Module:ru-verb/sandbox

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--[=[
    This module contains functions for creating inflection tables for Russian
    verbs.
]=]--
 
local com = require("Module:ru-common")
local translit = require("Module:ru-translit")
 
local export = {}
 
-- Within this module, conjugations are the functions that do the actual
-- conjugating by creating the forms of a basic verb.
-- They are defined further down.
local conjugations = {}
 
-- The main entry point.
-- This is the only function that can be invoked from a template.
function export.show(frame)
    local conj_type = frame.args[1] or error("Conjugation type has not been specified. Please pass parameter 1 to the module invocation")
    local args = frame:getParent().args
    PAGENAME = mw.title.getCurrentTitle().text
    NAMESPACE = mw.title.getCurrentTitle().nsText
 
    -- Verb type, one of impf, pf, impf-intr, pf-intr, impf-refl, pf-refl.
    -- Default to impf on the template page so that there is no script error.
    local verb_type = args[1] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "impf") or error("Verb type (first parameter) has not been provided")
    -- verbs may have reflexive ending stressed in the masculine singular: занялся́, начался́, etc.
    local reflex_stress = args["reflex_stress"] -- "ся́"
 
    local forms, title, categories
 
    if conjugations[conj_type] then
        forms, title, categories = conjugations[conj_type](args)
    else
        error("Unknown conjugation type '" .. conj_type .. "'")
    end
 
    local intr = (verb_type == "impf-intr" or verb_type == "pf-intr" or verb_type == "pf-impers" or verb_type == "impf-impers" or verb_type == "pf-impers-refl" or verb_type == "impf-impers-refl")
    local refl = (verb_type == "impf-refl" or verb_type == "pf-refl" or verb_type == "pf-impers-refl" or verb_type == "impf-impers-refl")
    local perf = (verb_type == "pf" or verb_type == "pf-intr" or verb_type == "pf-refl" or verb_type == "pf-impers" or verb_type == "pf-impers-refl")
    --impersonal
    local impers = (verb_type == "pf-impers" or verb_type == "impf-impers" or verb_type == "pf-impers-refl" or verb_type == "impf-impers-refl")
 
    -- Perfective/imperfective
    if perf then
        table.insert(categories, "Russian perfective verbs")
    else
        table.insert(categories, "Russian imperfective verbs")
    end
 
    -- call alternative reflexive form to add a stressed "ся́" particle
    if reflex_stress then
        make_reflexive_alt(forms)
    end        
 
    -- Reflexive/intransitive/transitive
    if refl then
        make_reflexive(forms)
        table.insert(categories, "Russian reflexive verbs")    
    elseif intr then
        table.insert(categories, "Russian intransitive verbs")
    else
        table.insert(categories, "Russian transitive verbs")
    end
 
    -- Impersonal
    if impers then
        table.insert(categories, "Russian impersonal verbs")
    end
 
    local ret=''
 
    if NAMESPACE == "" then
        local sort_key = com.sort_key(PAGENAME)
        ret = "[[Category:" .. table.concat( categories , "|"..sort_key.."]]\n[[Category:" ) .. ']]'
    end
 
    return make_table(forms, title, perf, intr or refl, impers) .. ret
end
 
-- Auxiliary function to build piece of paradigm
function specforms(forms, spec, pref)
    -- spec is a string in format "pres_actv_part=ющий pres_pasv_part=емый"
    -- pref is optional
    for k,e,v in spec:gmatch('([^%s=]+)(%=?)(%S*)') do
        forms[k] = e~='' and (pref or '')..v or nil
    end
end
 
--[=[
    Conjugation functions
]=]--
 
conjugations["1a"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 1 verbs"}
    local title = "class 1"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
 
    specforms(forms,[=[
    infinitive=ть
    pres_actv_part=ющий
    past_actv_part=вший
    pres_pasv_part=емый
    pres_adv_part=я
    past_adv_part=вши past_adv_part_short=в
    ]=],stem);
 
    present_je_a(forms, stem);
 
    specforms(forms,[=[
    impr_sg=й
    impr_pl=йте
 
    past_m=л past_f=ла past_n=ло past_pl=ли
    ]=],stem)
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["2a"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 2 verbs"}
    local title = "class 2"
 
    local inf_stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local pres_stem = inf_stem
    pres_stem = mw.ustring.gsub(pres_stem, "[ео](́?)ва(́?)$","у%1%2")
 
    forms["infinitive"] = inf_stem .. "ть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = pres_stem .. "ющий"
    forms["past_actv_part"] = inf_stem .. "вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = pres_stem .. "емый"
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = pres_stem .. "я"
    forms["past_adv_part"] = inf_stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = inf_stem .. "в"
 
    present_je_a(forms, pres_stem)
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = pres_stem .. "й"
    forms["impr_pl"] = pres_stem .. "йте"
 
    forms["past_m"] = inf_stem .. "л"
    forms["past_f"] = inf_stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = inf_stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = inf_stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["2b"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 2 verbs"}
    local title = "class 2"
 
    local inf_stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local pres_stem = inf_stem
    pres_stem = mw.ustring.gsub(pres_stem, "о(́?)ва(́?)$", "у%1%2")
    pres_stem = mw.ustring.gsub(pres_stem, "е(́?)ва(́?)$", "ю%1%2")
    local pres_stem_noa = com.remove_accents(pres_stem)
 
    forms["infinitive"] = inf_stem .. "ть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = pres_stem_noa .. "ю́щий"
    forms["past_actv_part"] = inf_stem .. "вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = pres_stem_noa .. "я́"
    forms["past_adv_part"] = inf_stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = inf_stem .. "в"
 
    present_je_b(forms, pres_stem_noa)
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = pres_stem .. "й"
    forms["impr_pl"] = pres_stem .. "йте"
 
    forms["past_m"] = inf_stem .. "л"
    forms["past_f"] = inf_stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = inf_stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = inf_stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["3a"] = function(args)
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 3 verbs"}
    local title = "class 3"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    -- non-empty if no short past forms to be used
    local no_short_past = args[3]; if no_short_past == "" then no_short_past = nil end
    -- non-empty if no short past participle forms to be used
    local no_short_past_partcpl = args[4]; if no_short_past_partcpl == "" then no_short_past_partcpl = nil end
    -- "нь" if "-нь"/"-ньте" instead of "-ни"/"-ните" in the imperative
    local impr_end = args[5]
    -- optional full infinitive form for verbs like достичь
    local full_inf = args[6]; if full_inf == "" then full_inf = nil end
    -- optional short masculine past form for verbs like вять
    local past_m_short = args[7]; if past_m_short == "" then past_m_short = nil end
 
