Appendix:Tagalog *kali/qali words

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A significant number of Tagalog words begin with the Proto-Austronesian prefix *kali/qali, which are described by Blust (2009:368) as implying a “sensitive connection with the spirit world.” The *kali/qali words present in the modern-day Tagalog language are a legacy of the Tagalog people’s animist past.

The Tagalog *kali/qali words below have been selected from Carl Rubino’s Tagalog-English, English-Tagalog Dictionary (2002).

Overview[edit]

*kali/qali words are widespread among Austronesian languages, and are found from Taiwan to Oceania. The majority of these words are four syllables long (Blust 2001).

Proto-Austronesian reconstructions of interest include *qanitu “spirit, soul” (Zorc) and *balian “shaman” (Blust).

Semantic categories[edit]

*kali/qali words include (Blust 2001:24-59):

Invertebrates
  • ant
  • bat
  • beetle
  • bumblebee
  • caterpillar/grub
  • centipede
  • cockroach
  • crab
  • dragonfly
  • earthworm
  • firefly
  • flea
  • gecko
  • grasshopper
  • honeybee
  • leech
  • millipede
  • scorpion
  • snake
  • spider
  • termite
  • wasp
Natural processes and prodigies of nature
  • aureole (lunar or solar halo)
  • dust in the air
  • shadow/reflection
  • sparks
  • storm
  • sunshower
  • rainbow
  • whirlwind/whirlpool
  • echo
Semantic contagion
  • restless
  • rustle
  • hair whorl
  • summit
  • dizzy
  • sling
  • go around in circles
  • confused (of vision, sound, the mind)
  • thick smoke or steam
  • turbid
  • far/disappear
  • lost
  • loud noise
  • drunk
  • conical
Body parts
  • clavicle or collarbone
  • palate
  • pupil of the eye
  • scapula
Various birds, fish, plants
  • fighting cock (variety)
  • omen dove
  • owl
  • swallow
  • woodpecker
  • mollusk, shellfish
  • nettle
Others
  • spirit
  • taboos
  • gargle/rinse the mouth
  • red clouds of sunset
  • skin disease
  • talk/walk in one's sleep
  • topsy turvy

Allomorphs[edit]

The allomorphs of *kali/qali below are from Blust (2001:34). The most commonly used ones are highlighted in bold. Are of the following are prefixes.

  • *bala
  • *bari
  • *banti
  • *buli
  • *dali
  • *daNi
  • *kaci
  • *kala
  • *kalaN
  • *kali
  • *kaliN
  • *kalu
  • *kaluN
  • *kaNa
  • *kaNi
  • *kara
  • *kari
  • *karu
  • *kanti
  • *kati
  • *kelu
  • *kula
  • *kuli
  • *kuliN
  • *kulu
  • *pali
  • *pati
  • *qandi
  • *qala
  • *qali
  • *qaliN
  • *qalu
  • *qaluN
  • *qaNa
  • *qaNi
  • *qara
  • *qari
  • *qariN
  • *qaru
  • *qata
  • *qanti
  • *qati
  • *qatiN
  • *qatu
  • *quCi
  • *quNi
  • *quri
  • *sala
  • *sali
  • *saliN
  • *sari
  • *sariN
  • *sulu
  • *tali
  • *taliN
  • *talu
  • *taNi
  • *tula

Blust (2001) also proposes the prefixes above may actually consists of two morphemes belonging to two different order classes.

Class 1
  1. ba-
  2. ka-
  3. ku-
  4. qa-
  5. sa-
  6. ta-
Class 2
  1. (-)la-
  2. (-)li-
  3. (-)ra-
  4. (-)ri-
  5. (-)ti-
  6. (-)lu-
  7. (-)Ni-
  8. (-)ta-

Life[edit]

  • halimaw - wild beast
  • palisán - female water buffalo (regional term)

Insects, invertebrates[edit]

  • alibangbáng - small yellow-winged butterfly; flirt (coll.)
  • alimango - species of crab
  • alimasag - species of crab smaller than the alimango
  • aliparó - species of small butterfly with bright multi-colored wings
  • alitaptáp - firefly
  • alupihan - centipede (ulupihan)
  • balakwít - species of heart-shaped mollusk (Strombus canarium)
  • balang - locust
  • halabós - slightly cooking shrimp in salty water (cf. halbós - half-boiled (usually referring to shrimps))
  • kaligay - species of snail; cowry
  • kalumismís - species of sand clam
  • kulagyá' - species of small shrimp
  • kuliglíg - cricket
  • kulisap - insect; young louse
  • talangká' - small, edible crab; moodiness, irrational behavior (fig.)
  • lintá' - leech
  • salágintó' - goldbug
  • salágubang - June beetle
  • salabay - octopus (pugita' )
  • ulapihan - scorpion (alakdán)
  • unós - wood borer, weevil

