Appendix:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/hljak

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *hliek (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *l-tsyak (Matisoff, STEDT)

An areal word in East Asia and Southeast Asia. It's difficult to determine in every case whether the commonality was due to borrowing or inheritedness, or to determine the source. Compare Proto-Tai *ʰlekᴰ (Thai เหล็ก), Proto-Hmong *hluwᶜ, Proto-Mien *hrɛkᴰ, Proto-Indo-European *gʰelgʰ- (Latvian dzelzs, Russian железо (železo)) and perhaps Proto-Vietic *k-rac (Modern Vietnamese sắt). See Ferrous metallurgy on Wikipedia.

Definitions[edit]

  1. iron, iron instrument

Descendants[edit]

  • Old Chinese: /*l̥iːg/ (Zhengzhang Shangfang), /*l̥ˁik/ (Baxter-Sagart)
    • Middle Chinese: /tʰet/

         Japanese:   (てつ, tetsu)
            Korean:   (cheol) (, cheol)
            Vietnamese:  thiết

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: ("iron") (tiě, /tʰi̯ɛ²¹⁴/)
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: /tʰiːt̚³/
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: /tʰiɪ̆ʔ⁵⁵/
    • Min
      • Min Nan
        • Taiwan: /tʰiʔ³/
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: ဇက် (jak, bit (for horse))
  • Karenic: (perhaps a loanword)
    /*thaɁᴰ/ (Luangthongkum, 2013)
    • Sgaw: ထး (thá, iron)

See also[edit]