    -- if full infinitive is not passed, build from the stem, otherwise use the optional parameter
    if not full_inf then
        forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "нуть"
    else
        forms["infinitive"] = full_inf
    end
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem .. "нущий"
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "нувший"
    -- default is blank    
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "нувши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "нув"
 
    present_e_a(forms, stem .. "н")
 
    -- "ни" or "нь"
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem .. (impr_end or "ни")
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem .. (impr_end or "ни") .. "те"
 
    -- if the 4rd argument is empty, add short past active participle,
    -- both short and long will be used
    if no_short_past_partcpl then 
        forms["past_actv_part_short"] = ""
    else
        forms["past_actv_part_short"] = stem .. "ший"
    end
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem .. "нул"
    forms["past_f"] = stem .. "нула"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "нуло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "нули"
 
    -- if the 3rd argument is empty add short past forms
    if not no_short_past then
        -- use long and short past forms
        forms["past_m_short"] = stem
        forms["past_f_short"] = stem .. "ла"
        forms["past_n_short"] = stem .. "ло"
        forms["past_pl_short"] = stem .. "ли"
    elseif no_short_past then
        forms["past_m_short"] = ""
        forms["past_f_short"] = ""
        forms["past_n_short"] = ""
        forms["past_pl_short"] = ""
    else    -- default
        forms["past_m_short"] = stem
        forms["past_f_short"] = stem .. "ла"
        forms["past_n_short"] = stem .. "ло"
        forms["past_pl_short"] = stem .. "ли"
    end
 
    -- if past_m_short is special, e.g. вять - вял, then use it, otherwise use the current value
    forms["past_m_short"] = (past_m_short or forms["past_m_short"])
 
    if forms["past_m_short"] ~= "" then
        forms["past_m"] = forms["past_m_short"] .. ", " .. forms["past_m"]
    end
    if forms["past_f_short"] ~= "" then
        forms["past_f"] = forms["past_f_short"] .. ", " .. forms["past_f"]
    end
    if forms["past_n_short"] ~= "" then
        forms["past_n"] = forms["past_n_short"] .. ", " .. forms["past_n"]
    end
    if forms["past_pl_short"] ~= "" then
        forms["past_pl"] = forms["past_pl_short"] .. ", " .. forms["past_pl"]
    end 
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["3b"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 3 verbs"}
    local title = "class 3"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "у́ть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem .. "у́щий"
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "у́вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "у́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "у́в"
 
    present_e_b(forms, stem)
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem .. "и́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem .. "и́те"
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem .. "у́л"
    forms["past_f"] = stem .. "у́ла"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "у́ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "у́ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["3c"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 3 verbs"}
    local title = "class 3"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    -- remove accent for some forms
    local stem_noa = com.remove_accents(stem)
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem_noa .. "у́ть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem_noa .. "у́щий"
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem_noa .. "у́вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem_noa .. "у́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem_noa .. "у́в"
 
    present_e_c(forms, stem)
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem_noa .. "и́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem_noa .. "и́те"
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem_noa .. "у́л"
    forms["past_f"] = stem_noa .. "у́ла"
    forms["past_n"] = stem_noa .. "у́ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem_noa .. "у́ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["4a"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 4 verbs"}
    local title = "class 4"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    -- for "a" stress type "й" - after vowels, "ь" - after single consonants, "и" - after consonant clusters
    local impr_end_param = args[3]
    -- optional parameter for verbs like похитить (похи́щу) (4a), защитить (защищу́) (4b), поглотить (поглощу́) (4c) with a different iotation (т -> щ, not ч)
    local shch = args[4]; if shch == "" then shch = nil end
 
    --set defaults if nothing is passed, "й" for stems ending in a vowel, "ь" for single consonant ending, "и" for double consonant ending
    -- "й" after any vowel, with or without an acute accent (беспоко́ить), no parameter passed
    local impr_end = ""
    if impr_end_param then
        impr_end = impr_end_param
    elseif mw.ustring.find(stem, "[аэыоуяеиёю́]$") then
        impr_end = "й"
    -- "и" after two consonants in a row (мо́рщить, зафре́ндить), no parameter passed
    elseif mw.ustring.find(stem, "[бвгджзклмнпрстфхцчшщ][бвгджзклмнпрстфхцчшщ]$") then
        impr_end = "и"
    -- "ь" after a single consonant (бре́дить), no parameter passed
    elseif mw.ustring.find(stem, "[аэыоуяеиёю́][бвгджзклмнпрстфхцчшщ]$") then
        impr_end = "ь"
    -- default
    else --default
        impr_end = "ь"
    end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "ить"
 
    -- Verbs ending in a hushing consonant do not get j-vowels in the endings.
    if mw.ustring.find(stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem .. "ащий"
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = stem .. "а"
        -- use the passed parameter or default
        forms["impr_sg"] = stem .. impr_end
        forms["impr_pl"] = stem .. impr_end .. "те"
    else
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem .. "ящий"
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = stem .. "я"
        -- use the passed parameter or default
        forms["impr_sg"] = stem .. impr_end
        forms["impr_pl"] = stem .. impr_end .. "те"
    end
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "ивший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = stem .. "имый"
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "ивши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "ив"
 
