Appendix:Proto-Sino-Tibetan/s-riŋ ~ s-r(j)aŋ

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This Proto-Sino-Tibetan entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Sino-Tibetan[edit]

Etymology[edit]

  • Proto-Sino-Tibetan:
    *sring ("live, bear") (Coblin, 1986)
    • Proto-Tibeto-Burman:
      *s-riŋ ~ *s-raŋ ("live, alive, green, raw") (Benedict, 1972) - later modified to *śriŋ, explaining the ‑a‑ in Written Burmese hraŋ as being "conditioned by the initial cluster".
      *s-riŋ ~ *s-rɑŋ ("live, bear, be born, fresh (e.g. greens)"), *śriŋ ("live, alive, green, raw") (Chou, 1972)
      *s-ring(*A) ("live, bear") (Coblin, 1986)
      *s-riŋ, *s-raŋ ("live") (Weidert, 1987)
      *śriN ("live") (Michailovsky, 1991)
      *s-riŋ ⪤ *s-r(y)aŋ ("live, alive, green, raw, give birth") (Matisoff, STEDT)

A well-attested root, (in particular) with its parallel allofams reflected in Chinese in different forms, including the original vocalism variation *‑a‑ ⪤ *‑i‑ and/or forms lacking medial *r. Schuessler (2007) argued that this was originally a ST terminative final * derivation from PST *sri (to be, exist), hence literally "come into existence → give birth → live". The original etymon perhaps survives in Chinese as (Old Chinese /*r̥ˁijʔ/, "body, limbs").

The allofam *siŋ appears identical in form to PST *siŋ ~ sik (tree); the two are perhaps related (Schuessler, 2007). The Chinese reflex of the latter () is homophonic with ("new").

Definitions[edit]

  1. to live
  2. alive
  3. green
  4. raw
  5. to give birth

Descendants[edit]

  • Old Chinese:
    /*sreŋ, sreŋ-s/ ("to live; to be born; to bear"), /*ɴ-sreŋ/ ("fresh, raw") (B-S); /*sl̥eːŋ, sreŋs/ (ZS)
    (in the oracle bone script) 生-oracle.svg
    /*sreŋ/ (B-S; unlisted, theoretical); /*sreŋ/ (ZS) ("a (live) sacrificial animal")
    /*ɴ-sˁ‹r›eŋ/ (B-S); /*sl̥eːŋ/ (ZS) ("blue-green")

       Vietnamese:  xanh (blue, green)

    /*t͡sʰˁaŋ/ (B-S); /*sʰaːŋ/ (ZS) ("deep blue-green") (< *k-saŋ? (Schuessler, 2007))
    /*seŋ-s/ (B-S); /*sleŋs/ (ZS) ("nature (of man)")
    /*seŋ-s/ (B-S); /*sleŋs/ (ZS) ("surname")
    /*ʔsleŋ/ (ZS) ("luxuriant")
    and perhaps /*dzeŋ/ (B-S); /*zleŋ/ (ZS) ("emotion, nature")
    • Middle Chinese: /ʃɣæŋ, ʃɣæŋH/, /ʃɣæŋ/, /t͡sʰeŋ/, /t͡sʰɑŋ/, , /siᴇŋH/, /t͡siᴇŋ/, /d͡ziᴇŋ/

         Japanese:   (せい, sei)
            Korean:   (saeng) (, saeng)
            Vietnamese:  sinh, sanh

      • Modern Mandarin
        • Beijing: , (shēng, /ʂɤŋ⁵⁵/), (qīng, /t͡ɕʰiŋ⁵⁵/), (cāng, /t͡sʰɑŋ⁵⁵/), , (xìng, /ɕiŋ⁵¹/), (jīng, /t͡ɕiŋ⁵⁵/), (qíng, /t͡ɕʰiŋ³⁵/)
  • Himalayish
    • Tibeto-Kanauri
      • Bodic
        • Tibetan
          • Written Tibetan: གསིང་མ (gsing ma, pastureland, meadow with green grass)
  • Lolo-Burmese-Naxi
    • Lolo-Burmese
      • Burmish
        • Written Burmese: ရှင် (hrang, to live; alive)

See also[edit]