seren, Tocharian śre/śćirye, Kamviri ṛâšto, Persian /setāre, Ossetian sthaly/, Hittite ḫašterz(a), Pashto storai
*sóh₂wl̥ sun Lithuanian saulė, Latvian saule, Latin sōl, Welsh haul, Ancient Greek hēlios, Albanian (h)yll, English sigel/--; sunne/sun, Russian солнце (sólnce), Sanskrit sūras, Avestan hvarə, German sunna/Sonne, Old Norse sól; sunna, Gothic sauil; sunno, Welsh haul, Irish súil/súil, Tocharian swāñce/swāñco, Kamviri su, Polish słońce, Old Church Slavonic slunice, Old Prussian saule, Persian -farnah-/
*mḗh₁n̥s moon/month Hittite armas, Ancient Greek mēn, Tocharian mañ/meñe, Latin mēnsis, English mōna/moon, Old Church Slavonic meseci, Russian месяц (mésjac), Sanskrit māsa, Old Armenian ամիս (amis), Avestan maoṅh, Irish mí/mí, Old Norse mani, German mano/Mond, Gothic mena, Albanian muaj, Lithuanian mėnuo, Latvian meness, Welsh mis, Kamviri mos, Persian /māh, Ossetian mæj, Old Prussian menig, Pashto myaasht, Ormuri mail
*nébʰos sky/cloud Russian небо (nébo), Latin nebŭlō, Sanskrit nabhas, Ancient Greek nephos, Hittite nepiš, Lycian tabahaza, Luwian tappaš-, German nebul/Nebel, English nifol/--, Welsh nef, Kamviri niru, Polish niebo, Old Church Slavonic nebo, Lithuanian debesis, Latvian debess, Avestan nabah, Irish nem/neamh, Old Norse niflhel
*lewk- light/bright Russian луч (luč), Sanskrit rocate, Ancient Greek leukos, English lēoht/light, Latin lūx, German lioht/licht, Kamviri luka, Gothic liuhaþ, Old Norse leygr, Tocharian luk, Oscan Lúvkis, Umbrian Vuvçis, Welsh llug, Irish loscaim/loiscim, Lithuanian lauka, Latvian lauks, Hittite lalukkes, Lycian luga, Luwian luha-, Old Armenian լոյս (loys), Kamviri ṛuč, Old Church Slavonic luci, Gaulish leux, Avestan raočant

Times of day[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*deyn- day Old Armenian տիւ (tiw), Russian день (den’), Irish denus/, Lithuanian diena, Latvian diena, Sanskrit dinam, Latin diēs, Albanian ditë, Welsh dydd, Polish dzień, Irish día/dia, Gothic sintīns, Old Prussian deinan, English lencten/lent, German lenzo/Lenz, Breton deiz
*dʰǵʰ(y)es- yesterday English geostran/yesterday, Russian завтра (závtra), Albanian dje, Sanskrit hyas, Avestan zyō, Kurdish duh, Persian diyaka/dīg/diruz/dine, Ancient Greek khthes, Latin herī, Welsh ddoe, Irish indhé/an(d)é, Gothic gistradagis, Old Norse í gǽr, German gesteron/gestern
*h₂eǵʰ- day Sanskrit ahar, Avestan azan, English dæg/day, German tag/Tag, Gothic dags, Old Norse dagr, Albania ditë
*h₂ews- dawn Lithuanian aušra, Latvian ausma, German ōstra/Osten, Sanskrit uṣās, Russian утро (útro), English ēast/east, Ancient Greek hēos, Latin aurōra, Old Norse austr, Avestan ušastara, Irish fáir/, Welsh gwawr
*nókʷts night Ancient Greek nuks, Lithuanian naktis, Latvian nakts, German naht/Nacht, Sanskrit nakti, Hittite nekuz, Latin nox, Russian ночь (noč’), Albanian natë, Irish innocht/anochd, Tocharian nakcu/nekcīye, Welsh nos, English niht/night, Polish noc, Old Prussian naktin, Gothic nahts, Old Norse nótt, Old Church Slavonic nosti
*wespero- evening Old Armenian գիշեր (gišer), Latin vespera, Ancient Greek hesperos, Lithuanian vakaras, Latvian vakars, Irish fescor/feascar, Russian вечер (véčer), Gothic veig, Welsh ucher, Polish wieczór

Seasons[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*yeHr- year Gothic jēr, English gēar/year, Avestan yārə, Old Church Slavonic jara, Ancient Greek ōra, Latin hōrnus, German jar/Jahr, Old Norse ár, Persian dušiyaram/, Lithuanian jorė, Russian яровой (jarovój), Polish jar
*wet- year Latin vetus, Ancient Greek etos, Sanskrit vatsa, English weðer/wether, German widar/Widder, Gothic wiþrus, Old Norse veðr, Hittite witt, Albanian vjet, Irish fethim/feithim, Cornish guis, Lithuanian vetuša, Old Church Slavonic vetŭxŭ, Russian ветхий (vétxij), Polish wiotchy, Oscan Vezkeí
*wesr̥ spring Russian весна (vesná), Sanskrit vasanta, Lithuanian vasara, Latvian vasara, Old Norse vár, Latin vēr, Avestan vaṅri, Old Armenian գարուն (garun), Kamviri vâsut, Persian /bahār, Polish wiosna, Ancient Greek ear, Old Church Slavonic vesna, Irish errach/, Welsh gwanwyn
*sem- summer Sanskrit samā, English sumor/summer, Avestan ham, Old Armenian ամառն (amaṙn), German sumar/Sommer, Old Norse sumar, Welsh haf, Irish samrad/samhradh, Tocharian ṣme/ṣmāye
*h₃esen- harvest Russian осень (ósen’), Old Prussian assanis, English earnian/earn, Gothic asans, German aran/Ernte, Old Norse ǫnn, Ancient Greek opōra, Polish jesień, Latin annōna
*ǵʰey- winter Sanskrit hemanta, Latin hiems, Ancient Greek kheima, Gaulish Giamillus, Old Church Slavonic zima, Russian зима (zimá), Polish zima, Lithuanian žiema, Latvian ziemas, Old Prussian semo, Avestan zimo, Old Armenian ձմեռն (jmeṙn), Albanian dimër/dimën, Kamviri zẽ, Persian /zemestān, Tocharian śärme/śimpriye, Welsh gaeaf, Irish gaimred/geimhreadh, Hittite gima, Old Norse gói, Persian /dai, Pashto zhëmai

Atmosphere[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*ḱewero- northwind Russian север (séver), Lithuanian šiaurys, Latin caurus, Old Armenian ցուրտ (cʿurt), English scūr/shower, German scūr/Schauer, Gothic skura, Old Norse skúr, Old Church Slavonic severu
*sneygʷʰ- snow Lithuanian sniegas, Latvian sniegs, Old Prussian snaygis, Russian снег (sneg), Irish snechta/sneachta, Sanskrit snēha, English snāw/snow, Latin nix, Ancient Greek nipha, German sneo/Schnee, Old Norse snjór, Gothic snaiws, Polish śnieg, Welsh nyf, Old Church Slavonic snegu, Avestan snaēža, Tocharian /śiñcatstse
*grad- hail Russian град (grad), Lithuanian gruodas, Latin grandō, Old Armenian կարկուտ (karkut), Polish grad, Old Church Slavonic gradŭ
*yeg- ice Hittite ekan, English gicel/icicle, Old Norse jaki, German ichil/gicht, Irish aig/oighear, Welsh ia, Lithuanian ižas, Latvian ieze, Russian икра (ikrá), Persian yakh, Polish kra
*snewdʰ- mist Avestan snaoða, Welsh nudd, Ancient Greek nuthon, Latin nūbēs, Welsh nudd
*meldʰ- lightning Old Prussian mealde, Lithuanian milna, Russian молния (mólnija)
*tónr̥ thunder Gaulish Taranis, Irish torand/toran, Welsh tarann, English þunor/thunder, Old Norse þórr, German Donar/Donner, Hittite Tarx.u, Lycian Trqqñt, Luwian Tarhunt-, Pashto taṇā/tandar, Kashubian taro.n, Latin tonāre, Sanskrit tányati, Persian /tundar

