Wiktionary:Webster 1913/643

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Page 643

Grail

Noun

Etymology

OF. <ets>greel</ets>, LL. <ets>gradale.</ets> See Gradual, n.

  • A book of offices in the Roman Catholic Church; a gradual.</def> [Obs.]

T. Warton.

  1. Quotations
    • Such as antiphonals, missals, grails, processionals, etc.

Strype.

Grail

Noun

Etymology

OF. <ets>graal</ets>, <ets>greal</ets>, greet, F. <ets>graal</ets>, <ets>gr?al</ets>, LL. <ets>gradalis</ets>, <ets>gradale</ets>, prob. derived fr. L. <ets>crater</ets> bowl, mixing vessel, Gr. <grk>krath`r</grk>. See <er>Crater.</er>

  • A broad, open dish; a chalice; -- only used of the Holy Grail.

&hand;The Holy Grail, according to some legends of the Middle Ages, was the cup used by our Savior in dispensing the wine at the last supper; and according to others, the platter on which the paschal lamb was served at the last Passover observed by our Lord. This cup, according to the legend, if appoached by any but a perfectly pure and holy person, would be borne away and vanish from the sight. The quest of the Holy Grail was to be undertaken only by a knight who was perfectly chaste in thought, word, and act.</note]>

Grail

Noun

Etymology

F. <ets>gr&ecir;le</ets> hail, from <ets>grÉs</ets> grit, OHG. <ets>griex</ets>, <ets>grioz</ets>, G. <ets>gries</ets>, gravel, grit. See <er>Grit.</er>

  • Small particles of earth; gravel.</def> [Obs.]
  1. Quotations
    • Lying down upon the sandy grail.

Spenser.

Grail

Noun

Etymology

Compare OF. <ets>graite</ets> slender, F. <ets>gr&ecir;te</ets>.

  • One of the small feathers of a hawk.

Graille

Noun

Etymology

Compare F. <ets>gr&ecir;le</ets> a sort of file.

  • A halfround single-cut file or fioat, having one curved face and one straight face, -- used by comb makers.

Knight.

Grain

v. & n. <def>See <er>Groan.</er></def> [Obs.]

Grain

Noun

Etymology

F. <ets>grain</ets>, L. <ets>granum</ets>, grain, seed, small kernel, small particle. See Corn, and cf. Garner, n., Garnet, Gram the chick-pea, Granule, <er>Kernel.</er>

  1. A single small hard seed; a kernel, especially of those plants, like wheat, whose seeds are used for food.</def>

    1.

    <def>The fruit of certain grasses which furnish the chief food of man, as corn, wheat, rye, oats, etc., or the plants themselves; -- used collectively.

    Quotations
    • Storehouses crammed with grain.

Shak.

  1. Any small, hard particle, as of sand, sugar, salt, etc.; hence, any minute portion or particle; <as>as, a <ex>grain</ex> of gunpowder, of pollen, of starch, of sense, of wit, etc.</as></def>

    I . . . with a grain of manhood well resolved.

Milton.

  1. The unit of the English system of weights; -- so called because considered equal to the average of grains taken from the middle of the ears of wheat. 7,000 grains constitute the pound avoirdupois, and 5,760 grains the pound troy. A grain is equal to .0648 gram. See <er>Gram.</er>
  2. A reddish dye made from the coccus insect, or kermes; hence, a red color of any tint or hue, as crimson, scarlet, etc.; sometimes used by the poets as equivalent to <cref>Tyrian purple</cref>.</def>

    All in a robe of darkest grain.

Milton.

  1. Quotations
    • Doing as the dyers do, who, having first dipped their silks in colors of less value, then give' them the last tincture of crimson in grain.

Quoted by Coleridge, preface to Aids to Reflection.

  1. The composite particles of any substance; that arrangement of the particles of any body which determines its comparative roughness or hardness; texture; <as>as, marble, sugar, sandstone, etc., of fine <ex>grain</ex></as>.</def>

    Hard box, and linden of a softer grain.

Dryden.

  1. The direction, arrangement, or appearance of the fibers in wood, or of the strata in stone, slate, etc.
    Quotations
    • Knots, by the conflux of meeting sap,

Infect the sound pine and divert his grain Tortive and errant from his course of growth. Shak.

  1. The fiber which forms the substance of wood or of any fibrous material.
  2. The hair side of a piece of leather, or the marking on that side.

Knight.

1.

<pluf>pl.</pluf> <def>The remains of grain, etc., after brewing or distillation; hence, any residuum. Also called <altname>draff.</altname>

  1. (Bot.): A rounded prominence on the back of a sepal, as in the common dock. See Grained, a., 4.
  2. Temper; natural disposition; inclination.</def> [Obs.]