    -- if shch is nil, pass nothing, otherwise pass "щ"
    if not shch then
        present_i_a(forms, stem)    -- param #3 must be a string
    else -- tell the conjugator that this is an exception
        present_i_a(forms, stem, shch)
    end
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem .. "ил"
    forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ила"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ило"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "или"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["4b"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 4 verbs"}
    local title = "class 4"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    -- optional parameter for verbs like похитить (похи́щу) (4a), защитить (защищу́) (4b), поглотить (поглощу́) (4c) with a different iotation (т -> щ, not ч)
    local shch = args[3]; if shch == "" then shch = nil end
    -- some verbs don't have 1st person singular - победить, возродить, use "no_1sg_futr=1" in the template
    local no_1sg_futr = "0"
    local past_f = args["past_f"]
 
    if not args["no_1sg_futr"] then
        no_1sg_futr = 0
    elseif args["no_1sg_futr"] == "1" then
        no_1sg_futr = 1
    else
        no_1sg_futr = 0
    end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "и́ть"
 
    -- Verbs ending in a hushing consonant do not get j-vowels in the endings.
    if mw.ustring.find(stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem .. "а́щий"
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = stem .. "а́"
    else
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem .. "я́щий" 
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = stem .. "я́"
    end
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "и́вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = stem .. "и́мый"
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "и́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "и́в"
 
    -- if shch is nil, pass nothing, otherwise pass "щ"
    if not shch then
        present_i_b(forms, stem)
    elseif no_1sg_futr then -- no 1st person future
        present_i_b(forms, stem, no_1sg_futr)
    else -- т-щ, not т-ч
        present_i_b(forms, stem, 0, shch)
    end
 
    -- make 1st person future singular blank if no_1sg_futr = 1
    if no_1sg_futr == 1 then
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = ""
    end
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem .. "и́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem .. "и́те"
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem .. "и́л"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "и́ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "и́ли"
 
    if past_f then
        forms["past_f"] = past_f
    else
        forms["past_f"] = stem .. "и́ла"
    end
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["4c"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 4 verbs"}
    local title = "class 4"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    -- optional parameter for verbs like похитить (похи́щу) (4a), защитить (защищу́) (4b), поглотить (поглощу́) (4c) with a different iotation (т -> щ, not ч)
    local shch = args[3]; if shch == "" then shch = nil end
 
    -- remove accent for some forms
    local stem_noa = com.remove_accents(stem)
    -- replace consonants for 1st person singular present/future
    local iotated_stem = com.iotation(stem_noa)
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem_noa .. "и́ть"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem_noa .. "и́вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = stem_noa .. "и́мый"
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem_noa .. "и́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem_noa .. "и́в"    
 
    -- Verbs ending in a hushing consonant do not get j-vowels in the endings.
    if mw.ustring.find(stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem_noa .. "а́щий"
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = stem_noa .. "а́"
    else
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem_noa .. "я́щий" 
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = stem_noa .. "я́"
    end
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem_noa .. "и́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem_noa .. "и́те"
 
    -- if shch is nil, pass nothing, otherwise pass "щ"
    if not shch then
        present_i_c(forms, stem)    -- param #3 must be a string
    else -- tell the conjugator that this is an exception
        present_i_c(forms, stem, shch)
    end
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem_noa .. "и́л"
    forms["past_f"] = stem_noa .. "и́ла"
    forms["past_n"] = stem_noa .. "и́ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem_noa .. "и́ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["5a"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 5 verbs"}
    local title = "class 5"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    -- обидеть, выстоять have different past tense and infinitive forms
    local past_stem = args[3]; if past_stem == "" then past_stem = nil end    
    -- imperative ending, выгнать - выгони
    local impr_end = args[4]; if impr_end == "" then impr_end = nil end
 
    if not past_stem then
        past_stem = stem .. "е"
    end
 
    if not impr_end then
        impr_end = "ь"
    end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = past_stem .. "ть"
 
    -- Verbs ending in a hushing consonant do not get j-vowels in the endings.
    if mw.ustring.find(stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem .. "ащий"
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = stem .. "а"
    else
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem .. "ящий" 
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = stem .. "я"
    end
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = past_stem .. "вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = stem .. "имый"
    forms["past_adv_part"] = past_stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = past_stem .. "в"
 
    -- "й" after any vowel (e.g. выстоять), with or without an acute accent, otherwise "ь"
    if mw.ustring.find(stem, "[аэыоуяеиёю́]$") and impr_end == nil then
        impr_end = "й"
    end
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem .. impr_end
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem .. impr_end .. "те"
 
    present_i_a(forms, stem)
 
    forms["past_m"] = past_stem .. "л"
    forms["past_f"] = past_stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = past_stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = past_stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["5b"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 5 verbs"}
    local title = "class 5"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local past_stem = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
    -- irreg: лежать - лёжа
    local pres_adv_part = args[4]; if pres_adv_part == "" then pres_adv_part = nil end    
 
    if mw.ustring.find(stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem .. "а́щий"
    else
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem .. "я́щий"
    end
 
    -- override if passed as a parameter, e.g. лёжа
    if pres_adv_part then
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = pres_adv_part
    elseif mw.ustring.find(stem, "[шщжч]$") and not pres_adv_part then
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = stem .. "а́"
    else
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = stem .. "я́"
    end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = past_stem .. "ть"
    forms["past_actv_part"] = past_stem .. "вший"
    forms["past_adv_part"] = past_stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = past_stem .. "в"
    forms["past_m"] = past_stem .. "л"
    forms["past_f"] = past_stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = past_stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = past_stem .. "ли"
 
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = "и́мый"
 
    present_i_b(forms, stem)
 
    -- "й" after any vowel (e.g. выстоять), with or without an acute accent, otherwise "ь"
    local impr_end = "и́"
    if mw.ustring.find(stem, "[аэыоуяеиёю́]$") then
        impr_end = "́й" -- the last vowel is stressed (an acute accent before "й")
    end
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem .. impr_end
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem .. impr_end .. "те"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["5c"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 5 verbs"}
    local title = "class 5"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local past_stem = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
    -- e.g. гнать - гнала́
    local fem_past = args[4]; if fem_past == "" then fem_past = nil end
 
