Appendix:Proto-Slavic/jь

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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Slavic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *h₁yós.

Pronoun[edit]

*jь

  1. he

Declension[edit]

Already in Old Church Slavonic, the nominative forms of this pronoun had mostly fallen out of use, and were supplanted by reflexes of *onъ (that over there) and *tъ (this, that). It's not certain whether this had already happened within Proto-Slavic but it is likely.

Following a preposition, a prothetic n- is attached to the pronoun in many Slavic languages, including Old Church Slavonic. This probably arose through resegmentation of prepositions that originally ended in -n; through the law of open syllables, it became preferable to consider the final consonant as part of the next syllable, so it was shifted onto the pronoun.

Descendants[edit]

In all of the descendants, the forms of this pronoun have become part of a suppletive paradigm, and are combined with a nominative form from an unrelated root. The following lists the nominative form of the paradigms that have incorporated forms of *jь as their non-nominative case forms.

  • East Slavic:
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic: и (i) (some nominative forms preserved)
    • Bulgarian: той (toj)
    • Macedonian: тој (toj)
    • Serbo-Croatian:
      Cyrillic: о̑н
      Latin: ȏn
    • Slovene: on
  • West Slavic:
    • Czech: on
    • Kashubian: òn
    • Polish: on
    • Slovak: on