Wholeness[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₂eyti- part Avestan aēta, Oscan aeteis, Ancient Greek aitios, Irish áes/aois, Welsh oes, Russian часть (čast’)
*semi- half Latin sēmis, German sami/--, English sām-/sand-blind, Gothic sami-, Sanskrit sami, Ancient Greek hēmisus, Kamviri sâmaũ
*solo- whole Latin salvus, Tocharian salu/solme, Ancient Greek holos, Old Armenian ողջ (ołǰ), Irish slán/slán, Albanian gjallë, Sanskrit sarva, Avestan haurva, Kamviri sũdi, Polish sowity, Welsh holl, Oscan salavs, Umbrian saluvom, Old East Slavic сулѣи (sulěi), Persian haluva/, Old Church Slavonic sulĕi, Russian целый (tselyj)

Terrain[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*dʰéǵʰōm earth Phrygian zemelo, Thracian semele, Persian zam, Sanskrit kṣa, Ancient Greek khthōn, Latin humus, Gothic guma, Old Norse gumi, English guma/bridegroom, German gomo/Bräutigam, Albanian dhè, Old Church Slavonic zemlja, Russian земля (zemljá), Irish du/duine, Hittite tekan, Luwian dakam-, Tocharian tkam/keṃ, Kashmiri za.min, Lithuanian žemė, Latvian zeme, Old Prussian same, Welsh dyn, Oscan huntruis, Umbrian hondomu, Persian zamin, Thracian semela, Phrygian zamelon, Ossetian zæxx/, Polish ziemia, Pashto dzmëka
*h₂éḱmō stone Ancient Greek akmōn, Lithuanian akmuo, Latvian akmens, Sanskrit aśman, Avestan asman, Russian камень (kámen’), English hamer/hammer, Polish kamień, Old Norse hamarr, Hittite aku, Persian asman/, Gaulish acaunum, German hamar/Hammer
*ǵembʰ- ledge->tooth Ancient Greek gomphos, Sanskrit jambha, Lithuanian žambas, Latvian zobs, Albanian dhëmb/dhamb, Ancient Macedonian kombous, English comb/comb, Tocharian kam/keme, Russian зуб (zub), Latin gemma, Old Armenian ծամեմ (camem), Kamviri zâmoa, Polish gęba/ząb, Old Norse kambr, German kamb/Kamm
*gʷer- mount Russian гора (gora), Lithuanian guras, Sanskrit giris, Avestan gairi, Ancient Greek deiros, Albanian gur, Old Armenian լեառն (leaṙn), Polish góra, Old Church Slavonic gora, Pashto ghar
*h₂egras field Sanskrit ajra, Ancient Greek agros, Latin ager, Umbrian ager, Gothic akrs, English æcer/acre, Old Armenian արտ (art), German achar/Acker, Old Norse akr
*lendʰ- steppe Old Prussian lindan, English land/land, Old Norse land, Irish land/lann, Welsh llan, Old Church Slavonic ledina, Russian ляда (ljáda), German /Land, Gaulish landa
*lat- swamp Ancient Greek lataks, Lithuanian Latupė, Latvian Late, Gaulish Arelate, Irish lathach/lathach, German letto/letten, Welsh llaid, Russian болото (boloto)
*móri sea Russian море (móre), Gaulish Aremorici, Lithuanian marios, Latvian mare, Latin mare, Sanskrit maryādā, English mere/mere, German mari/Meer, Old Prussian mary, Welsh môr, Irish muir/muir, Gothic marei, Albanian përmjerr
*laku- pond Ancient Greek lakkos, Latin lacus, German lagu/, Irish loch/loch, Old Armenian լիճ (lič), English lagu/--, Lithuanian lekmenė, Old Norse lǫgr, Serbian lokva
*h₂eǵʰero- lake Lithuanian ežeras, Latvian ezers, Old Church Slavonic jezero, Russian озеро (ózero), Illyr. oseriates, Ancient Greek Akherōn, Polish jezioro, Old Prussian assaran
*h₂ekʷeh₂- river Latin aqua, Russian Ока (Oká), Gothic aha, German aha/Ache, English īg/island, Sanskrit ap, Hittite akwanzi, Luwian ahw-, Palaic aku-, Old Norse á, Gothic aƕa
*h₂ep- river Hittite ḫap(a), Palaic ḫapnas, Luwian ḫapinni, Latvian upe, Lithuanian upė, Old Prussian ape, English ōfer, German /Ufer, Sanskrit āp, Avestan afš, Latin amnis, Tocharian āp/āp
*wódr̥ water English wæter/water, Russian вода (vodá), Ancient Macedonian bedu, Ancient Greek hudōr, Lithuanian vanduo, Latvian ūdens, Latin unda, Sanskrit udan, Albanian ujë, Irish uisce/uisge, Hittite watar, Old Armenian գետ (get), Tocharian wär/war, Umbrian utur, Gothic watō, Welsh gwer, Old Norse vatn, Kashmiri odūr, Thracian udrēnas, German wazzar/Wasser, Phrygian bedu, Polish woda, Old Church Slavonic voda, Old Prussian wundan, Ormuri wëkʰ
*poymno- foam Latin pūmex, Lithuanian puta, Sanskrit phena, Old Church Slavonic pĕna, Russian пена (péna), English fām/foam, German feim/Feim, Ossetian fink, Old Prussian spoayno, Banuci spanch

Fire[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*dʰuh₂mós smoke Sanskrit dhūma, Old Prussian dumis, Russian дым (dym), German toup/toben, Latin fūmus, Ancient Greek thumos, Hittite tuhhuwais, Tocharian twe/tweye, Lithuanian dūmai, Latvian dūmi, English dōmian/dusk, Gothic dauns, Old Norse daunn, Kurdish dûv, Irish dé/deathach, Welsh dywy, Oscan Mefit, Polish dym, Persian /dud, Old Church Slavonic dymŭ, Pashto lugai
*eh₂ter- fire Old Armenian այրեմ (ayrem), Kurdish agir/ahi, Irish áith/áith, Welsh odyn, Avestan ātarš, Persian Āçiyādiya/ādar, Latin āter, Umbrian atru, Oscan Aadíriis, Serbo-Croatian vatra, Pashto or
*h₁ngʷni- fire Sanskrit agni, Hittite agniš, Latin ignis, Lithuanian ugnis, Latvian uguns, Old Church Slavonic ognĭ, Polish ogień, Russian огонь (ogón’), Albanian enjte
*péh₂ur bonfire Hittite paḫḫur, Tocharian por/pūwar, Ancient Greek pur, Umbrian pir, Old Norse fúrr, English fȳr/fire, Polish perz, Old Armenian հուր (hur), German fiur/Feuer, Old Prussian panno, Oscan purasiai, Gothic fōn, Czech pýř
*peh₂rs- dust Old Church Slavonic praxŭ, Tocharian pärs/pärs, Avestan paršuya, Lithuanian purkšti, Latvian pārsla, Old Norse fors, Hittite pappars, Sanskrit pṛsati, Russian прах (prax)

