Appendix:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/s-ŋja

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This entry contains Proto-Sino-Tibetan reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ngyaɣ (Coblin, 1986); *ŋyɑ (Chou, 1972)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman: *s-ŋya (Matisoff, STEDT); *ngya (*B) (Coblin, 1986); *ŋya (LaPolla, 1987; Benedict, 1972); *ŋyɑ (Chou, 1972)

The Min Nan colloquial readings possibly suggest a *s.ŋ- initial for Old Chinese, which developed via *s.ŋ- > *h.ŋ- > *hŋ- > *ŋ̊- > *h-. The literary reading developed regularly from Middle Chinese, with denasalisation of ŋ- to give the homorganic voiced plosive.

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

Noun[edit]

  1. fish

Descendants[edit]

  • Old Chinese: ("fish"), / ("to fish") (both: /*ŋa/ (ZS))
    ( in the oracle bone script) 魚-oracle.svg
    • Middle Chinese: , / (both: /ŋɨʌ/)

         Japanese:   (ぎょ, gyo)
            Korean:   (eo) (, eo)
            Vietnamese:  ngư

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: , (, /y³⁵/)
      • Cantonese
        • Guangzhou: , /jyː²¹/
      • Wu
        • Shanghai: , /ɦŋ̍²³/
    • Min
      • Min Nan
        • Taiwan: , (both: /hi²⁴/, /hu²⁴/ (colloquial), /gu²⁴/ (literary for ))
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: (nya, fish)
      • Lepcha: ᰅᰫ (ngú, fish)
      • Tamangic
    • Newar
      • Newar (Dolakhali): (ŋa, fish)
      • Newar (Kathmandu): (nya, fish)
    • Mahakiranti
      • Kiranti
        • Eastern Kiranti = Rai
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: ငါး (nga:, fish)
      • Loloish
        • Northern Loloish
          • Yi (Liangshan): (hxe, fish)

See also[edit]