    -- remove accent for some forms
    local stem_noa = com.remove_accents(stem)
    -- replace consonants for 1st person singular present/future
    local iotated_stem = com.iotation(stem_noa)
 
    forms["infinitive"] = past_stem .. "ть"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = past_stem .. "вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = stem_noa .. "и́мый"
    forms["past_adv_part"] = past_stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = past_stem .. "в"    
 
    -- Verbs ending in a hushing consonant do not get j-vowels in the endings.
    if mw.ustring.find(stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem_noa .. "а́щий"
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = stem_noa .. "а́"
    else
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem_noa .. "я́щий" 
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = stem_noa .. "я́"
    end
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem_noa .. "и́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem_noa .. "и́те"
 
    present_i_c(forms, stem)
 
    -- some verbs have a different stress in the feminine past from, e.g. гнать - гнала
    if not fem_past then
        forms["past_f"] = past_stem .. "ла"
    else
        forms["past_f"] = fem_past
    end
 
    forms["past_m"] = past_stem .. "л" 
    forms["past_n"] = past_stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = past_stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["6a"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 6 verbs"}
    local title = "class 6"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local impr_end = args[3]; if impr_end == "" then impr_end = nil end
    -- irregular imperatives (сыпать  - сыпь is moved to a separate function but the parameter may still be needed)
    local impr_sg = args[4]; if impr_sg == "" then impr_sg = nil end
    -- optional full infinitive form for verbs like колебать
    local full_inf = args[5]; if full_inf == "" then full_inf = nil end
    -- no iotation, e.g. вырвать - вы́рву
    local no_iotation = nil
    if args["no_iotation"] == "1" then
        no_iotation = "1"
    end
    -- вызвать - вы́зову (в́ызов)
    local pres_stem = args["pres_stem"]; if pres_stem == "" or not pres_stem then pres_stem = stem end
 
    -- replace consonants for 1st person singular present/future
    local iotated_stem = com.iotation(pres_stem)
 
    if mw.ustring.find(iotated_stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = iotated_stem .. "ущий"
    else
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = iotated_stem .. "ющий"
    end
 
    if mw.ustring.find(iotated_stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = iotated_stem .. "а"
    else
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = iotated_stem .. "я"
    end
 
    if no_iotation then
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = pres_stem .. "я"
    end
 
    if mw.ustring.find(stem, "[аэыоуяеиёю́]$") then
        forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "ять"
        forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "явший"
        forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "явши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "яв"
        forms["past_m"] = stem .. "ял"
        forms["past_f"] = stem .. "яла"
        forms["past_n"] = stem .. "яло"
        forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "яли"        
    else
        forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "ать"
        forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "авший"
        forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "авши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "ав"
        forms["past_m"] = stem .. "ал"
        forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ала"
        forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ало"
        forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "али"        
    end
 
    -- if full infinitive is not passed, build from the stem, otherwise use the optional parameter
    if full_inf then
        forms["infinitive"] = full_inf
    end
 
    if no_iotation then
        forms["pres_pasv_part"] = stem .. "емый"        
    else
        forms["pres_pasv_part"] = iotated_stem .. "емый"        
    end
 
    present_je_a(forms, pres_stem, no_iotation)
 
    if not impr_end and mw.ustring.find(stem, "[аэыоуяеиёю́]$") and not impr_end then
        impr_end = "й"
    elseif not impr_end and not mw.ustring.find(stem, "[аэыоуяеиёю́]$") and not impr_end then
        impr_end = "и"
    end
 
    if no_iotation then
        forms["impr_sg"] = pres_stem .. impr_end
        forms["impr_pl"] = pres_stem .. impr_end .. "те"
    else
        forms["impr_sg"] = iotated_stem .. impr_end
        forms["impr_pl"] = iotated_stem .. impr_end .. "те"
    end
 
    -- irreg: сыпать  - сыпь, сыпьте
    if impr_sg then
        forms["impr_sg"] = impr_sg
        forms["impr_pl"] = impr_sg .. "те"
    end
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["6b"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 6 verbs"}
    local title = "class 6"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    -- звать - зов, драть - дер
    local pres_stem = args[3]; if pres_stem == "" or not pres_stem then pres_stem = stem end
    local past_f = args[4]; if past_f == "" then past_f = nil end
    local past_n2 = args["past_n2"]
    local past_pl2 = args["past_pl2"]
 
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
 
    present_e_b(forms, pres_stem)
 
    if not impr_end and mw.ustring.find(stem, "[аэыоуяеиёю́]$") and not impr_end then
        impr_end = "́й" -- accent on the preceding vowel
    elseif not impr_end and not mw.ustring.find(stem, "[аэыоуяеиёю́]$") and not impr_end then
        impr_end = "и́"
    end
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = pres_stem .. impr_end
    forms["impr_pl"] = pres_stem .. impr_end .. "те"
 
    if mw.ustring.find(pres_stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = pres_stem .. "а́"
    else
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = pres_stem .. "я́"
    end
 
    if mw.ustring.find(pres_stem, "[аэыоуяеиёю́]$") then
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = pres_stem .. "ю́щий"
    else
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = pres_stem .. "у́щий"
    end
 
    if mw.ustring.find(stem, "[аэыоуяеиёю́]$") then
        forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "я́ть"
        forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "я́вший"
        forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "я́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "́яв"
        forms["past_m"] = stem .. "я́л"
        forms["past_f"] = stem .. "я́ла"
        forms["past_n"] = stem .. "я́ло"
        forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "я́ли"        
    else
        forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "а́ть"    
        forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "а́вший"
        forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "а́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "а́в"
        forms["past_m"] = stem .. "а́л"
        forms["past_f"] = stem .. "а́ла"
        forms["past_n"] = stem .. "а́ло"
        forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "а́ли"        
    end
 
