Appendix:Welsh conjugation

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to: navigation, search

There are two sets of rules for conjugating Welsh verbs: one for colloquial Welsh and one for literary Welsh.

Inflection involves adding the required suffix on to the verb stem. For instance, to form the colloquial first-person singular preterite form of yfed (to drink), we take the verb stem yf and add on the required ending (ais) to form yfais.

Colloquial[edit]

Colloquial conjugation is much simpler than in literary Welsh: only the preterite, conditional and future tenses can cause inflection and, even then, all the tenses except the preterite can be formed periphrastically with a conjugated form of bod. Negations are formed by following the subject by ddim and mutating the conjugating verb (a mixed mutation). Letters which undergo an aspirate mutation do so; otherwise a soft mutation occurs (if possible). Example inflections are shown below using the verb bwyta.

Inflected colloquial forms singular plural
first second third first second third
preterite bwytais bwytaist bwytodd bwyton bwytach bwyton
future bwytaf bwyti bwytith bwytwn bwytwch bwytan
conditional bwytwn bwytet bwytai bwyten bwytech bwyten

Periphrastic conjugation is in the form of: conjugated form of bod + subject + yn + verbnoun. The verbnoun does not mutate except for affirmative and interrogative forms after the hoffwn and dylwn patterns. Negated forms require ddim to follow the subject. The table below shows the colloquial conjugated forms of bod. Note: some contracted/regional forms of bod have been ommitted for conciseness.

Colloquial forms singular plural
first second third first second third
present affirmative dw rwyt mae, ydy, sy dan, ŷn dach, ych maen
negative dydw dwyt dydy, does, sy dydyn dydych dydyn
interrogative ydw wyt ydy, oes, sy ydan ydych ydyn
imperfect affirmative roeddwn roeddet roedd roedden roeddech roedden
negative doeddwn doeddet doedd doedden doeddech doedden
interrogative oeddwn oeddet oedd oedden oeddech oedden
past bues buest buodd, bu buon buoch buon
future bydda byddi bydd byddwn byddwch byddan
conditional byddwn, baswn byddet, baset byddai, basai bydden, basen byddech, basech bydden, basen
other conditional forms
used after pe
taswn, bawn, tawn taset, baet, taet tasai, bai, tai tasen, baen, taen tasech, baech, taech tasen, baen, taen
imperative bydd, bydda byddwch

Examples[edit]

  • Yfais i'r dwr.
    I drank the water.
  • Teithien ni yn bws.
    We would travel by bus.
  • Hoffwn i fynd.
    I would like to go.
  • Bydden ni'n teithio yn bws.
    We would travel by bus.
  • Dw i'n byw ym Mhontypridd.
    I live in Pontypridd.
  • Doedd Rhys ddim yn hoffi coffi.
    Rhys did not like coffee.

Literary[edit]

See also[edit]