Reptiles[edit]

  • alimuranin - species of large snake
  • alipangyán - species of snake (bibitunan)
  • kalabukab (variant: kalakukab) - species of water snake
  • talimbilao - species of banded sea snake
  • manlilingkís - boa constrictor
  • paliás - species of turtle

Birds[edit]

  • alimbuyugin - red-colored rooster with black spots on the wing
  • dalusapi' - rooster with blackish-yellow feathers
  • balangkawitan - species of brown migratory pond bird with long legs and a long bill (Numenius madagascariensis)
  • balinsasayaw - kind of small bird
  • bulihala' - a fowl with ashy feathers and black legs; (slang) management; care; responsibility
  • kalangay - cockatoo
  • kalapati - dove, pigeon
  • kalapnít - species of small bat
  • kalabyáng - kind of large bat
  • kulasisi' - parrot; mistress
  • ulikbá' - fowl with dark meat

Fish[edit]

  • aligasín - mullet fish (Mugil ceramensis)
  • alumahan - mackerel
  • alumbiberas - silvery pomfret fish
  • atulay - hardtail fish
  • balabala - decussated snapper fish
  • balang - flying fish
  • balangwán - mackerel scad fish
  • baliwis - siganid fish
  • baliga - eel goby
  • balila - cutlass fish, hairtail fish
  • bulinaw - anchovy; transparent sardine; (Vis.) species of bamboo
  • bulubuktó - cavalla fish (Caranx sp.)
  • dalangát - black-finned slipmouth fish
  • dalimanok - eagle ray
  • dalupani' - wily slipmouth fish
  • kalangkáw - Indian turbot fish
  • kalapato - cavalla fish (Caranx sp.)
  • kalapáy - tassel; fin
  • kalaso' - lizard fish
  • kilyóng - drepane fish (Drepane punctata)
  • malibanos - moray
  • malimango - cavalla fish
  • palatikat - long-finned cavalla fish
  • palimanok - cow-nosed ray
  • salaysaláy - crevalle fish (Caranx sp.)
  • saramulyete - goatfish
  • talakitilyo - immature cavalla fish
  • talakitok - species of cavalla fish
  • talangtalang - leather jacket fish
  • talimusák - long-finned goby fish (Oxyurichthys microlepis)
  • tulingan - tuna type fish (Thunnidae family); tulingan-putí' - Oceanic bonito

Plants[edit]

  • alibangon - species of creeping plant
  • alikbangon - kind of weed with oval leaves that secrete a sticky, slimy fluid
  • alingaro - species of climbing shrub with sweet fruit (Eleaeanus philippinsis)
  • alitbangon - species of succulent herb (Cyanetis axillaris)
  • alibangbáng - kind of tree with long pods and pink to purple flowers
  • alupág - species of tree (Nephelium glabrum)
  • alugbati - Malabar night shade herb with red stems and edible spinach-like leaves
  • alusiman - purslane = any of a family (Portulacaceae, the purslane family) of cosmopolitan usually succulent herbs
  • kulasiman - species of purslane
  • balaba' - whole leaf or joint of bananas or palms
  • balakbák - dried bark
  • balanoy - sweet basil
  • balanggót - species of aquatic reed
  • balatong - mungo bean (Phaseolus mungo)
  • balayong - species of tree (Pahudia rhomboidea; tindalo)
  • baliti' - species of tree; manacle, restraining object
  • balubad - cashew
  • balukanád - species of tree whose seeds are used for oil (Aleurites moluccana)
  • bulakán - kind of vine whose leaves are used as a shampoo
  • bulung-ita - kind of shrub with edible fruits (Diospyros philosanthera)
  • dalupang - kind of shrub with reddish branches
  • daluro' - cork tree
  • talisay - species of shade tree
  • kalamansí' - calamansi
  • kalantás - species of tree with red aromatic wood
  • kalatsutsi - frangipani tree
  • kalatsutsi' - temple flower tree
  • kalumpáng - wild almond tree
  • kalumpít - kind of tree
  • talang - species of tree
  • kalipkíp - kind of creeping vine
  • kalisag - spine; bristles
  • kalumbibít - kind of prickly vine
  • karadapdáp - kind of tree with red flowers
  • lingat - kind of fleshy herb with creepy, hairy rootstock
  • kulasiman - species of purslane
  • kulat - kind of fungus (taingang-dagá' )
  • kulatay - Bermuda grass
  • kulatkulat - species of fungus
  • kulis - kind of shrub whose roots are used for certain irregularities in menstruation
  • kulutan - Chinese burr shrub
  • kulutkutan - kind of shrub with reddish branches
  • malinggá - kind of vine, known also as kondól
  • maliputó - jackfish; pompano
  • maliputóng-laut - cavalla
  • nila' - indigo plant
  • palisan - kind of small tree
  • sulá-sulasihan (root: sulasi) - kind of fragrant herb (Leucas aspera)
  • taraumpalit - species of plant with purple flowers

