Appendix:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/b-ka-(n/m/ŋ)

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This entry contains Proto-Sino-Tibetan reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *b-kɑ-n (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *b-ka-(n/m/ŋ) (Matisoff, STEDT); *b-ka-n (Matisoff, 2003; Mortensen, 2012); *ka (Benedict, 1972; Weidert, 1987; LaPolla, 1987); *ka (*B) (Coblin, 1986); *kɑ (Chou, 1972)

Derivative: *kak (difficult, hard).

Compare Proto-Tai *Ĉ.qɤmᴬ (bitter) (Thai ขม, Lao ຂົມ (khom)); also compare: Thai ขื่น, Lao ຂື່ນ (khư̄n, bitter, astringent, ascerbic).

Definitions[edit]

  1. bitter
  2. bile
  3. liver

Descendants[edit]

  • Old Chinese: /*kʰˁaʔ/ (B-S), /*kʰaːʔ/ (ZS) ("bitter; a bitter plant"); /*kʰˁa-s/ (B-S, unlisted), /*kʰaːs/ (ZS) ("difficult, hardship"); /*s.kˁar/ (B-S); /*kaːn/ (ZS) ("liver")
    • Middle Chinese: /kʰuoX, kʰuoH/, /kɑn/

         Japanese:   (, ku)
            Korean:   (go) (, go)
            Vietnamese:  khổ

         Vietnamese:  khó (hard, difficult; delicate)

         Japanese:   (かん, kan)
            Korean:   (gan) (, gan)
            Vietnamese:  can

         Vietnamese:  gan (liver)

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: (, /kʰu²¹⁴/), (gān, /kan⁵⁵/)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: ခါး (hka:, bitter)
      • Loloish
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (ke, bitter)
        • Central Loloish
          • Lisu (Northern): ꓘꓪꓽ (kʰwà, bitter, too salty)
  • Karenic
    /*khaᴮ/ (Luangthongkum, 2013)

See also[edit]

  • *m-sin (liver, heart, bile, bitter)
  • *m-ka (mouth, opening, door)
  • *ka (word, speech, language)
  • *tsa (salt)