Parts of trees[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*dóru tree, wood Old Armenian ծառ (caṙ), Lithuanian derva, Latvian dreve, Gaulish Dervus, Russian дерево (dérevo), English trēow/tree, Hittite taru, Luwian tarweja-, Ancient Greek drus, Latin durus, Albanian dru/drû, Irish derucc/, Tocharian or, Kamviri dâa, Persian /deraxt, Polish drzewo, Welsh derwen, Sanskrit dāru, Avestan dāuru, Gothic triu, Old Norse tré, Old Prussian drawine, Ancient Macedonian darullos, Pashto largai
*dʰergʰen- thorn Sanskrit drākṣa, German tirnpauma/dirnbaum, Welsh draen, Irish draigen/droigheann, Lithuanian drignės, Latvian drigenes, Russian дёрен (djóren), Pashto azghai/ghëna, Ormuri zier
*ǵʰasto- stick Latin hasta, Umbrian hostatu, Irish gass/gas, Lithuanian lazda
*ǵʰasdʰo- stick Russian жердь (žerd’), Irish gat, Gothic gazds, Old Norse gaddr, English gād/goad, German gart/Gart, Polish żerdź
*gʷetw- resin German kuti/Kitt, English cudu/cud, Old Norse kváða, Sanskrit jatu, Welsh bedwen, Latin bitūmen, Scottish Gaelic beithe
*h₃esdos branch Old Armenian ոստ (ost), Ancient Greek ozos, English ōst, German ast/Ast, Gothic asts
*ḱak- branch Old Armenian ճիւղ (čiwł), Lithuanian šaka, Latvian saka, Sanskrit śākhā, Russian сук (suk), соха (sóxa), Albanian thekë, Gothic hōha, Kamviri coa, Old Prussian sagnis, Irish gēc/gēag, German huohili/ , Persian /šāxe(h)
*kel- glue Ancient Greek kolla, Lithuanian klijai, Russian клей (klej), Polish klej
*wréh₂ds root Russian вред (vred), English wyrt/wort, German wirz/Wurz, Latin rādīx, Ancient Greek rhiza, Albanian rrënjë/rrânzë, Welsh gwraidd, Irish frém/fréamh, Gothic vaurts, Old Norse urt, Kurdish rîş/reh, Tocharian /witsako, Persian /riše(h), Pashto wulëi

Flora[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₂ebl- apple Lithuanian obuolỹs, Latvian ābols, Old Prussian woble, Old English æppel English apple, Old High German apful German Apfel, Old Norse epli, Russian яблоко (jábloko) Polish jabłko, Old Irish uball/ubhall, Welsh afal, Gaulish avallo, Old Church Slavonic аблъко (ablŭko)
*h₂eyǵ- oak Lithuanian ąžuolas, Latin aesculus, Ancient Greek krataigos/, Old Norse eik, Old English āc English oak, Old High German German eihha German Eiche, Latvian o(uo)zo(uo)ls
*h₂epsa aspen English Old English æspe English aspen, German aspa/Espe, Old Norse ǫsp, Lithuanian epušė, Latvian apses, Old Prussian abse, Ancient Greek aspris/
*h₂er- nut Russian орех (oréx), Albanian arrë, Ancient Greek arna, Polish orzech
*bʰeh₂go- beech German buohha/Buche, Latin fāgus, Ancient Greek phugos, English bēce/beech, Old Norse bók, Gaulish Bāgācon, Russian бузина (buziná), Polish buk
*bʰereǵ- birch Russian берёза (berëza), Lithuanian beržas, Latvian bērzs, Ossetian bärz, Sanskrit bhūrjas, German birihha/Birke, Old Norse bjǫrk, Latin frāxinus, Old Prussian berse, English birce/birch, Thracian berzas, Old Church Slavonic breza, Old Armenian բարտի (barti), Polish brzoza
*ǵʰeluna pine Ancient Greek kheilos, Old Armenian ձեղուն (jełun), Old Norse giolnar
*grabʰ- hornbeam/oak Russian граб (grab), Lithuanian skroblas, Latvian skābardis, Umbrian Graboui, Ancient Macedonian grabion, Albanian krrabe grabuje, Polish grab
*ḱalam- reed Ancient Greek kalamos, Tocharian kulmãṃts/, Latin culmus, English healm/haulm, Latvian salms, Old Prussian salme, Russian солома (solóma), Old Norse halmr, German halm/Halm, Albanian kallam
*ḱermus- cherry Ancient Greek kerasos/keradion, Lithuanian šermukšlė (modern: šermukšnis), Latvian cērmaukša, Russian черемуха (čerëmuxa), Albanian qershi, Polish czereśnia
*klen- maple Russian клён (klën), Old Norse hlynr, Lithuanian klevas, Latvian kļava, Ancient Macedonian klinotrokhon, English hlin/linn, Welsh kelyn, Polish klon
*koyno- grass Ancient Greek koina, Old Armenian խոտ (xot), Lithuanian šienas, Latvian siens, Russian сено (séno), Polish siano
*koslo- hazel Lithuanian kasulas, English hæsel/hazel, Old Norse hasl, German hasal/Hasel, Latin corulus, Irish coll/coll, Welsh collen
*krem- onion Ancient Greek kremuon, Irish crem/creamh, English hramsan/ramson, Lithuanian kermušė, Latvian cermauksis, Russian черемша (čeremšá), Welsh craf,Albanian koromidhe
*mor- blackberry Ancient Greek moron, Old Armenian մոր (mor), Latin mōrum, Hittite muri, Irish smér/smeur, Welsh mwyaren
*eh₃g- berry Tocharian oko/oko, Lithuanian uoga, Latvian oga, Old Church Slavonic agoda, Russian ягода (jágoda), Gothic akran, Old Norse akarn, German ēker/Ecker, English æcern/acorn, Irish áirne/, Welsh aeron, Polish jagoda
*h₃el- alder Latin alnus, Lithuanian alksnis, Latvian elksnis, Bulgarian елша (élša), Russian ольха (ol’xá), Ancient Macedonian aliza, Old Norse alr, German elira/Erle, English alor/alder, Old Prussian aliskande, Gaulish alisa, Hittite alanzan, Polish olcha
*h₃es- ash Lithuanian uosis, Latvian osis, Russian осина (osína), German asc/Esche, English æsc/ash, Latin ornus, Old Prussian woasis, Old Norse askr, Welsh onnen, Albanian ah, Old Armenian հացի (hacʿi), Ancient Greek akherōis/, Polish jesion
*perkʷu- oak Lithuanian perkūnas ("thunder"), Latvian pērkons, Sanskrit parkatī, Latin quercus, Old Norse fura, English furh/fir, German foraha/Föhre, Welsh perth, Gothic faírguni
*rap- turnip Russian репа (répa), Lithuanian ropė, German raba/Rübe, Latin rapum, Ancient Greek rhapus, Old Church Slavonic repa, Polish rzepa
*winǵʰ- elm Albanian vidh, Russian вяз (vjaz), Lithuanian vinkšna, Latvian vilksna, English wice/Wych Elm, Kurdish viz, Polish wiąz