Shape and motion[edit]

Twisting, circular motion[edit]

Everything the Power of the World does is done in a circle. The sky is round, and I have heard that the earth is round like a ball, and so are all the stars. The wind, in its greatest power whirls. Birds make their nest in circles, for theirs is the same religion as ours. The sun comes forth and goes down again in a circle. The moon does the same and both are round. Even the seasons form a great circle in their changing, and always come back again to where they were. The life of a man is a circle from childhood to childhood, and so it is in everything where power moves. Our tepees were round like the nests of birds, and these were always set in a circle, the nation's hoop. — Black Elk in Black Elk Speaks (1961), Ch. 17: The First Cure.
  • aligutgót - entangled; trouble, mischief
  • alimpuso' - knot of wood
  • alipuyó - whirlpool
  • alimpuyó - whirl, eddy
  • alimusod - cone; funnel-shaped object
  • alimulón - cone-shaped
  • alinugnóg - spinning
  • aringkín - sudden trip, somersault
  • balabág - cast, throw
  • balaráw - dagger
  • baliad-ád - bent backwards
  • balibang - to throw upward
  • balikawkáw - twisted out of shape
  • balikukó' - twisted
  • balikungkóng - curled upwards
  • baligtád (variant: baliktád) - inside-out; upside-down
  • balinsusó' - ringlet, curl of hair
  • balintóng - somersault
  • balintuwád - upside-down
  • balintuwáng - falling head-first
  • balingadngád - twisted backward
  • balinganga' - with a twisted neck
  • balinghád - partially rolled upward (edge of a leaf, pages of book)
  • balilíng - twisted neck
  • balisusó' - curled (like a shell)
  • balisungsóng - funnel
  • balukaskás - roughness of a surface
  • balukaykáy - imperfect or unequal circle, spiral
  • balukí' - crooked; twisted
  • balukiskís - peeled off
  • balukol - act of twisting the neck to kill (fish)
  • baluktók - crooked, bent; kink, curl; distortion
  • balumbón - woll; wad; thick crowd
  • dalagdág - species of vine also called kulambibíg
  • dalisdís - slope
  • dalapdáp - pruning of trees
  • halabíd - entangling
  • halibas - hurl
  • halikwát - lifting with a lever; turning things over in a pile
  • haligayót - flexible, pliant
  • halubidbíd - winding around, coiling around
  • hilihíd - awry, twisted to one side (hilihid = panorama)
  • hiliwíd - slanting, inclined
  • kiló' - bent, crooked
  • kulót - curl
  • kulumbóng - head wrap
  • lingkís (with -um-: lumingkís) - to twine, coil around
  • ngawil - twisting of lips while speaking
  • pulupot - turn, twist
  • salikóp - surrounded, encircled
  • salungkawit - curved support; curved blade
  • salungkít - fish hook (attached at the end of a pole)
  • salupinít - knotty (wood); spoilt, stale; missed
  • talimusód - spiral and pointed at one end
  • talibugsó' - bow knot, slipknot; snare
  • talikwás - tilted; upside down; turned over
  • salingsíng - curtain rings; ingrown toenails
  • salabíd - something that entangles
  • sulilíng (variant: sulindíng; with pa-: pasuliling) - sideways (adv.); sudden twisting of the neck (n.)
  • kulubót - wrinkle
  • kulumós - crumple
  • salubsób - splinter
  • salukbít - tucked in at the waist
  • saluksók - inserted at the waist; probing
  • ulak - reel, spool
  • ulbók - bulge, protuberance
  • uliuli - eddy (alimpuyó)
  • untáy - twisted (rope)

Floating, rising, scattering[edit]

