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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From Proto-Indo-European *déh₃rom (gift), from the root *deh₃- (to give), turning masculine by Illič-Svityč's rule.

Direct cognate is Ancient Greek δῶρον (dôron, gift) and Old Armenian տուր (tur). Indirect cognates (with the suffix -no) are Latin dōnum (gift) and Sanskrit दान (dāná, gift).


Vasmer and Derksen assume an original v-stem, but ESSJa claims that the forms with -ov- are secondary. Sławski claims that the evidence in inconclusive, and the history of the word as well as the derivatives indicate a coexistence of a v-stem.


*dȃrъ m (accent paradigm c)

  1. gift (that which you give to someone)
    *darъmь/*daromь ― for free
    *dati darъmь/*daromь ― to give for free
    *vъ darъ dati ― to give as a gift
    *božьjь darъ ― something sent by God
  2. (figuratively) talent, gift (ability)
  3. (in the plural) ceremonial gifts offered to the bride and groom during a wedding or exchanged during the wedding between the closest relatives and newlyweds


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  • дар in Max Vasmer (1986), Etimologičeskij slovarʹ russkogo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language], in 4 vols (second edition), Moscow: Progress — Translated from German and supplemented by O. N. Trubačóv
  • Rick Derksen (2008), Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon, Brill: Leiden-Boston, page 96
  • “*darъ” in Oleg Trubačóv (ed.) (1974–), Etimologičeskij slovarʹ slavjanskix jazykov [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages], Moscow: Nauka, volume 04, page 191f
  • Franciszek Sławski (ed.). (1974–2001), Słownik prasłowiański, Wrocław: Polskiej Akademii Nauk, volume II, page 346f