Appendix:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/k-m-raŋ ~ s-raŋ

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Not to be confused with *mraŋ (to see, to look).
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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: ?
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *k-m-raŋ ⪤ s-raŋ (Matisoff, STEDT); *m-raŋ ⪤ s-raŋ (Weidert, 1987; Benedict, 1972).

Similar roots also exist in other families in the region, cf.

  • Languages of Southeast Asia
    • Proto-Tai: *maːᶜ (horse), possibly a loan from Chinese, whence Thai ม้า (máa), Lao ມ້າ ()
    • Proto-Hmong: *mjænᴮ (horse), possibly a loan from some Tibeto-Burman language
    • Proto-Mon-Khmer: *mraŋ (horse), Shorto #707, whence possibly Proto-Vietic *m-ŋəːʔ ("horse") > Vietnamese ngựa ("horse")
  • Languages of Northeast Asia
    • Mongolian: морь (morʹ, horse)
    • Manchu: morin ("horse")
    • Korean: (mal, horse)
    • Japanese: (うま, uma, horse)
    • Ainu: ウンマ (umma, horse).

Compare also Nahali māv ("horse"), Proto-Indo-European *mark(')- (horse) (whence English mare, marshal; Irish marc).

Written Tibetan རྟ (rta, horse) is from a different proto-Tibeto-Burman source *rta (horse) and is hence unrelated.

Mongolian horse, the horse breed perhaps close(st) to the Chinese ancient horses (Cai et al., 2009.
Ceramic statues of a prancing horse (foreground) and a cavalryman on horseback (background), Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 AD) of China.

Noun[edit]

*k-m-raŋ ~ s-raŋ

  1. horse

Descendants[edit]

  • Old Chinese: /*mˁraʔ/ (B-S), /*mraːʔ/ (ZS) ("horse")
    (in the oracle bone script) 馬-oracle.svg
    • Middle Chinese: /mɣaX/
      • Modern Mandarin:
        • Beijing: /ma²¹³/
      • Wu:
        • Shanghai: /mo²³/ (colloquial), /mᴀ²³/ (literary)
      • Cantonese:
        • Guangzhou: /mɑː¹³/
    • Min:
      • Amoy: /be⁵¹/ (colloquial), /ma⁵¹/ (literary)
  • Kamarupan
    • North Assam
      • Deng
        • Darang [Taraon]: /mɑ³¹ ɹoŋ⁵⁵ /
    • Kuki-Chin: *raŋ ("horse")
      • Central Chin
        • Lai (Hakha): /ràŋ /
      • Maraic
        • Lakher [Mara]: /ā rā/
    • "Naga"
      • Northern Naga
        • Wancho: /man/
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: རྨང (rmang, (archaic, rare) horse)
      • Western Himalayish
        • Zhang-Zhung: /hraŋ/
        • Kanauri: /raɴ/
        • Pattani [Manchati]: /hraŋ/
    • Mahakiranti
      • Kham-Magar-Chepang-Sunwar
        • Chepang: /sĕraŋ /
  • Tangut-Qiang
    • Qiangic
      • Pumi (Lanping): /zgyɛ̃¹³/
      • Qiang (Longxi): /ʁò/
      • Qiang (Mawo): /ɹu/
      • Qiang (Mianchi): /ʐòu/
      • Queyu (Xinlong): /bre¹³/
      • Shixing: /rõ³⁵/
      • Zhaba (Daofu County): /mbʐo¹³/
    • rGyalrongic
      • Ergong (Danba): /ʐɣi/
      • rGyalrong (Maerkang): /mbro/
  • Jingpho-Nung-Asakian
    • Jingpho
      • Jingpho: /kum³¹ ʒa³¹/
    • Nungic
      • Nung: /mɛn³¹/
      • Dulong: /mɯ³¹ gɯ⁵³/
    • Asakian
      • Sak: /məráŋ/
  • Tujia
    • Tujia: /ma⁵³/
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese:
      /*mraŋ²/ ("horse") (Matisoff, 2003)
      • Burmish
        • Achang (Longchuan): /m̥ʐaŋ³¹/
        • Written Burmese: မြင်း (mrang:, horse), မြည်း (mrany:, donkey, ass)
          • Modern Burmese (Rangoon): /mjíɴ/ ("horse")
      • Loloish:
        /*mraŋ²/ ("horse") (Bradley, 1979)
        • Northern Loloish
          • Nusu (Central): /mɹə⁵⁵/
          • Yi (Liangshan): (mu, horse) /mu³³/
        • Central Loloish
          • Yi (Sani): /m̩⁵⁵/
        • Southern Loloish
          • Hani (Lüchun): /mo³¹/
    • Naxi
      • Na (Yongning): /ʐwæ⁵/
  • Baic
    • Bai: maix (horse)