    -- ждала́, подождала́
    if past_f then
        forms["past_f"] = past_f
    end
    --разобрало́сь (разобрало́)
    forms["past_n2"] = past_n2
    --разобрали́сь (разобрали́)
    forms["past_pl2"] = past_pl2
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["6c"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 6 verbs"}
    local title = "class 6"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    -- remove accent for some forms
    local stem_noa = com.make_unstressed(stem)
    -- iotate the stem
    local iotated_stem = com.iotation(stem)
    -- iotate the 2nd stem
    local iotated_stem_noa = com.iotation(stem_noa)
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem_noa .. "а́ть"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem_noa .. "а́вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem_noa .. "а́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem_noa .. "а́в"
 
    -- Verbs ending in a hushing consonant do not get j-vowels in the endings.
    if mw.ustring.find(iotated_stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = iotated_stem ..  "ущий"
    else
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = iotated_stem ..  "ющий"
    end
 
    -- Verbs ending in a hushing consonant do not get j-vowels in the endings.
    if mw.ustring.find(iotated_stem_noa, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = iotated_stem_noa ..  "а́"
    else
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = iotated_stem_noa ..  "я́"
    end
 
    present_je_c(forms, stem)
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = iotated_stem_noa .. "и́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = iotated_stem_noa .. "и́те"
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem_noa .. "а́л"
    forms["past_f"] = stem_noa .. "а́ла"
    forms["past_n"] = stem_noa .. "а́ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem_noa .. "а́ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["7a"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 7 verbs"}
    local title = "class 7"
 
    local full_inf = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local pres_stem = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
    local past_stem = args[4] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Fourth parameter has not been provided")
    local impr_sg = args[5] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Fifth parameter has not been provided")
    local past_adv_part = args[6] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Sixth parameter has not been provided")
    local past_m = args["past_m"]
    local pres_adv_part = args["pres_adv_part"]
    local past_actv_part = args["past_actv_part"]
 
    forms["infinitive"] = full_inf
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = pres_stem .. "ущий"
 
    -- вычесть - "" (non-existent)
    if past_actv_part then
        forms["past_actv_part"] = past_actv_part
    else
        forms["past_actv_part"] = past_stem .. "ший"
    end
 
    -- лезть - ле́зши (non-existent)
    if pres_adv_part then
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = pres_adv_part
    else
        forms["pres_adv_part"] =pres_stem .. "я"
    end
 
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = past_adv_part; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = ""
 
    present_e_a(forms, pres_stem)
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = impr_sg
    forms["impr_pl"] = impr_sg .. "те"
 
    -- 0 ending if the past stem ends in a consonant
    if mw.ustring.find(past_stem, "[аэыоуяеиёю́]$") then
        forms["past_m"] = past_stem .. "л"
    else
        forms["past_m"] = past_stem
    end
 
    -- вычесть - вы́чел
    if past_m then
        forms["past_m"] = past_m
    end
 
    forms["past_f"] = past_stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = past_stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = past_stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["7b"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 7 verbs"}
    local title = "class 7"
 
    local full_inf = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local pres_stem = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
    local past_stem = args[4] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Fourth parameter has not been provided")
 
    local pres_pasv_part = args["pres_pasv_part"]
    local past_actv_part = args["past_actv_part"]
    local past_adv_part = args["past_adv_part"]
    local past_adv_part_short = args["past_adv_part_short"]
 
    local past_m = args["past_m"]
    local past_n = args["past_n"]
    local past_f = args["past_f"]
    local past_pl = args["past_pl"]
 
    forms["infinitive"] = full_inf
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = pres_stem .. "у́щий"
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = pres_stem .. "я́"    
 
    if past_actv_part then
        forms["past_actv_part"] = past_actv_part
    else
        forms["past_actv_part"] = past_stem .. "ший"
    end
 
    if past_adv_part then
        forms["past_adv_part"] = past_adv_part
    else
        forms["past_adv_part"] = past_stem .. "вши"
    end
 
    if past_adv_part_short then
        forms["past_adv_part_short"] = past_adv_part_short
    else
        forms["past_adv_part_short"] = past_stem .. "в"
    end
 
    if pres_pasv_part then
        forms["pres_pasv_part"] = pres_pasv_part
    else
        forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    end
 
    present_e_b(forms, pres_stem)
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = pres_stem .. "и́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = pres_stem .. "и́те"
 
    -- 0 ending if the past stem ends in a consonant
    if mw.ustring.find(past_stem, "[аэыоуяеиёю́]$") then
        forms["past_m"] = past_stem .. "л"
    else
        forms["past_m"] = past_stem
    end
 
    if past_m then
        forms["past_m"] = past_m
    end
 
    if past_f then
        forms["past_f"] = past_f
    else
        forms["past_f"] = past_stem .. "ла"
    end
    if past_n then
        forms["past_n"] = past_n
    else
        forms["past_n"] = past_stem .. "ло"
    end
    if past_pl then
        forms["past_pl"] = past_pl
    else
        forms["past_pl"] = past_stem .. "ли"
    end
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["8a"] = function(args)
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 8 verbs"}
    local title = "class 8"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local full_inf = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
    local past_m = args["past_m"] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("past_m parameter has not been provided")
    -- if full infinitive is not passed, build from the stem, otherwise use the optional parameter
    forms["infinitive"] = full_inf
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem .. "ущий"
    forms["past_actv_part"] = past_m .. "ший"
    -- default is blank    
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = past_m .. "ши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = ""
 
    local iotated_stem = com.iotation(stem)
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = stem .. "у"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = iotated_stem .. "ешь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = iotated_stem .. "ет"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = iotated_stem .. "ем"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = iotated_stem .. "ете"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "ут"
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem .. "и"
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem .. "ите"
 
    forms["past_m"] = past_m
    forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["8b"] = function(args)
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 8 verbs"}
    local title = "class 8"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local full_inf = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
    local past_m = args["past_m"] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("past_m parameter has not been provided")
    -- if full infinitive is not passed, build from the stem, otherwise use the optional parameter
    forms["infinitive"] = full_inf
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem .. "у́щий"
    forms["past_actv_part"] = past_m .. "ший"
    -- default is blank    
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = past_m .. "ши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = ""
 
    local iotated_stem = com.iotation(stem)
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = stem .. "у́"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "у́т"
 
