From Ancient Greek Εὐφράτης (Euphrátēs), from Old Persian 𐎢𐎳𐎼𐎠𐎬𐎢 (Ufrātu), from Elamite [script needed] (ú-ip-ra-tu-iš). Related is Akkadian [script needed] (purattu) (compare Classical Syriac ܦܪܬ (P(ə)rāṯ)). The Elamite, Akkadian, and possibly Sumerian forms are either from an unrecorded substrate language, or from Proto-Sumerian *burudu "copper" (Sumerian 𒍏 (urudu)) with an explanation that Euphrates was the river by which the copper ore was transported in rafts, since Mesopotamia was the center of copper metallurgy at the period.
- The river in the Middle East, 2780 kilometers in length, flowing southwest from Turkey, then southeast, and uniting with the Tigris before entering the Persian Gulf. It forms the Western edge of classical Mesopotamia.