    Brothers . . . not united in grain.

Hayward.

  1. A sort of spice, the grain of paradise.</def> [Obs.]

    He cheweth grain and licorice,

To smellen sweet. Chaucer. <cs><col>Against the grain</col>, <cd>against or across the direction of the fibers; hence, against one's wishes or tastes; unwillingly; unpleasantly; reluctantly; with difficulty.</cd> Swift.Saintsbury.

  • A grain of allowance</col>, <cd>a slight indulgence or latitude a small allowance.</cd>
  • Grain binder</col>, <cd>an attachment to a harvester for binding the grain into sheaves.</cd>
  • Grain colors</col>, <cd>dyes made from the coccus or kermes in sect.</cd>
  • Grain leather</col>. <sd>(a)</sd> <cd>Dressed horse hides.</cd> <sd>(b)</sd> <cd>Goat, seal, and other skins blacked on the grain side for women's shoes, etc.</cd>
  • Grain moth</col> <fld>(Zoöl.)</fld>, <cd>one of several small moths, of the family <spn>Tineidæ</spn> (as <spn>Tinea granella</spn> and <spn>Butalis cereAlella</spn>), whose larvæ devour grain in storehouses.</cd>
  • Grain side</col> <fld>(Leather)</fld>, <cd>the side of a skin or hide from which the hair has been removed; -- opposed to <contr>flesh side.</contr></cd>
  • Grains of paradise</col>, <cd>the seeds of a species of amomum.</cd>
  • grain tin</col>, <cd>crystalline tin ore metallic tin smelted with charcoal.</cd>
  • Grain weevil</col> <fld>(Zoöl.)</fld>, <cd>a small red weevil (Sitophilus granarius), which destroys stored wheat and othar grain, by eating out the interior.</cd>
  • Grain worm</col> <fld>(Zoöl.)</fld>, <cd>the larva of the grain moth. See <cref>grain moth</cref>, above.</cd>
  • In grain</col>, <cd>of a fast color; deeply seated; fixed; innate; genuine.</cd> Anguish in grain." Herbert.
  • To dye in grain</col>, <cd>to dye of a fast color by means of the coccus or kermes grain [see Grain, n., 5]; hence, to dye firmly; also, to dye in the wool, or in the raw material. See under <er>Dye.</er></cd>
  1. Quotations
    • The red roses flush up in her cheeks . . .

Likce crimson dyed in grain. Spenser.

  • To go against the grain of</col> (a person), <cd>to be repugnant to; to vex, irritate, mortify, or trouble.</cd>

Grain

Transitive verb

Imperfect and past participle: Grained ;
Present Participle: <er>Graining.</er>]

  1. To paint in imitation of the grain of wood, marble, etc.
  2. To form (powder, sugar, etc.) into grains.
  3. To take the hair off (skins); to soften and raise the grain of (leather, etc.).

Grain

Intransitive verb

Etymology

F. <ets>grainer</ets>, <ets>grener.</ets> See Grain, n.

  1. To yield fruit.</def> [Obs.]

Gower.

  1. To form grains, or to assume a granular ferm, as the result of crystallization; to granulate.

Grain

Noun

Etymology

See Groin a part of the body.

  1. A branch of a tree; a stalk or stem of a plant.</def> [Obs.]

G. Douglas.

  1. A tine, prong, or fork.</def> Specifically: <sd>(a)</sd> <def>One the branches of a valley or of a river.</def> <sd>(b)</sd> <pluf>pl.</pluf> <def>An iron first speak or harpoon, having four or more barbed points.
  2. A blade of a sword, knife, etc.
  3. (Founding): A thin piece of metal, used in a mold to steady a core.

Grained

Adjective

  1. Having a grain; divided into small particles or grains; showing the grain; hence, rough.
  2. Dyed in grain; ingrained.
    Quotations
    • Persons lightly dipped, not grained, in generous honesty, are but pale in goodness.

Sir T. Browne.

  1. Painted or stained in imitation of the grain of wood, marble, etc.
  2. (Bot.): Having tubercles or grainlike processes, as the petals or sepals of some flowers.

Grainer

Noun

  1. An infusion of pigeon's dung used by tanners to neutralize the effects of lime and give flexibility to skins; -- called also <altname>grains</altname> and <altname>bate.</altname></def>

    1.

    <def>A knife for taking the hair off skins.

  2. One who paints in imitation of the grain of wood, marble, etc.; also, the brush or tool used in graining.

Grainfield

Noun

  1. A field where grain is grown.

Graining

Noun

  1. Indentation; roughening; milling, as on edges of coins.

Locke.