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = iotated_stem .. "ёшь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = iotated_stem .. "ёт"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = iotated_stem .. "ём"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = iotated_stem .. "ёте"
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem .. "и́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem .. "и́те"
 
    forms["past_m"] = past_m
    forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ла́"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ло́"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "ли́"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["9a"] = function(args)
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 9 verbs"}
    local title = "class 9"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local pres_stem = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "еть"
 
    -- prefective only
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "евший"
    -- default is blank    
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "евши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "ев"
 
    present_e_a(forms, pres_stem)
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = pres_stem .. "и"
    forms["impr_pl"] = pres_stem .. "ите"
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem
    forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["9b"] = function(args)
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 9 verbs"}
    local title = "class 9"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local pres_stem = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
    local past_adv_part2 = args["past_adv_part2"]
    -- remove stress, replace ё with е
    local stem_noa = com.make_unstressed(stem)
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem_noa .. "е́ть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = pres_stem .. "у́щий"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "ший"
    -- default is blank    
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem_noa .. "е́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem_noa .. "е́в"
    --eg тереть - тёрши
    if past_adv_part2 then
        forms["past_adv_part2"] = past_adv_part2
    end
 
    present_e_b(forms, pres_stem)
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = pres_stem .. "и́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = pres_stem .. "и́те"
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem
    forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["10a"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 10 verbs"}
    local title = "class 10"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "оть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "овший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "овши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "ов"
 
    present_je_a(forms, stem)
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem .. "и"
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem .. "ите"
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem .. "ол"
    forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ола"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "оло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "оли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["10c"] = function(args)
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 10 verbs"}
    local title = "class 10"
 
    local inf_stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    -- present tense stressed stem "моло́ть" - м́елет
    local pres_stem = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
    -- remove accent for some forms
    local pres_stem_noa = com.remove_accents(pres_stem)
 
    forms["infinitive"] = inf_stem .. "ть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = pres_stem .. "ющий"
    forms["past_actv_part"] = inf_stem .. "вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = pres_stem_noa .. "я́"
    forms["past_adv_part"] = inf_stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = inf_stem .. "в"
 
    present_je_c(forms, pres_stem)
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = pres_stem_noa .. "и́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = pres_stem_noa .. "и́те"
 
    forms["past_m"] = inf_stem .. "л"
    forms["past_f"] = inf_stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = inf_stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = inf_stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["11a"] = function(args)
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 11 verbs"}
    local title = "class 11"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "ить"
 
    -- prefective only
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "ивший"
    -- default is blank    
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "ивши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "ив"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = stem .. "ью"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = stem .. "ьешь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = stem .. "ьет"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = stem .. "ьем"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = stem .. "ьете"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "ьют"
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem .. "ей"
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem .. "ейте"
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem .. "ил"
    forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ила"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ило"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "или"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["11b"] = function(args)
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 11 verbs"}
    local title = "class 11"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local pres_stem = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
    local past_f = args["past_f"]
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "и́ть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = pres_stem .. "ью́щий"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = pres_stem .. "ья́"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "и́вший"
    -- default is blank    
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "и́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "и́в"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = pres_stem .. "ью́"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = pres_stem .. "ьёшь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = pres_stem .. "ьёт"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = pres_stem .. "ьём"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = pres_stem .. "ьёте"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = pres_stem .. "ью́т"
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem .. "е́й"
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem .. "е́йте"
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem .. "и́л"
    forms["past_f"] = stem .. "и́ла"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "и́ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "и́ли"
    -- пила́, лила́
    if past_f then 
        forms["past_f"] =past_f
    else
        forms["past_f"] = stem .. "и́ла"
    end
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["12a"] = function(args)
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 12 verbs"}
    local title = "class 12"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local pres_stem = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "ть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = pres_stem .. "ющий"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = pres_stem .. "емый"
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = pres_stem .. "я"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "вший"
    -- default is blank    
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "в"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = pres_stem .. "ю"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = pres_stem .. "ешь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = pres_stem .. "ет"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = pres_stem .. "ем"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = pres_stem .. "ете"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = pres_stem .. "ют"
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = pres_stem .. "й"
    forms["impr_pl"] = pres_stem .. "йте"
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem .. "л"
    forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["12b"] = function(args)
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 12 verbs"}
    local title = "class 12"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local pres_stem = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
    -- гнила́ needs a parameter, default - пе́ла
    local past_f = args["past_f"]
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "ть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = pres_stem .. "ю́щий"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = pres_stem .. "я́"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "вший"
    -- default is blank    
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "в"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = pres_stem .. "ю́"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = pres_stem .. "ёшь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = pres_stem .. "ёт"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = pres_stem .. "ём"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = pres_stem .. "ёте"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = pres_stem .. "ю́т"
 
    -- the preceding vowel is stressed
    forms["impr_sg"] = pres_stem .. "́й"
    forms["impr_pl"] = pres_stem .. "́йте"
 
    -- гнила́
    if past_f then 
        forms["past_f"] = past_f
    else
        forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ла"
    end
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem .. "л"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["13b"] = function(args)
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 13 verbs"}
    local title = "class 13"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local pres_stem = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "ть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = pres_stem .. "ю́щий"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = stem .. "я"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "вший"
    -- default is blank    
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "в"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = pres_stem .. "ю́"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = pres_stem .. "ёшь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = pres_stem .. "ёт"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = pres_stem .. "ём"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = pres_stem .. "ёте"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = pres_stem .. "ю́т"
 
    -- the preceding vowel is stressed
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem .. "́й"
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem .. "́йте"
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem .. "л"
    forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["14a"] = function(args)
    -- only one verb: вы́жать
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 14 verbs"}
    local title = "class 14"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local pres_stem = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "ть"
 
