Appendix:Swadesh lists for Hokan languages

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This is a table of Swadesh lists for Hokan languages, including:

  • Ipai (Northern Diegueño) — Southern California, United States (Mesa Grande dialect)
  • Kiliwa (Spanish orthography used) — Baja California Norte, Mexico
  • Cocopa — Arizona, United States; Sonora, Mexico (Note: dotted consonants, such as ṣ, are written as ss, while ł is is written as ll.)
  • Chumash, Inezeño (Samala) — Southern California, United States

Note: Additional vocabulary words have been added after word no. 207 ("name"), since the original lengths of Swadesh lists are either 100 or 207 words.

List[edit]

English Ipai Kiliwa Cocopa Mohave Havasupai Pomo Achumawi Yana Salinan Chumash
1 I 'enyaach, 'e- ñaap nyaap k-
2 you
(singular)
maa, me- may mapú p-
3 he puuch, ke- ñipáa (he/she) p- s-
4 we 'enyaawapch páñaap
5 you
(plural)
menyaawap ñipáa chaaú
6 they pupch ñipáat
7 this peyaa mí, eñoom pii
8 that puu ñiaat puu
9 here peyii míl puy
10 there puy ñák ssay
11 who maap maa luuny, luup kune'
12 what 'uuch kwit luuny, luup suk'u
13 where maay abel taka'
14 when kumyum, ma'yum mat piim knyayúm
15 how meyuu, mu'yuu pojooy, p’iim
16 not umaaw mat lax 'insil
17 all nyaamat kospíl maam yila'
18 many 'ehmiiy, hemiiy ulooy máto, siwá llyay, nyaam
19 some marway set
20 few 'ehiink teelt yaaw
21 other kwa'hin kpar (other side)
22 one 'ehink, 'uun msíg shitt 'aséntik isíte tato ha'mís bai(gu)- t'oy paka's
23 two hewuk juwak xwak havík xuwáge ko ha'k ux(si)- kákesh 'ishko'm
24 three hemuk jmik xmuk hamók humúge sibo 'cásdi bul(mic'igu)- lápay masɨx
25 four chepup mnak spap cimpáp hop'á duoko had:á:má daumi(gu)- késha' skumu
26 five sawrrup, saarap salchipam ssrap tharáp thêtrápe natsui lád:íw zhimad(gu)- 'óltat' yitipaka's
27 big 'iikuu tay ptay
28 long 'equll kíss kwlly
29 wide 'all teeyp 'aally
30 thick menuttk kuteey (fat) kwiish
31 heavy wenah, wenih mechaa maay nyix xulxul
32 small 'estik mudit lycash
33 short meputtk nmooj xly'utt
34 narrow helyumk shily 'i
35 thin kwalkwaal, wekwiirp jo'on rssaaw, ss'iitt
36 woman siny kekóo s'ak 'eneq
37 man
(adult male)
'iikwich kumeey 'apá 'ɨhɨ'y
38 man
(human being)
'iipay ipaa capáy ku
39 child
(a youth)
'elymaam sáaup kwaramáss (plural) ch'ich'i', ichtɨ'n
40 wife paasiny, unyeway (spouse) wàswáy ta'lik
41 husband paachuuy kwr'ak is-hɨ'y
42 mother kuhkwany, paataly eñoo (ny)caa tɨk'
43 father paataat esñoo (ny)'aa koko'
44 animal nyechehaatt ("their") tukuipaay (ny)xatt (domestic)
45 fish chee teet si'ílly 'a'lilimuw
46 bird 'aashaa tuwálo sha wic'
47 dog 'ehatt that xatt huchu
48 louse emilly jlpok xllis, 'i'ílly
49 snake 'ewii uwi’ yacáác xshap
50 worm ill ma'íílly