Insects[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*morwi- ant Old Church Slavonic mravie, Irish moirb/, Avestan maoiri, Sanskrit vamra, Latin formīca, Ancient Greek murmēs, Old Norse maurr, Crimean Gothic miera, Dutch /mier, Old Armenian մրջիւն (mrǰiwn), Kurdish mûrî/morî, Polish mrówka, Albanian morr, Persian /murče; mur, Russian муравей (muravéj), Tocharian /warme
*bʰey- bee English bēo/bee, Lithuanian bitė, Latvian bite, Irish bech/bech, Russian пчела (pčelá), Latin fūcus, German bīa/Biene, Polish pszczoła, Albanian bletë, Old Prussian bitte, Welsh begegyr, Gaulish bekos, Old Norse bý, Old Church Slavonic bŭčela
*wobs- wasp Lithuanian vapsva, Latin vespa, English wæps/wasp, Russian оса (osá), Avestan vawžaka, German wafsa/Wespe, Kamviri ušpik, Old Church Slavonic vosa, Irish foich/, Old Prussian wobse, Polish osa, Albanian anza
*mu- fly Lithuanian musė, Latvian muša, Latin musca, Russian муха (múxa), German mucka/Mücke, English mycg/midge, Albanian mizë, Ancient Greek muia, Old Armenian մուն (mun), Kurdish mêş, Kashmiri ma.čh, Polish mucha, Old Norse mý, Persian /magas, Old Prussian muso, Pashto mëch
*p/blow- flea Lithuanian blusa, Latvian blusa, Russian блоха (bloxá), Polish pchła, Old Armenian լու (lu), Sanskrit pluṣi, Ancient Greek psulla, Albanian plesht, Latin pūlex, Old Norse flo, English flēah/flea, German flōh/Floh, Pashto vraža/vraga
*knid- louse Russian гнида (gnída), Latvian gnida, Welsh nedd, German hniz/Nisse, Ancient Greek konis, Albanian thërijë/thëni, Old Armenian անիծ (anic), Irish /sned, English hnitu/nit
*luH- louse Lithuanian liulė, Welsh llau, English lūs/louse, German lūs/Laus, Old Norse lús
*kʷr̥mis grub Sanskrit kṛmi, Lithuanian kirmis (modern: kirminas, kirmėlė), Latvian cērme, Albanian krimb/krymb, Irish cruim/, Old Church Slavonic čermnyi, Russian червь (červ’), Welsh pryf, Ossetian kalm, Persian /kirm, Kurdish kurm, Old Prussian girmis, Polish czerw
*wr̥mi- worm Gothic waurms, English wyrm/worm, Old Armenian որդն (ordn), Latin vermis, Old Church Slavonic vermie, Lithuanian varmas, Welsh gwraint, Ancient Greek rhomos, German wurm/Wurm, Old Norse ormr, Old Prussian wormyan

Marine animals[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*dʰǵʰu- fish Lithuanian žuvis, Latvian zivs, Old Armenian ձուկն (jukn), Ancient Greek ikhthus, Old Prussian suckis
*pisḱ- fish Latin piscis, Irish íasc/iasc, Gothic fisks, Old Norse fiskr, English fisc/fish, German fisc/Fisch, Russian пескарь (peskár’), Polish piskorz, Welsh pysgodyn, Albanian peshk
*laks- salmon Tocharian laks/läks, Old Norse lax, Lithuanian lašiša, Latvian lasis, Russian лосось (losós’), Polish łosoś, German lahs/Lachs, English leax/--, Old Prussian lalasso
*h₂engwi- eel Latin anguilla, Lithuanian ungurys, German angar/Engerling, Russian угорь (úgor’), Ancient Greek egkhelus, Old Prussian angurgis,Albanian ngjale, Polish węgorz
*ḱon- shell Ancient Greek kogkhos, Latin conguius, Sanskrit śaṅkha

Birds[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₂éwis bird Latin avis, Avestan vīš, Sanskrit vis, Old Armenian հաւ (haw), Welsh hwyad, Ancient Greek aetos, oiōn, Lithuanian višta, Latvian vista, Umbrian avif, Irish /aoi
*h₃er- eagle German arn/Aar, Old Armenian որոր (oror), ուրուր (urur), English earn/erne, Ancient Greek orneon, Russian орёл (orël), Lithuanian erelis, Latvian ērglis, Hittite ḫaran, Polish orzeł, Welsh eryr, Old Norse ari, Gothic ara, Albanian orë orle, Old Prussian arelis, Irish irar/
*ḱoro- crow Albanian sorrë, Lithuanian šarka, Ancient Greek koraks, Latin cornīx, Old Church Slavonic soraka, Russian soroka (soróka), Sanskrit śāri, Umbrian curnāco, Pashto kaarghë, Waziri lagëra, Polish sroka
*worn- raven Lithuanian varnas, Russian ворона (voróna), Tocharian --/wrauña, Pashto wraagh, Polish wrona
*trosdos thrush Lithuanian strazdas, Latvian strazds, Russian дрозд (drozd), Old Norse þrǫstr, English þrysce/thrush, German thrōskala/Drossel, Irish truit/truid, Latin turdus, Welsh drudwy, Old Church Slavonic drozgu, Ancient Greek strouthos, Polish drozd
*h₂eneti- duck Lithuanian antis, Latin anas, Sanskrit ātis, Russian утка (útka), German anut/Ente, English ened/--, Old Norse ǫnd, Old Prussian antis, Ancient Greek nēssa/, Pashto hilëi
*ǵʰans- goose Ancient Greek khēn, Sanskrit haṃsa, Latin ānser, Irish géiss/, English gōs/goose, Russian гусь (gus’), Lithuanian žąsis (earlier variant: žansis), Latvian zoss, German gans/Gans, Old Prussian sansy, Gothic gansus, Old Norse gás, Avestan zā, Polish gęś, Persian /ġāz
*teter- grouse Russian тетерев (téterev), Lithuanian teterva, Latvian teteris, Sanskrit tittira, Ancient Greek tetraōn, Irish tethra/, Old Norse þiðurr, Old Armenian տատրակ (tatrak), Old Prussian tatarwis, Persian /tadarv, Polish cietrzew
*spergʷʰ- sparrow German sperk/sperling, English spearwa/sparrow, Gothic sparwa, Old Norse spǫrr, Tocharian ṣpār/ṣpāra-, Ancient Greek sparasion, Latin parra, Old Prussian spurglis, Persian /parasto, Umbrian parfam, Irish serriach/
*ger- crane Kurdish quling, Ancient Greek geranos, Latin grūs, Old Armenian կռունկ (kṙunk), German krano/Kranich, English cran/crane, Lithuanian gervė, Latvian dzerwe, Old Prussian gerwe, Russian журавль (žurávl’), Welsh garan, Old Norse trana, Pashto zaaṇëi,Albanian curan, Polish żuraw
*nisdós nest Russian гнездо (gnezdó), English nest/nest, Old Armenian նիստ (nist), Latin nīdus, Sanskrit nidas, Irish net/net, German nest/Nest, Polish gniazdo, Old Church Slavonic gnĕzdo, Welsh nyth, Lithuanian lizdas, Pashto dzaala/mandzola