    -- perfective only
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "вший"
    -- default is blank    
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "в"
 
    present_e_a(forms, pres_stem)
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = pres_stem .. "и"
    forms["impr_pl"] = pres_stem .. "ите"
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem .. "л"
    forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["14b"] = function(args)
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 14 verbs"}
    local title = "class 14"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local pres_stem = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
    -- заня́ться has three forms: за́нялся, зан́ялся, занялся́
    local past_m = args["past_m"]
    local past_m2 = args["past_m2"]
    local past_m3 = args["past_m3"]
    local past_f = args["past_f"]
    local past_n = args["past_n"]
    local past_n2 = args["past_n2"]
    local past_pl = args["past_pl"]
    local past_pl2 = args["past_pl2"]
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "ть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = pres_stem .. "у́щий"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = pres_stem .. "я́"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "вший"
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "в"
 
    present_e_b(forms, pres_stem)
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = pres_stem .. "и́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = pres_stem .. "и́те"
 
    if past_m then
        forms["past_m"] = past_m
        forms["past_n"] = past_m .. "о"
        forms["past_pl"] = past_m .. "и"        
    else
        forms["past_m"] = stem .. "л"
        forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ла"
        forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ло"
        forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "ли"
    end
 
    if past_f then
        forms["past_f"] = past_f
    end
 
    -- override these if supplied
    if past_n then
        forms["past_n"] = past_n
    end
 
    if past_pl then
        forms["past_pl"] = past_pl
    end
 
    if past_m2 then
        forms["past_m2"] = past_m2
    end
 
    if past_m3 then
        forms["past_m3"] = past_m3
    end
 
    if past_n2 then
        forms["past_n2"] = past_n2
    end
 
    if past_pl2 then
        forms["past_pl2"] = past_pl2
    end
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["14c"] = function(args)
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 14 verbs"}
    local title = "class 14"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local pres_stem = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
    local pres_stem_noa = com.make_unstressed(pres_stem)
    local past_m = args["past_m"]
    local past_f = args["past_f"]
    local past_n = args["past_n"]
    local past_pl = args["past_pl"]
    local past_m2 = args["past_m2"]
    local past_n2 = args["past_n2"]
    local past_pl2 = args["past_pl2"]
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "ть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = pres_stem .. "у́щий"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = pres_stem .. "я́"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "вший"
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "в"
 
    present_e_c(forms, pres_stem)
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = pres_stem_noa .. "и́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = pres_stem_noa .. "и́те"
 
    if past_m then
        forms["past_m"] = past_m
        forms["past_n"] = past_m .. "о"
        forms["past_pl"] = past_m .. "и"        
    else
        forms["past_m"] = stem .. "л"
        forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ло"
        forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "ли"
    end
 
    if past_n then
        forms["past_n"] = past_n
    end
    --изъя́ла but приняла́
    if past_f then
        forms["past_f"] = past_f
    else
        forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ла"
    end
 
    --two forms: при́нялся, принялс́я
    if past_m2 then
        forms["past_m2"] = past_m2
    end
 
    if past_n2 then
        forms["past_n2"] = past_n2
    end
 
    if past_pl then
        forms["past_pl"] = past_pl
    end
 
    if past_pl2 then
        forms["past_pl2"] = past_pl2
    end
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["15a"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 15 verbs"}
    local title = "class 15"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "ть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem .. "нущий"
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "в"
 
    present_e_a(forms, stem .. "н")
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem .. "нь"
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem .. "ньте"
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem .. "л"
    forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["16a"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 16 verbs"}
    local title = "class 16"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "ть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem .. "ву́щий"
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "в"
 
    present_e_a(forms, stem .. "в")
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem .. "ви"
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem .. "вите"
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem .. "л"
    forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["16b"] = function(args)
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian class 16 verbs"}
    local title = "class 16"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local stem_noa = com.make_unstressed(stem)
 
    local past_n2 = args["past_n2"]
    local past_pl2 = args["past_pl2"]
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "ть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem_noa .. "ву́щий"
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = stem_noa .. "вя́"
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "в"
 
    present_e_b(forms, stem_noa .. "в")
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = stem_noa .. "ви́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = stem_noa .. "ви́те"
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem .. "л"
    forms["past_f"] = stem_noa .. "ла́"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "ли"
 
    -- прижило́сь, прижи́лось
    if past_n2 then
        forms["past_n2"] = past_n2
    end
 
    if past_pl2 then
        forms["past_pl2"] = past_pl2
    end
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-бежать"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for verbs derived from бежать with the same stress pattern
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "бежа́ть"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "бежа́вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "бежа́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "бежа́в"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = prefix .. "бегу́щий" 
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "беги́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "беги́те"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "бегу́"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "бежи́шь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "бежи́т"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "бежи́м"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "бежи́те"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "бегу́т"
 
    forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "бежа́л" 
    forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "бежа́ла"
    forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "бежа́ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "бежа́ли"
 
    -- вы́бежать (perfective)
    if prefix == "вы́" then
        forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "бежать"
 
        forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "бежавший"
        forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "бежавши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "бежав"
 
        forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "беги"
        forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "бегите"
 
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "бегу"
        forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "бежишь"
        forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "бежит"
        forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "бежим"
        forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "бежите"
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "бегут"
 
        forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "бежал" 
        forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "бежала"
        forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "бежало"
        forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "бежали"
    end    
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-спать"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for verbs derived from спать
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "спа́ть"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "спа́вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "спа́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "спа́в"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = prefix .. "спя́щий" 
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = prefix .. "спя́"
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "спи́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "спи́те"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "сплю́"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "спи́шь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "спи́т"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "спи́м"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "спи́те"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "спя́т"
 
    forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "спа́л" 
    forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "спала́"
    forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "спа́ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "спа́ли"
 
    -- вы́спаться (perfective, reflexive), reflexive endings are added later
    if prefix == "вы́" then
        forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "спать"
 
        forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "спавший"
        forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "спавши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = ""
 
        forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "спи"
        forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "спите"
 