51 tree 'ily tajak (tay) 'ayáá po'n
52 forest jaal jak, semel jak
53 stick
(of wood)
'ily lpá (ny)ssu'ár
54 fruit paay xpally (of ironwood)
55 seed 'esemay, eyach (corn) yíit yas
56 leaf smak wal qap
57 root pehemaa (also tendons) ousmáa maat kwshamá
58 bark
(of tree)
haaseyall yiaal ssxuyál
59 flower taps piyáuup supány spe'y
60 grass 'esemay semeel ssmal xweq
61 rope chekoot, hellytay j’ñieel yu'ár skɨnɨt'
62 skin
(of a person)
ekwally, kweerr kojaan (ny)kw'áll pax
63 meat
(as in flesh)
kukwaayp jak 'imáác
64 blood 'ehwatt kujat (ny)xwatt
65 bone aq ják (ny)yaak se
66 fat
(noun)
weshay shay
67 egg 'ur jmá yítl xma ssu'áp tumun
68 horn ekwaa kwa (ny)kwa
69 tail heyull pelsa' shyully teleq'
70 feather
(rather not down)
lemis tajpa aayu ssuumí, shawál qap
71 hair hellytaa (head), lemis (body) iy unmí lmiss
72 head hellytaa iy mkur
73 ear hemall smákal shmaal tu'
74 eye eyiiw yuu 'iyú tɨx
75 nose ehuu phí 'ixú noxsh
76 mouth aa ha' 'iyá 'ɨk
77 tooth
(rather not molar)
eyaaw yaw (kuchipi’) 'iyàwíí sa
78 tongue enepall há paal mpally 'elew
79 fingernail salyehwuuw (sal) jaau 'isháálly llkaxwáw
80 foot emily miy 'imíí
81 leg emily miy ijá 'imíí 'ɨ'l
82 knee mehetun miy pók 'imíí ttaakáány 'apa'm
83 hand esally sal 'isháálly pu
84 wing wirewir wálu 'irwír, 'isháálly
85 belly etuu pa' 'icú (stomach)
86 guts pehaa pmaay guajú (ny)pxa
87 neck eyepuk, iipuk chimi’ jak mpuk (nape of neck)
88 back hetat yikók sí, jkueey
(upper back)
llamák, 'imák nokok' (spine)
89 breast nyemaay smiil 'imáy
90 heart iichih, eyay koti’p 'iyááy 'ayapis
91 liver chepesii leepé (ny)cpussú 'a'l
92 to drink wesii chee ssi aqmil
93 to eat wemaa, wesaaw tmaa ma 'uw, ashɨn
94 to bite chuukuw, weshaa chía ssaa
95 to suck chepesii, wepis sucúk
96 to spit chehutt sxttu, sxyall
97 to vomit weyuuq yuuq
98 to blow
(as wind)
hepesuuy (mouth) ciixáy (wind), xpssuu (mouth)
99 to breathe yaas yaass
100 to laugh uusay chiin 'uussáy
101 to see ewuuw saaw (to look) wii kuti
102 to hear yip kuee 'ii'ííp itaq
103 to know
(a fact)
nur, uuyaaw 'uu'yáá
104 to think iichaa, wematt, yip elti paatu lly-yuum aqniwil
105 to smell
(sense odor)
wehwii xwi yuxsh
106 to fear meheyaay mshyaa
107 to sleep hemaa smaa shma we'
108 to live nyewaayp wa’y (ny)way atɨk
109 to die melay pí (dead) msspa aqshan
110 to kill aamuuch eñoo nak
111 to fight mat menyuup, mat wetoo eñoop nyup
112 to hunt
(transitive)
wenyay jkwigu nyay
113 to hit chetoo (to punch),
wetoo (with sick)
sttu (to punch)
114 to cut aakatt jkáaw cukátt 'ɨwɨn
115 to split uuhwaq, wechall ttap
116 to stab
(or stick)
uushaa 'uushá
117 to scratch
(an itch)
hesak, sehwan llyqshaq
118 to dig wehwall 'uupún, xwally pul
119 to swim aapull nuup aqiwɨwɨn
120 to fly weman man xonowon
121 to walk wamp aaw p'aw nana'n