Land animals[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₁eǵʰi- hedgehog Russian ёж (ëž), Lithuanian ežys, Latvian ezis, Phrygian eksis, Ancient Greek ekhinos, German igil/Igel, Old Armenian ոզնի (ozni), English igil/--, Old Norse ígul, Kurdish jûjî, Ossetian wyzyn, Polish jeż, Phrygian eksis, Albanian esh, Pashto zižgai
*h₁epero- boar Kurdish beraz, Lithuanian Vepriai, Latvian vepris, German ebur/Eber, English eofor/--, Latin aper; vepres, Russian вепрь (vepr’), Sanskrit vapati, Umbrian apruf, Old Prussian Weppren, Thracian ebros, Old Norse jǫfurr, Polish wieprz
*gʰelōw- tortoise Ancient Greek khelōnē, Kurdish kisel, Old Church Slavonic želŭvĭ, Russian желвь (želv’), Lithuanian želvė, Polish żółw
*ǵʰwer- beast Old Church Slavonic zvĕrĭ, Russian зверь (zver’), Lithuanian žvėris, Latvian zvērs, Latin ferus, Ancient Greek thēr, Polish zwierz, Old Prussian swīrins, Tocharian śaru/śerwe, Pashto tsaarwai
*léwks lynx Ancient Greek lugks, Lithuanian lūšis, Latvian lusis, Old Prussian luysis, German luhs/Luchs, English lox/--, Russian рысь (rys’), Old Armenian լուսանունք (lusanunkʿ), Irish lug/, Polish ryś
*muHs- mouse Sanskrit mūṣ, Avestan mus, Latin mūs, Ancient Greek mūs, Russian мышь (myš’), Old Armenian մուկն (mukn), Albanian mi, German mus/Maus, English mūs/mouse, Kamviri musa, Persian /muš, Old Norse mús, Polish mysz, Kurdish mişk, Old Church Slavonic mŭšĭ, Lithuanian musė ("a fly"), Pashto mužak/mugak
*neHtr- snake Latin natrix, English nǣddre/adder, German natara/Natter, Welsh neidr, Gothic nadrs, Old Norse naðr, Irish nathir/nathair, Pashto nattëka
*h₂ŕ̥tḱos bear Ancient Greek arktos, Latin ursus, Sanskrit ṛkṣa, Persian /xers, Old Armenian արջ (arǰ), Gaulish Artos, Albanian ari, Kamviri ic, Ossetian ærs, Welsh arth, Avestan aršam, Kurdish hirç, Hittite ḫartagga, Pashto iž/ig
*(s)táwros bison Avestan staora, Gothic stiur, Lithuanian tauras, Latvian tauriņš, Ancient Greek tauros, Latin taurus, Gaulish Tarbos, Old Church Slavonic turu, Russian тур (tur), English steor/steer, German stior/Stier, Old Prussian tauris, Welsh tarw, Old Norse stjórr, Oscan turuf, Albanian taroç tauk, Irish tarb/, Polish tur
*udr- otter Sanskrit udra, Avestan udra, ūdra/udris, Lithuanian ūdra, Russian выдра (výdra), Ancient Greek hudros, English oter/otter, German ottar/Otter, Old Norse otr, Latin lutra, Irish /odar; uydr/; odoirne/, Polish wydra, Old Church Slavonic vydra, Ossetian wyrd/, Albanian lundra
*wayl- wolf Old Armenian գայլ (gayl), Irish fáel/faol
*wewer- squirrel Latin vīverra, Welsh gwywer, Russian веверица (véverica), Lithuanian voverė, Latvian vāvere, Persian /varvarah, Old Norse íkorni, German eihhurno/Eichhorn, English ācweorna/--, Polish wiewiórka, Old Prussian weware
*wĺ̥kʷos wolf Lithuanian vilkas, Latvian vilks, English wulf/wolf, Gaulish vail, Latin lupus, German wolf/Wolf, Ancient Greek lukos, Albanian ujk;ulk, Sanskrit vṛka, Avestan vehrka-, Tocharian --/walkwe, Persian varka/gorg, Old Prussian wilkis, Gothic wulfs, Old Norse úlfr, Old Church Slavonic vlĭkŭ, Russian волк (volk), Polish wilk, Kurdish/Zazaki gurg/verg, Luwian walwa, Welsh gweilgi, Pashto lewë
*wl̥peh₁- fox Avestan urupis, Kurdish rovî, Persian /rōbāh, Old Armenian աղուէս (ałuēs), Ancient Greek alōpēks, Latin vulpis, Lithuanian lapė, Latvian lapsa