  • aligíd - circling around, hovering
  • alikabók - dust (from *qali + *abúk)
  • alimpapayaw - gliding flight
  • alindayag - floating in air
  • alimbukay - swell of water; nausea
  • alimuóm - vapor wising from the ground; gossip (idiom)
  • alipato - flying ember
  • balikaskás - flayed; peeled off
  • balisaksák - robust, vigorous
  • balusbós (with ma-: mamalusbós) - to be spilled (grain)
  • bulatlát - careful search for something by removing the contents of a container
  • dalahik - point reached on the seashore by the waves
  • halabók - pulverized
  • kalatkát - act of spreading out
  • kalangkáng - disorderly pile
  • baludbód - scattering things sparingly
  • dalaydayan - framework used for drying fish nets
  • daluyong - surge of the sea, large wave
  • halawháw - disorderly
  • halbós - half-boiled (usually referring to shrimps)
  • halapáw - removing the top layer
  • halibuyak - diffusion of fragrance
  • halipáw - surface matter (on liquids)
  • haliryóng - transporting little by little
  • halughóg - close examination, search; ransacking search
  • halungkál - turning over contents while searching for something
  • halungkát - mischievous search; rummaging
  • halwát - searching by emptying the contents
  • hilab - swell, bulge; spasm
  • hilagpós - getting loose
  • hilahid - smear
  • hilat - stretching of an opening
  • hilatlát - making a hole wider
  • ilandáng - shooting up of water from a fountain
  • ilangláng - soaring
  • kalawkáw (with -um-: kumalawkáw' ) - to stir with a stick (liquids)
  • kalikaw (with -in: kalikawin) - to poke and stir liquid
  • kimbót - throb; slight muscular spasm; twitch
  • kulapol - smear
  • dalaydáy - fluid motion of liquids
  • talaytáy - flowing (blood, saliva)
  • saluysóy - spring of water; rivulet
  • kalutkót - act of searching through contents
  • ngalubakbák (with maN-: mangalubakbák) - to become detached (skin, bark)
  • ngalukabkáb - peeling off (bark, plaster, etc.)
  • palispís - clearing of a field before planting; dusting
  • salipadpád - fluttering
  • salwát - spilling liquid out of a container
  • tulakbahala' - ballast
  • lingas - blaze, flame; shine; boasting, pride
  • walwál (variant: wangwáng) - spread out; wide open
  • waligwíg (with -in: waligwigán) - to sprinkle water on
  • undáp - flickering of light
  • undók - oscillation

Restlessness, uneasiness[edit]

  • alimpungát - half-awake
  • alimís - secret, furtive
  • alip-ip - anxious, in suspense
  • alumpihit (variant: alumihit) - restlessness
  • alingaling - fickle, changeable
  • alipuypóy - act of sneaking around for attention or to get one's way
  • alibadbád - nausea
  • alusiksík - resourcefulness; intensive search
  • balaghán - wonder, amazement
  • balangáy - swoon, fainting spell; backstroke
  • balasáng - confusion; overthrow; disorder
  • balasaw - riot, tumult
  • balawbáw - full, overflowing
  • balaybáy - cluster; fallen palm leaves; bedtime stories
  • baligyá' - peddler; hawker
  • balihandá' - loiterer; lascivious woman
  • balino - restlessness, anxiety
  • balintuna' - unnatural; contradictory; ironic
  • balisawsáw - painful discharge of urine; caprice, whim (fig.)
  • balubaló' - pretense; fiction
  • bulabod - sprinkling; sowing
  • bulabog - disturbance, tumult; (with -in: bulabugin) - to rout, drive away; annoy
  • bulakból - vagabond, truant
  • bulagsák - careless; wasteful
  • bulahaw - tumult
  • bulalás - ejaculation; outburst; storm; (with i-: ibulalás) - to exclaim
  • bulastóg - boastful; lying, bluffing; rash
  • buligáw - with no sense of direction; short-sighted
  • dalin(g)síl - lost, astray; wrong, incorrect
  • dalirot - poking
  • halaghág - careless, negligent
  • halbót - sudden pulling
  • halimbukáy (variant: halibukáy) - nausea; surge of sea waves
  • halikhík - subdued laughter
  • haligutgót - naughty, mischievous
  • halihaw - ransacking; repeated stabbing
  • haliparót - flirtatious
  • halták - jerk, sudden pull
  • halubíd - spanking, flogging; tripping the feet
  • hilahil - hardship; grief
  • hiluká' - languished, pale
  • himago - being unfamiliar with a new place
  • himagod - slight fatigue
  • himangláw - feeling of loneliness
  • kaligkíg - shiver
  • kilíd - tremble, shudder
  • kilití' - ticklish feeling
  • kulabat - walking without the help of the arms and furniture (babies)
  • kulawít - act of tripping over something
  • kulimbát - act of stealing; (adj.) stolen
  • di-matalí - restless, anxious
  • lindayag - recovery of one's senses after a fright
  • ngalay - numbness; fatigue
  • ngaligkíg (with maN-: mangaligkíg) - to shiver from the cold
  • ngalo' - numbness, fatigue
  • ngalóg - extreme weakness; fatigue
  • ngalóg (with maN-: mangalóg) - to tremble, quiver, shake
  • ngalungkóng - depression
  • palawingwíng - fringe
  • palingál-lingál (root: lingál) - rolling sideways (boats)
  • palindayag - state of calmness after surprise
  • pamamaligpíg (root: paligpíg) - shaking of the body
  • lingáw - confused
  • linggatong - perplexity; worry
  • lingmíng (with na-: nalingmíng) - confused
  • salaghati' - displeasure; resentment
  • salunga (with -um-: sumalungá) - to go against (current, etc.)
  • salumpóng - head-on collision
  • saramulyo - mischievous; disrespectful
  • saranggola - kite (for flying?)
  • suling (with -um-: sumuling-suling) - to do to and fro
  • kulukutó' - whim
  • kulughóy - numb state caused by the cold
  • tarantá - root of katarantahán 'confusion, bewilderment'
  • tulingág - stunned; stupefied; stupid
  • tuliró - confused; stunned
  • undót - falling back when startled