  1. A process in dressing leather, by which the skin is softened and the grain raised.
  2. Painting or staining, in imitation of the grain of wood, atone, etc.
  3. (Soap Making): The process of separating soap from spent lye, as with salt.

Graining

Noun

  1. (Zoöl.): A small European fresh-water fish (Leuciscus vulgaris); - called also dobule, and dace.

Grains

n. pl.

1.

<def>See 5th Grain, n., 2 <sd>(b)</sd>.

  1. Pigeon's dung used in tanning. See <er>Grainer.</er> n., 1.

Grainy

Adjective

  1. Resembling grains; granular.

Graith

Transitive verb

[Obs.] <def>See <er>Greith.</er>

Chaucer.

Graith

Noun

  1. Furniture; apparatus or accouterments for work, traveling, war, etc.</def> [Scot.]

Jamieson.

Grakle

Noun

  1. (Zoöl.): See <er>Grackle.</er>

Grallæ

n. pl.

Etymology

NL., fr. L. <ets>grallae</ets> stilts, for <ets>gradulae</ets>, fr. <ets>gradus.</ets> See <er>Grade.</er> <fld>(Zoöl.): An order of birds which formerly included all the waders. By later writers it is usually restricted to the sandpipers, plovers, and allied forms; -- called also <altname>Grallatores.</altname>

Grallatores

n. pl.

Etymology

NL. from L. <ets>grallator</ets> one who runs on stilts. <fld>(Zoöl.): See <er>Grallæ</er>.</def> <mhw>Grallatorial, Grallatory

<mhw> a. <fld>(Zoöl.): Of or pertaining to the Grallatores, or waders.

Grallic

Adjective

  1. (Zoöl.): Pertaining to the Grallæ.

Gralline

(l&imac;n), a. <fld>(Zoöl.): Of or pertaining to the Grallæ.

Gralloch

Noun

  1. Offal of a deer.</def> -- <def2>v. t. <def>To remove the offal from (a deer).</def></def2>

-gram

Etymology

Gr. ? a thing drawn or written, a letter, fr. <grk>gra`fein</grk> to draw, write. See <er>Graphic.</er>

  • A suffix indicating something drawn or written, a drawing, writing; -- as, monogram, telegram, chronogram.

Gram

Adjective

Etymology

AS. gram; akin to E. grim. &root;35.

  • Angry.</def> [Obs.]

Havelok, the Dane.

Gram

Noun

Etymology

Pg. <ets>gr?o</ets> grain. See <er>Grain.</er> <fld>(Bot.): The East Indian name of the chick-pea (<spn>Cicer arietinum</spn>) and its seeds; also, other similar seeds there used for food.

<mhw>Gram, Gramme

</mhw>, n.

Etymology

F. <ets>gramme</ets>, from Gr. ? that which is written, a letter, a small weight, fr. ? to write. See <er>Graphic.</er>

  • The unit of weight in the metric system. It was intended to be exactly, and is very nearly, equivalent to the weight in a vacuum of one cubic centimeter of pure water at its maximum density. It is equal to 15.432 grains. See Grain, n., 4.

<cs><col>Gram degree</col>, ∨ <col>Gramme degree</col></mcol> <fld>(Physics)</fld>, <cd>a unit of heat, being the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of pure water one degree centigrade.</cd>

  • Gram equivalent</col> <fld>(Electrolysis)</fld>, <cd>that quantity of the metal which will replace one gram of hydrogen.</cd>

Grama grass

Etymology

Sp. <ets>grama</ets> a sort of grass. <fld>(Bot.): The name of several kinds of pasture grasses found in the Western United States, esp. the <spn>Bouteloua oligostachya</spn>.

Gramarye

Noun

Etymology

OE. <ets>gramer</ets>, <ets>grameri</ets>, <ets>gramori</ets>, grammar, magic, OF. <ets>gramaire</ets>, F. <ets>grammaire.</ets> See <er>Grammar.</er>

  • Necromancy; magic.

Sir W. Scott.

Gramashes

n. pl.

Etymology

See <er>Gamashes.</er>

  • Gaiters reaching to the knee; leggings.
  1. Quotations
    • Strong gramashes, or leggings of thick gray cloth.

Sir W. Scott.

Grame

Noun

Etymology

See Gram, a.

  1. Anger; wrath; scorn.</def> [Obs.]

Chaucer.

  1. Sorrow; grief; misery.</def> [Obs.]

Chaucer.

Gramercy

interj.

Etymology

F. <ets>grand-merci</ets>. See Grand, and <er>Mercy.</er>

  • A word formerly used to express thankfulness, with surprise; many thanks.
  1. Quotations
    • Gramercy, Mammon, said the gentle knight.

Spenser.