Domestic animals[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*ḱwṓ dog Ancient Greek kuōn/, Old Armenian շուն (šun), Phrygian kunes, Tocharian ku/ku, Gaulish cuna, Latin canis, English hund/hound, Russian сука (súka), German hunt/Hund, Kashmiri hūn, Lithuanian šuo (sing. accusative: šunį), Latvian suns, Old Prussian sunis, Thracian dinu-, Gothic hunds, Old Norse hundr, Welsh ci, Irish cū/cú, Hittite śuwanis, Lydian kan-, Dacian kinu-, Albanian shakë, qen,qan, Persian /sag, Sanskrit śvan, Avestan spā, Pashto spai, Ormuri spëk, Polish suka
*h₁éḱwos horse Latin equus, Tocharian yuk/yakwe, Gaulish epos, Ancient Greek hippos, Sanskrit aśva, Avestan asva-, Lithuanian ašva, Old Prussian aswinan, Kamviri ušpa, English eoh/--, German ehwaz/--, Gothic aiƕtundi, Old Norse iór, Kurdish hesp, Hittite aśuwas, Old Armenian էշ (ēš), Welsh ebol, Irish ech/each, Thracian esvas, Lycian esbe-, Luwian 𒊍𒍪𒉿𒀸 (azzuwas), Phrygian es', Persian aspa/asb, Ossetian jæfs/æfsæ, Venetic ekvon, Pashto aas
*marko- horse Gaulish markan, Irish marc/marcach, Welsh march, English mere/mare, German marah/Mähre, Old Norse marr
*h₂eǵʰ- plough animal Old Armenian եզն (ezn), Irish ag/agh, Welsh ewig, Sanskrit ahī, Avestan azī
*gʷṓws cow/bull Sanskrit gaus, Avestan gáus, Latvian govs, Russian говядо (govjádo), Tocharian ko/keŭ, Old Armenian կով (kov), English cū/cow,Albanian kau;bull, Umbrian bum, Ancient Greek bous, Irish bó/bó, Welsh buw, German kuo/Kuh, Kamviri go, Kashmiri gāv, Persian --/gāv, Oscan buv-, Old Norse kú, Ossetian gal/ Thracian bonassos, Pashto ghwa/ghoyai, Kurdish ga
*leh₃p- cow Albanian lopë, Irish lāeg, Welsh llo
*uksin- ox, bull English oxa/ox, German ohso/Ochse, Gothic auhsa, Gothic ych(?), Old Norse oxi, Sanskrit ukṣan, Avestan uxšan
*su- swine Latin sūs, English sū/sow, Latvian sivēns, Russian свин (svin), Sanskrit sūkara, Albanian thi, Ancient Greek hus, German sū/Sau, Tocharian --/suwo, Irish socc/, Welsh hwch, Polish świnia, Umbrian sif, Old Norse sýr, Gothic swein, Avestan hū
*pórḱos farrow Ancient Greek porkos, Latin porcus, Lithuanian paršas, Old Prussian parstian, Russian порося (porosjá), English fearh/farrow, Irish orc/, German farah/Ferkel, Umbrian purka, Kurdish purs, Saka pāsa, Gaulish orko, Polish prosię
*h₂eǵ- goat Sanskrit aja, Persian /azg, Lithuanian ožys, Latvian āzis, Irish ag/agh, Old Church Slavonic jazno, Russian язь (jaz’), Old Prussian wosux, Albanian dhi
*h₂eyǵ- goat Sanskrit eḍa, Avestan izaēna, Old Armenian այծ (ayc), Ancient Greek aiks,Albanian kec
*kapro- goat Sanskrit kapṛtha, Ancient Greek kapros, Latin caper, Umbrian kabru, Gaulish cabros, Irish gabor/, Welsh gafr, Old Norse hafr, English hæfer/, German habaro/Haber,Albanian kaproll, Polish cap
*bʰuHgos- goat Kurdish biz-, Avestan būza. Persian /buz, Old Armenian բուծ (buc), Irish bocc/boc, Welsh bwch, Old Norse bukkr, English buc/buck, German boc/Bock, Pashto wuza/buza
*gʰaydos goat Latin haedus, Gothic gaits, German geiz/Geiss, Old Norse geit, English gāt/goat
*h₁er- goat Old Armenian որոճ (oroč), Lithuanian ėriukas (old: ėras), Latvian jērs, Old Prussian eristian, Latin ariēs, Umbrian erietu, Irish heirp/earb, Ancient Greek eriphos, German irah/, Old Church Slavonic jarina
*h₂ówis sheep Latin ovis, Russian овца (ovcá), Lithuanian avis, Latvian avs, Sanskrit avika, English ēowu/ewe, German ouwi/Aue, Gothic awēþi, Old Norse ǽr, Ancient Greek ois, Irish ói/, Hittite ḫawi, Luwian ḫāwi-, Welsh ewig, Tocharian --/āuw, Old Armenian հովիւ (hoviw), Polish owca, Umbrian uvem, Old Prussian awins, Lycian xabwa
*wer- ram Sanskrit uraṇa, Old Armenian գառն (gaṙn), Persian /barra, Ancient Greek arnion, Latin vervēx, Irish felb/, Tocharian /yrīye, Old Norse vara, English waru/ware, German /Ware
*h₂egʷʰno- lamb Latin agnus, Russian ягнёнок (jagnënok), Old Church Slavonic jagnę, Ancient Greek amnos, Irish úan/uan, English ēanian/yean, Welsh oen, Umbrian habina, Polish jagnię
*kat- cub Latin catulus, Umbrian katel, Russian котиться (kotít’sja), Old Norse haðna, Irish cadla/

Animal products[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₂ōwyóm egg Latin ōvum, Ancient Greek ōion, Russian яйцо (jajcó), German ei/Ei, English ǣg/Cockney, Welsh ŵy, Albanian ve;vo, Old Norse egg, Crimean Gothic ada, Old Armenian ձու (ju), Kurdish hêk, Persian /xāyah, Old Church Slavonic ajĭse, Pashto hagëi, Waneci hoya, Ormuri wonkʰ, Polish jajo
*melit- honey Ancient Greek meli (gen.: melitos), Old Armenian մեղր (mełr), Albanian mjaltë, Latin mel, Gaulish Melissus, Irish mil/, Gothic miliþ, English mildēaw/mildew, German milltou/Mehltau, Welsh mêl, Hittite milit, Luwian mallit-, Palaic malit-
*medʰu mead Sanskrit madhu, Russian мёд (mëd), Lithuanian medus, Latvian medus, English meodu/mead, Ancient Greek methu, Avestan maðu, Kamviri mura, Kashmiri mäch, Polish miód, Welsh medd, Tocharian mit, German metu/Met, Old Norse mjǫðr, Old Church Slavonic medŭ, Irish mid/, Old Prussian meddo, Latin medus, Ossetian mydy, Luwian maddu-
*glag- milk Ancient Greek gala (gen. galaktos), Latin lac, Hittite galank, Kamviri zu
*ksweyd- milk Lithuanian sviestas, Latvian sviests, Sanskrit kṣvidyati, Avestan xšvīd, Pashto shode, Waneci shuë
*selp- butter Tocharian ṣälyp/ṣalype, Ancient Greek helpos, Hittite salpa-, Albanian gjalpë, Sanskrit sarpis, English sealf/salve, Ossetian carv/, Persian /čarbi, German salba/Salbe, Gothic salbon
*suro- cheese Lithuanian sūris, Russian сыр (syr), Old Norse surr, Albanian hirrë;gjize, Polish ser, Latvian siers
*smeru- grease Irish smiur/, Ancient Greek smuris, German smero/Schmer, Welsh mer, English smerian/smear, Tocharian /ṣmare, Latin medulla, Lithuanian smarsas, Old Norse smjǫr, Gothic smaírþr, Polish smar
*moysos hide Lithuanian maišas, Latvian maiss, Sanskrit meṣa, Avestan maēša, Old Norse meiss, Russian мех (mex), German meissa/, Old Prussian moasis, Albanian meshinë; mill
*wel- wool English wull/wool, German wolla/Wolle, Old Norse ull, Gothic wulla, Sanskrit ūrṇā, Avestan varənā, Ancient Greek lēnos, Latin lāna, Old Church Slavonic vlŭna, Russian волна (volná), Lithuanian vilna, Latvian vilna, Welsh gwlan, Hittite hulana, Old Prussian wilnis, Persian /gurs, Irish olan/, Pashto warrëi, Polish wełna
*ḱern- horn Russian серна (sérna), Latin cervus; cornūs, English horn/horn, Sanskrit śiras, Avestan srvā, Ancient Greek keras, Welsh corn, Kamviri ṣiṅ, German horn/Horn, Gothic haurn, Old Norse horn, Hittite karawar, Ossetian sykha/, Old Armenian սար (sar), Lithuanian širšė, Latvian sirsis, Old Prussian sirwis, Albanian sorkadh; ka, Russian корова (koróva), Gaulish karnuks, Irish corn/corn, Persian /šāx, Polish krowa, Pashto škar/khkar
*keh₂r- wax Ancient Greek kēros, Lithuanian korys, Latvian kāre, Latin cēra
*rewgʰmen- cream Lithuanian rūgti, Latvian raugs, Avestan raoġna, Persian /roġān, Old Norse rjúmi, English rēam/ream, German roum/Rahm