122 to come weyiw jaa yii
123 to lie
(as on one's side)
welyak p’páa patt, yak oto'yin
124 to sit wenak jowaa wa ɨlɨk'ɨn
125 to stand pehekwii, hetaat (stand up) p'aa kuta', nowon
126 to turn
(change direction)
apekwiilp kwany
127 to fall
(as in drop)
tuushup (fruit),
wenall (person)
j’paam pam, nyaly tol
128 to give winy juwee ii
129 to hold
(in one's hand)
weyuuw shawín u'lish
130 to squeeze uukwis llkwiss
131 to rub chehwar, penyaa,
tuuhwar
kuxáy
132 to wash allehwas (Spanish) canúp, ss'ul uxmaniwon
133 to wipe chemally sswi
134 to pull aalul, tepenii ajñaat ckyaw, cxpaly
135 to push cheherii ulchin s'att, shvuutk
136 to throw wetom, topk (towards),
topm (away)
cha’ki cap
137 to tie aannak xir aqsik
138 to sew peyuur p’jpaab u’ shukwílly
139 to count tetseebo saaw
140 to say wii há maal (to talk) 'i 'ip, axutiwil (to talk)
141 to sing 'echweyuuw ltechaja’y syaa expech
142 to play suunaarr l'uy
143 to float yályál 'i
144 to flow wenuw kup
145 to freeze shemetii siimís
146 to swell waarp skwa
147 sun 'enyaa eñiaay nya qsi
148 moon hellyaa ja’la’ xlly'a 'awa'y
149 star kwenmesaap msi' kwlyap 'aqiwo
150 water 'ehaa ja' xa 'o'
151 rain 'ekwiy kwiiy p'ay tuhuy
152 river 'ehaa kwenuw ja’ kos’jiin xawílly
153 lake 'ehaa kwariw ja’ jpí tay xnyu
154 sea
(as in ocean)
'ehaasilly ja' tay ("big water") xakwss'ílly sxa'min
155 salt 'esily kwi ss'ir tip
156 stone 'ewily ujá wii, xuur xɨp
157 sand mes-haraay llysh'a
158 dust 'empill maat sa’ mak/piki' (to dust off) miipútt
159 earth
(as in soil)
'emat maat matt
160 cloud 'ekwiiy kwii 'iqc'i'
161 fog haamaa ssa smomoy
162 sky 'emaay ma’y maa(lly)
163 wind
(as in breeze)
kuyaayp, yaayp ja’k cxa saxtakhɨt
164 snow aalap k’mtiiy xsa
165 ice shemetii smis smis
166 smoke 'uuhuy chuu (verb) xyay to'w
167 fire 'aaw a'aw 'a'á
168 ash 'empill ku’pal kiimá
169 to burn
(intransitive)
aaraw llymar
170 road 'uunyaa uña’ wanyá ch'ayash
171 mountain matetay, matekun weey wii milimol
172 red 'ehwatt kwal xwatt tasɨn
173 green hepeshiw msoow xpisw 'aqulapshan
174 yellow 'ekwas ku’seey qwass
175 white nemeshap msaap xmaally 'o'wow
176 black nyilly ñleeg nyiilly shoyin
177 night hunn, kuhunn téey cnyam saxiyi'
178 day
(daytime)
'enyaa, kupilly eñiaay nya qsi
179 year 'aany (Spanish) maat màttkáám
180 warm
(as in weather)
mgaaw (hot) piny, llyap ishaw, yulkla (hot)
181 cold
(as in weather)
hechuur jschiaak xsuur axc'ac'ax, toxo'm
182 full hup, temur, wehaarp cm'ur
183 new 'ehay, wehay xany 'ikɨmin
184 old wenuuy ku'/pa' tay (fem., masc.) luulp 'equn
185 good 'ehan mgaay xany, miixáán chho-chhoho
186 bad wellich ulooy xcaq 'axɨmɨk'
187 rotten
(as, a log)
weshah shax
188 dirty taketak jpill 'iimátt nuyich
189 straight halettuk mírmír lukumel
190 round tepechuurp, 'elul
(small objects)