Crowds and swarms[edit]

  • kalibungbóng - group of people, crowd
  • kulumot - crowd, congestion
  • kulupón - crowd, swarm (of children)
  • kulisaw - school of fish
  • halubilo - mingling with the crowd
  • pulupón - small group

Magic, spirituality[edit]

  • balani' - charm; magnetism
  • bangungot - nightmare
  • alimuwáng - occultism
  • kaluluwá (*kali + *dua) - soul, spirit
  • kulam - witchcraft (mangkukulam = witch)
  • hilagyó' - spirit, affinity; namesake; essence
  • malikmata' - transfiguration; sleight of hand
  • niláy (with mag-: magnilay-nilay) - to meditate
  • salamangka - magic
  • ulirát - sense, consciousness

Natural phenonema[edit]

Odors, emissions[edit]

  • alisangsáng - strong, offensive odor
  • balintatáw (variant: alikmatá) - pupil of the eye
  • alimpuyók - strong emission of steam or smoke
  • alimusom - fragrance
  • alingasaw - reeking, giving off an odor; odor
  • halimunmón - fragrance, scent, aroma
  • halimuyák - fragrance; whiff
  • halpók - putrid

Echoes, sounds[edit]

  • alingawngáw - echo, reverberation; noise, clamor
  • alunigníg - faint echo or idea
  • alulóng - distant howling
  • atungal - cry of cattle
  • bulukabok - gurgling sound
  • halakhák - loud laughter
  • hilhíl - loud laughter
  • kalatís - sound, noise
  • kalatóg - knocking noise
  • kalatóng - small drum; clash
  • kalatuwát - echo
  • kalasáw - wriggling movement
  • kalasíng - clinking sound
  • kalambóg - heavy thumping
  • kalamkám - tingling sensation
  • kalampág - clanking noise; speaking in a loud voice (fig.)
  • kalansín - jingling sound
  • kalantís - swishing sound
  • kalantóg - rattling sound
  • kalít - creaking sound
  • kalugkóg - muffled sound; distant roll of thunder
  • kaluskós - rustling sound
  • kulimbáng - act of ringing a big bell
  • kulós - rustling sound
  • halinghíng - neigh, whinny; moan, groan
  • haluyhóy - moan, groan
  • lingaw - clamor (lingáw = confused)
  • lingawngáw - murmuring
  • linggál - din, clamor
  • ngalitngít - sound of gnashing, crunching
  • ngalngál - wailing, grumbling
  • ngalót (with mag-: magngalót) - to crunch noisily
  • ngalubngób - noise of crunching brittle food
  • ngalutngót - crunching sound
  • waliswís - swishing sound of branches in the wind

Weather[edit]