Vegetable food[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*ǵr̥Hnom corn Latin grānum, Irish grán/grán, Russian зерно (zernó), Lithuanian žirnis, Latvian zirnis, German kerno/Korn, Welsh grawn, English corn/corn, Old Prussian syrne, Old Norse korn, Old Church Slavonic zrĭno. Gothic kaúrn, Polish ziarno
*pel- flour Old Prussian pelwo, Latin palea, Sanskrit palāla, Lithuanian pelai, Latvian pelus, Russian полова (polóva)
*bʰares spelt Phrygian brisa, Latin farina, English bærlic/barley, Old Church Slavonic brašĭno, Oscan far, Umbrian far, Welsh bara, Gothic barizīns, Old Norse barr
*puHr- wheat Sanskrit pūra, Ancient Greek puros/, Lithuanian pūras, Latvian pūri, Old Prussian pure, Old Church Slavonic pyre, English fyrs/furze, Russian пырей (pyréj)
*urugʰya- rye Lithuanian rugys, Latvian rudzi, Russian рожь (rož’), Old Norse rugr, English ryge/rye, German roggo/Roggen, Old Prussian rugis
*h₂elbʰit- barley Albanian elb, Ancient Greek alphi/, Pashto orbëshe, Wakhi arbəsi
*gʰersdʰ- barley Latin hordeum, German gersta/Gerste, English gerst/--, Albanian drithë, Ancient Greek kri
*yewo- barley Sanskrit yava, Lithuanian javai, Latvian jauja, Avestan yava, Russian овин (ovín), Ancient Greek zeiai/, Persian /jav, Hittite ewa, Irish eorna/, Ossetian jæw
*h₂ewiǵ- oats Lithuanian aviža, Latvian auza, Russian овёс (ovës), Latin avēna, Ancient Greek aigilōps/, Old Prussian wyse, Old Church Slavonic ovĭsŭ, Polish owies
*bʰabʰeh₂- bean Latin faba, Old Prussian babo, Russian боб (bob), Albanian bathë, German bona/Bohne, English bēan/bean, Welsh ffâen, Old Norse baun, Polish bób
*h₁eregwo- pea Ancient Greek orobos, Irish orbaind/, Latin ervum, German arawīz/Erbse, Old Norse ertr
*ḱiker pea Latin cicer, Old Armenian սիսեռն (siseṙn), Ancient Greek krios, Lithuanian kekė
*h₂elud- beer Lithuanian alus, Latvian alus, English ealu/ale, Old Church Slavonic olŭ, Latin alūmen, Ancient Greek aludoimo/, Old Norse ǫl, Old Prussian alu
*h₂edes- cereal Hittite hattar, Latin ador, German azzic/, Gothic atisk, Tocharian āti/atiyo, Avestan āðūfrāðana, Old Armenian հատ (hat)

Other products[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₂eyos metal Sanskrit ayas, Latin aes, Umbrian ahesnes, German ēr/Erz, English ār/ore, Avestan ayaṅh, Gothic aiz, Old Norse eir, Gaulish Isarnos, Irish iarn/iarann, Welsh haearn, Persian /āhan
*lino-, *līno- flax Ancient Greek linon, Lithuanian linas, Latvian lini, Old Prussian linno, Latin līnum, Irish lín/líon, Albanian liri/lîni, Gothic lein, Polish len, Russian лён (lën), Welsh llin, English lin/linen, German lin/Leinen, Old Norse lín, Old Church Slavonic lĭnŭ
*sal- salt Latin sāl, Umbrian salu, Tocharian sāle/sālyiye, Lithuanian saldus ("sweet"), Latvian sāļš, English sealt/salt, Ancient Greek hals, Old Armenian աղ (), Irish salann/, Russian соль (sol’), German salz/Salz, Polish sól, Welsh halen, Albanian gjelbson, Old Norse salt, Gothic salt, Old Church Slavonic soli, Old Prussian sal, Sanskrit salila, Illyr. Salapia

Tools[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₂egʷesi axe English æx/axe, German ackis/Axt,Albanian sakice, Ancient Greek aksinē, Latin ascia, Old Norse øx, Gothic aqizi
*h₂eyḱ- spear/pike Ancient Greek aiklos/, Old Prussian aysmis, Old Church Slavonic igla, Latin īcō, Avestan išarə, Lithuanian iešmas, Latvian iesms, Old Norse eigin, Russian игла (iglá), Polish igła
*h₂erkʷ- bow Latin arcus,Albanian hark, Gothic arƕazna, English arwe/arrow, Ancient Greek arkeuthos, Russian ракита (rakíta), Latvian ērkšķis, Old Norse ǫrvar, Umbrian arçlataf
*bak- staff Ancient Greek baktēria, Irish bacc/bac, Latin baculum, Welsh bach, Lithuanian bakstelėti, Latvian bakstit
*gweri- millstone German quirn/, Old Armenian երկան (erkan), Sanskrit grāvan, Welsh breuan, English cweorn/quern, Old Norse kvern, Irish braó/, Lithuanian girna, Latvian dzirnus, Old Prussian girnoywis, Russian жёрнов (žërnov), Polish żarna
*keg- hook Lithuanian kengė, Persian /čang, Irish ailcheng/, Russian коготь (kógot’), English hoc/hook,Albaian çok, Old Norse haki; hǫnk, German hâco/Haken
*kʷel- wheel/chariot Ancient Greek kuklos, Tocharian kukäl/kokale, Latin colus, Sanskrit cakra, Russian колесо (kolesó), English hwēol/wheel, Persian čarka/čarx, Irish cul/--, Old Prussian kelan, Ossetian calx/, Polish koło, Avestan čaxra, Albanian sjell, Old Norse hjōl, Luwian kaluti-
*mak- pouch Lithuanian maišas, Latvian maks, Irish mén/, Welsh megin, German mago/Magen, English maga/maw, Old Norse magi, Old Church Slavonic mosina, Russian мошна (mošná), Old Prussian dantimax
*mat- mattock Sanskrit matya, Russian мотыга (motýga), Latin mateola, German modela, Gaulish matog, Welsh matog, Polish motyka
*naw- ship Sanskrit nāu, Irish nau/, Ancient Greek naus, Latin nāvis, Avestan navāza, Persian nāviyā/nav, Old Armenian նաւ (naw), Old Norse nōr, Ossetian nau, Albanian anije, Welsh noe, English nōwend/--
*rot- wheel Albanian rrath, Lithuanian ratas, Latvian rats, Gaulish Rotomagus, German rad/Rad, English rodur/, Irish /rath, Latin rota, Sanskrit ratha, Welsh rhod, Avestan raθa, Old Norse rǫðull
*skap- tool Russian щепа (ščepá), Lithuanian kapoti, Latvian kaplis, Dutch gereedschap, German skaft/, Ancient Greek skeparnion, Latin capus, Persian /kāfad, Albanian kep, Old Prussian warnaycopo, Old Norse skapt, Old Church Slavonic kopajǫ
*yugóm yoke Sanskrit yuj;yunakti, Avestan jug, Latin iūgum, Lithuanian jungas, Latvian jugt, English geoc/yoke, German joh/Joch, Old Norse ok, Gothic juk, Russian иго (ígo), Polish igo, Ancient Greek zugos, Gaulish Veriugodumnus, Kamviri iu, Tocharian yuk/yuk, Welsh iau, Old Armenian լուծ (luc), Persian /yoġ, Hittite iukan, Old Church Slavonic igo