tux, xyal
(small objects)
191 sharp
(as a knife)
werraaw yaaw yuu jooy
(to sharpen)
yaap c'ɨc'ɨ
192 dull
(as a knife)
xlqay
193 smooth heleqay, rii wii qalqáy
194 wet 'ehar, tehelumk xay 'och'
195 dry
(adjective)
saay saay ss'ar aqawan
196 right
(correct)
'ehan nyayáám ("that's right")
197 near helyepay yaay kuwaa yío xrpay
198 far 'ekur kur
199 right
(side)
eyewiik, iiwiik chpeeyp kxanyk
200 left
(side)
kesark kssark
201 at
202 in
203 with
(accompanying)
kuuyum -m
204 and may, nyaapum kakááp ("and then") na
205 if ny-, nya-
206 because
207 name chehichf muly
208 house 'ewaa uwa’ wa 'ap
209 wall
210 deer 'ekwak jak píikuyac kwak
211 mouse 'emekay mákal, tkáan (larger) 'awáá
212 rabbit 'ephar págu xlly'a ma'
213 eagle 'ihpaa ti’paayu shpa slo'w
214 spider hellytutt (black widow) uwi’ il xllycuc ktut
215 face eyiiw 'iyú tɨx
216 body emaat 'imáác
217 navel milyepuu mpí ('i)yakál
218 finger esally sal 'isháálly mimi
219 sick
(painful)
henoo (kw)rap (sickness) yuxpan
220 needle pa'yur tjapáp u’ shuukwíílly, shwakwíílly
221 clothing tehiilly chigoow nyu'áál haxwi'
222 thunder shuullaw shuukír (verb)
223 lightning shuuluk ji’ñaam shuulám (verb) qunt'aw
224 above 'emaay na’tiaal maay
225 below 'eyaak maatu, maat múgu mattk
226 to cough uh jojo 'a'úx
227 to buy pe’ñao yeewi 'uukwíí
228 to choose nymsu'úr
229 to grow hemii j’wino, tejiip xmii
230 to open uuttaq kaap 'uukúp, cumán
231 to steal shuuhuu jcheet walísh
232 to dream hemach shmaap
233 to cry wemii jmee mi mish
234 to yawn waaps xkwaak shashan
235 to cook wellyully tamaaw (kitchen) nyawíí rar
236 six hamhuuk msígl paayb xmxuuk si:nta tacpê' tsadi lád:íwade ha'mís a:yé'qdi bunxad?i páy-at'el yitishko'm
237 seven pekai juwakl paayb pxkaa vi:ka xuwagacpê'k koina lád:íwade ha'k a:yé'qdi uxmami- tep' yitimasɨx
238 eight chepuuk jmikl paayb spxuuk mu:ka humugêcpê'k kokodol lád:íwade 'cásdi a:yé'qdi bulmami- sha-at'él malawa
239 nine nimhamuuk msigl tmat xmxmuk pa:ye halêthúia namilkacom lád:íwade had:á:má a:yé'qdi daumima- téte-top'e spa
240 ten shatuuk, shahuk chipam msíg ssaaxúúk arrapa viwá'ave namilkatek malús:i xaazhad- tóp'e ch'iyaw

Sources[edit]

  • Dictionary of Mesa Grande Diegueño. Ted Couro and Christina Hutcheson. Banning, California: Malki Museum Press, Inc., 1973.
  • AULEX Spanish-Kiliwa dictionary
  • Crawford, James M. (1989). Cocopa dictionary. University of California publications in linguistics (Vol. 114). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-09749-1.

External links[edit]

Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Swadesh lists
Individual languages

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The list may also include: (t) the transcription in Latin characters; (p) the phonetic transcription