  • alinagnág - hazy visibility
  • alinsangan - sultry weather
  • alisuwág - humidity
  • aluningníng - brilliance, resplendence
  • balangáw - rainbow (bahaghari' )
  • bulalakaw - shooting star; meteor [cf. Proto-Philippines *bulalakaw 'kind of nature spirit, probably identified with the appearance of a comet' (Blust 2001:57)]
  • dalumóy - low, dark clouds
  • halumigmíg - humid, damp
  • talang - red skies at sunset
  • limbo - halo (of moon)
  • kulimlím - dark, overcast
  • unós - squall, strong wind with rain

Human and animal body[edit]

  • aligí - ovary of crustaceans
  • alipungá - athlete's foot
  • balakáng - hip; loin, pelvis
  • balakubak - dandruff
  • balayubay - dark dandruff
  • balagat - collarbone, shoulder blade
  • balambán - membrane
  • balantukan - partially healed wound
  • balikaró - swelling of the lips; thickening of the edges (wounds)
  • balugbóg - nape of the neck of fowls; spine
  • balumbalunan - gizzard of fowls
  • bulagáw - with gray eyes
  • bulaid - hemorrhoids
  • bulalay - elephant's trunk
  • bulaló' - kneecap
  • buliga' - eyeball; mound of earth
  • buliglíg - swelling of the eyes (of fowls)
  • bulubok (with -um-: bumulubok) - to bubble; gurgle
  • bululós - diarrhea
  • bulutong - pockmarks; smallpox
  • bulutunggó - pockmarked
  • dalahit (variant: dalahik) - intense coughing attack
  • dalutdót - poking with the finger
  • halawán - half-gray (hair)
  • halimhím - brooding on eggs
  • halubaybáy - deep-bodied sardine
  • halukipkíp - with folded arms
  • hilahod - shuffling of the feet; limping
  • hilam - skin blemish on the face; pain in the eyes; turbidity
  • hilantád - lying on one's back without any clothes
  • kalá' (with -um-: kumalá' ) - to gargle
  • kalagkág - gargle; hard scratching
  • kalaba' - white spots on the eyeball; cataract
  • kalaghalá' - phlegm
  • kalumatá - dark rings around the eyes from lack of sleep
  • kalingkingan - little finger
  • kaliskís - scales of fish
  • karangkál - distance between thumb and middle finger when stretched apart
  • kilabot - goosebumps; terror, fear
  • kilít - hunching of the shoulders
  • kulaba' - white film over the eyes; film over liquids
  • kulamós - scratch on the face
  • kulani' - swelling of a lymph gland; (slang) unwanted pregnancy
  • kulangot - dried snot
  • kuliti' - sty in the eye
  • malikaskás - peeling off (skin)
  • maliputó' - short person
  • ngalangalá - palate, roof of the mouth
  • ngalisag (with maN-: mangalisag) - to bristle (hair)
  • ngalit (with maN-: mangalit) - to grind the teeth
  • ngalumatá - with dark rings under the eyes due to lack of sleep; with haggard-looking eyes; gaunt
  • ngaluktíng' (with paN-: pangangaluktíng) - clattering of the teeth due to cold
  • ngalumbaba' (with paN-: pangangalumbaba' ) - pensive look (with the head supported by the palm)
  • palikpík - fin of a fish
  • palingá' - with head turned sideways
  • pulikat - spasm, body cramps
  • salugsóg - sliver in the hand or foot; detailed investigation
  • salumbabá' - sling for a broken arm; bandage that supports the chin or a corpse
  • sulimpát - squinty-eyed
  • sulikap - cloven-hoofed foot
  • talukab - hard shell of crustaceans; loose or detached scab
  • talukap - eyelid; sheath of palm leaves
  • tulatód - coccyx
  • ulag - molting of fowls
  • untóg - bump on the head
  • waliwali - close to the time of delivery (pregnant women); defective eyesight caused by hunger

Miscellaneous[edit]

  • balatok - gold ore

References[edit]

  • Blust, Robert. 2000. "Rat Ears, Tree Ears, Ghost Ears and Thunder Ears in Austronesian Languages." In: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde 156 (2000), no: 4, Leiden, 687-706.
  • Blust, Robert A. 2001. "Historical morphology and the spirit world: *qali/kali-prefixes in Austronesian languages." In John Bradshaw and Kenneth L. Rehg (eds.) Issues in Austronesian Morphology. A festschrift for Byron W. Bender. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, 15-73.
  • Blust, Robert A. 2009. The Austronesian Languages. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 0858836025, 978-0858836020.
  • Rubino, Carl R. Galvez. 2002. Tagalog-English English-Tagalog Dictionary. New York: Hippocrene Books.