Dwelling[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*h₂enk- angle German ango/, Ossetian ængur, Sanskrit aṅkas, Latin ancus, Lithuanian anka, Latvian āķis, Ancient Greek agkōn, Russian угол (úgol), Old Norse angi, Avestan aṅkupəsəmna, Welsh anghad, Irish ēcath/, Hittite hink
*bʰerǵʰ- fort Russian берег (béreg), English burg/borough, Old Norse borg, Old Armenian բարձր (barjr), Sanskrit barhayati, Avestan bərəzant, Gaulish Bergusia, German berg/Burg, Hittite parku, Tocharian pärk/pärk, Welsh bre, Thracian bergas, Gothic baírgahī, Old Norse bjarg, Persian /burz, Irish brí/, Albanian burg, Illyr. Berginium, Ancient Macedonian Berga, Latin fortis, Welsh bera, Lycian prije;pruwa
*bʰruH- beam, bridge Gaulish brīva, English brycg/bridge, German brugga/Brücke, Old Norse brú, Russian бревно (brevnó), Old Church Slavonic brĭvŭno
*dṓm house Sanskrit dama, Avestan dąm, Ancient Greek domos, Latin domus, Russian дом (dom), English timber/timber, German zimbar/Zimmer, Old Norse timbr, Kamviri Umbrian dâmoa, Old Armenian տուն (tun), Lithuanian namas, Latvian nams, Welsh tŷ, Tocharian tam/täm, Polish dom
*dʰwer- door Old Armenian դուռն (duṙn), Russian дверь (dver’), Sanskrit dvār, Avestan dvarəm, Albanian derë, Old Norse dyrr, English duru/door, Gaulish doro, Ancient Greek thura, Lithuanian durys, Latvian durvis, Old Prussian dwaris, Latin fores, Umbrian furo, German tor/Tür, Irish dorus/doras, Tocharian --/twere, Kamviri du, Umbrian furo, Welsh dôr, Gothic daur, Polish drzwi, Persian duvaraya/dar, Thracian dur, Pashto war, Khosti darra
*gʰrendʰ- beam Lithuanian grindys, Latvian grida, Old Norse grind, Latin grunda, Polish grzęda, Russian гряда (grjadá), Kamviri ugṛa, English grindel/, Dutch /grendel, German grindil/
*kant- corner Ancient Greek kanthos, Latin cantus, Gaulish kantem, Gothic cant, Russian кут (kut), Polish kąt, Lithuanian kampas, Pashto gutt, Waziri ghužai
*pent- road Latin pontis, Ancient Greek pontos, Sanskrit panthā, Avestan pantå, Russian путь (put’), Gothic finþan, English findan/find, German findan/finden, Old Norse finna, Old Armenian հուն (hun), Kamviri put, Old Prussian pintis, Irish /és, Old Church Slavonic pǫtĭ, Persian paθim/
*treb- dwelling Latin trabēs, Oscan trííbúm, Umbrian tremnu, Lithuanian troba, Latvian traba, English þorp/thorp, German thorf/Dorf, Ancient Greek teremnon, Welsh treb; tref, Old Norse ðorp; þorp, Gothic þaúrp, Irish díthrub/

Social terms[edit]

Root Meaning Derivatives
*tewtéh₂ tribe Gaulish teuto, Oscan touto, Umbrian totam, Old Prussian tauto, Irish túath/túath, Illyr. teuta, Hittite tuzzi, Lycian tuta, Lithuanian tauta, Latvian tauta, English þeod/thede, German diutisc/Deutsch, Gothic þiuda, Old Norse þjóð
*h₁lewdʰ- people Lithuanian liaudis, Latvian ļaudis, Russian люд (ljud), Ancient Greek eleutheros, Irish luss/, Latin Līber, Sanskrit rodhati, Avestan raoða, German liut/Leute, Polish lud, Old Norse ljóðr, Albanian lind, Oscan Lúvfreís, Welsh llysiau, Gothic liudan, Old Church Slavonic ljudĭje, English lēod/, Old Prussian ludis
*weyḱ- village German weihs/, English -wich, -wick, Lithuanian viešas, Latvian viesis, Russian весь (ves’), Avestan vīs, Albanian vis, Sanskrit viś, Latin vīcus, Ancient Greek oikos, Polish wieś, Old Prussian waispattin, Tocharian /īke, Old Church Slavonic vĭsĭ, Waneci wagëdda
*h₃reǵ- ruler Latin rēx, Oscan regaturei, Gaulish Caturīx, Irish ríg/rígh, Welsh rhi, Sanskrit rājan, Avestan raz, Persian /rahst, Ancient Greek oregein, English riht/right, German reht/recht, Old Norse réttr, Gothic raihts, Thracian rhesus, Tocharian räk/räk
*h₂nḗr power Welsh nerth, Albanian njer, Latin neriōsus, Sanskrit nar, Luwian anarummi, Lydian nãrś, Lithuanian noras, Russian нрав (nrav), Gaulish Nertobriga, Old Armenian այր (ayr), Ancient Greek anēr, Oscan ner, Umbrian nerf, Irish nert/, Phrygian anar, Persian niru
*yewes law Sanskrit yos, Latin iūs, Avestan yaoždaðāiti, Irish huisse/
*peḱu- wealth/cattle Latin pecū, Ancient Greek pekō, Lithuanian pekus, Old Prussian pecku, Sanskrit paśu, Avestan pasu, Gothic faihu, English feoh/fee, Albanian pilë, German fihu/vieh, Old Norse fé, Old Armenian ասր (asr)
*misdʰo- fee Sanskrit mīḍha, Avestan mīžda, Gothic mizdō, Russian мзда (mzda), Ancient Greek misthos, German mieta/Miete, Persian /muzd, English mēd/meed, Old Church Slavonic mĭzda
*wesno- price Sanskrit vasna, Latin vēnus, Ancient Greek hōnos, Old Armenian գին (gin), Hittite uššaniya, Persian væzn (weight)
*ḱat- battle Gaulish catu, English heaþu/, German hathu/, Old Church Slavonic kotora, Sanskrit śātayati, Old Norse hoð, Irish cath/cath, Welsh cad, Tocharian /keta
*koro- war Lithuanian karas, Latvian kaŗš, Ancient Greek koiranos, Irish cuire/, German heri/Heer, English herebeorg/harbour, Russian кара (kára), Old Norse herr, Gothic harjis, Gaulish Tricorii, Persian kāra/kārzār, Old Prussian kargis, Polish kara
*weyk- victory Lithuanian veikti, Latvian veikt, Russian век (vek), Latin vincō, Old Norse veig, German wīgan/--, Irish fichim/, Gaulish Ordovices, Welsh gwych, English wīgan/--, Gothic weihan, Old Church Slavonic vĕkŭ, Old Armenian վէգ (vēg), Latin vincere, Oscan vincter, Polish wiek
*deywós god, i.e. 'shining' Sanskrit deva, Avestan daēva, Lithuanian dievas, Latvian dievs, Old Prussian deiws, Latin deus, Oscan diúveí, Umbrian di, Gaulish Dēvona, Welsh duw, Old Irish día, Irish dia, Ancient Greek Zeus, Phrygian tios, Old Church Slavonic divo, Russian диво (dívo), Polish dziw, Kamviri di, English Tiw/Tuesday, German Ziu/--, Old Norse Týr, Gothic Tyz, Lycian ziw, Luwian tiwat-, Lydian Divi-, Palaic tiyaz, Old Armenian տիւ (tiw)
*bel- power, strength Sanskrit bāla, Ancient Greek beltiōn, Latin dēbĭlis, Irish adbal/dibeal, Welsh balch, Russian большой (bol’šój), Kamviri bâlim, Phrygian balaios, Old Church Slavonic boljĭjĭ, Low Saxon pal