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "сплю"
        forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "спишь"
        forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "спит"
        forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "спим"
        forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "спите"
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "спят"
 
        forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "спал" 
        forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "спала"
        forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "спало"
        forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "спали"
    end
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-хотеть"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for verbs derived from хотеть with the same stress pattern
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "хоте́ть"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "хоте́вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "хоте́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "хоте́в"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = prefix .. "хотя́щий" 
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = prefix .. "хотя́"
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "хоти́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "хоти́те"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "хочу́"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "хо́чешь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "хо́чет"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "хоти́м"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "хоти́те"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "хотя́т"
 
    forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "хоте́л" 
    forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "хоте́ла"
    forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "хоте́ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "хоте́ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-дать"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for verbs derived from дать with the same stress pattern and вы́дать
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
    -- alternative past masculine forms: со́здал/созд́ал, п́ередал/переда́л, ́отдал/отд́ал, etc.
    local past_m = args["past_m"]
    local past_m2 = args["past_m2"]
    local past_f = args["past_f"]
    local past_n = args["past_n"]
    local past_pl = args["past_pl"]
 
    forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "да́ть"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "да́вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "да́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "да́в"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = "даю́щий"
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "да́й"
    forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "да́йте"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "да́м"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "да́шь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "да́ст"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "дади́м"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "дади́те"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "даду́т"
 
    forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "да́л"
    -- пе́редал, ́отдал, пр́одал, з́адал, etc.
    forms["past_m2"] = past_m2
    forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "дала́"
    forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "да́ло"
    forms["past_n2"] = prefix .. "дало́" --same with "взять"
    forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "да́ли"
 
    -- вы́дать (perfective)
    if prefix == "вы́" then
        forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "дать"
 
        forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "давший"
 
        forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "давши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "дав"
 
        forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "дай"
        forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "дайте"
 
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "дам"
        forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "дашь"
        forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "даст"
        forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "дадим"
        forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "дадите"
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "дадут"
 
        forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "дал"
        forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "дала"
        forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "дало"
        forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "дали"
    end
 
    if past_m then
        forms["past_m"] = past_m
    end
    if past_f then
        forms["past_f"] = past_f
    end
    if past_n then
        forms["past_n"] = past_n
    end
    if past_pl then
        forms["past_pl"] = past_pl
    end
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-есть"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for verbs derived from есть
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "е́сть"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "е́вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = "едо́мый"
    forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "е́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "е́в"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = "едя́щий"
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = "едя́"
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "е́шь"
    forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "е́шьте"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "е́м"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "е́шь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "е́ст"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "еди́м"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "еди́те"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "едя́т"
 
    forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "е́л" 
    forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "е́ла"
    forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "е́ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "е́ли"
 
    -- вы́есть (perfective)
    if prefix == "вы́" then
        forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "есть"
 
        forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "евший"
        forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "евши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "ев"
 
        forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "ешь"
        forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "ешьте"
 
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "ем"
        forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "ешь"
        forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "ест"
        forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "едим"
        forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "едите"
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "едят"
 
        forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "ел" 
        forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "ела"
        forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "ело"
        forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "ели"
    end 
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-сыпать"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for verbs derived from сыпать
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "сы́пать"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "сы́павший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "сы́павши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "сы́пав"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = prefix .. "сы́плющий" 
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = prefix .. "сы́пля"
    forms["pres_adv_part2"] = prefix .. "сы́пя"
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "сы́пь"
    forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "сы́пьте"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "сы́плю"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "сы́плешь"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg2"] = prefix .. "сы́пешь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "сы́плет"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg2"] = prefix .. "сы́пет"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "сы́плем"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl2"] = prefix .. "сы́пем"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "сы́плете"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl2"] = prefix .. "сы́пете"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "сы́плют"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl2"] = prefix .. "сы́пют"
 
    forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "сы́пал" 
    forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "сы́пала"
    forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "сы́пало"
    forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "сы́пали"
 
    -- вы́сыпать (perfective), not to confuse with высыпа́ть (1a, imperfective)
    if prefix == "вы́" then
        forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "сыпать"
 
        forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "сыпавший"
        forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "сыпавши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "сыпав"
 
        forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "сыпь"
        forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "сыпьте"
 
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "сыплю"
        forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "сыплешь"
        forms["pres_futr_2sg2"] = prefix .. "сыпешь"
        forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "сыплет"
        forms["pres_futr_3sg2"] = prefix .. "сыпет"
        forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "сыплем"
        forms["pres_futr_1pl2"] = prefix .. "сыпем"
        forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "сыплете"
        forms["pres_futr_2pl2"] = prefix .. "сыпете"
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "сыплют"
        forms["pres_futr_3pl2"] = prefix .. "сыпют" 
 
        forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "сыпал" 
        forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "сыпала"
        forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "сыпало"
        forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "сыпали"
    end    
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-лгать"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for verbs derived from лгать with the same stress pattern
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "лга́ть"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "лга́вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "лга́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "лга́в"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = prefix .. "лгу́щий" 
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "лги́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "лги́те"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "лгу́"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "лжёшь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "лжёт"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "лжём"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "лжёте"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "лгу́т"
 
    forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "лга́л" 
    forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "лгала́"
    forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "лга́ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "лга́ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-мочь"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for verbs derived from мочь with the same stress pattern
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    local no_past_adv = "0"
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "мо́чь"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "мо́гший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = ""; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = ""
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = prefix .. "мо́гущий" 
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "моги́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "моги́те"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "могу́"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "мо́жешь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "мо́жет"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "мо́жем"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "мо́жете"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "мо́гут"
 
    forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "мо́г" 
    forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "могла́"
    forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "могло́"
    forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "могли́"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-слать"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for verbs derived from слать
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "сла́ть"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "сла́вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "сла́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "сла́в"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = prefix .. "шлю́щий" 
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "шли́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "шли́те"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "шлю́"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "шлёшь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "шлёт"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "шлём"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "шлёте"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "шлю́т"
 
    forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "сла́л" 
    forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "сла́ла"
    forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "сла́ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "сла́ли"
 
    -- вы́слать (perfective)
    if prefix == "вы́" then
        forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "слать"
        forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "славший"
        forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "славши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "слав"
 
        forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "шли"
        forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "шлите"
 
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "шлю"
        forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "шлешь"
        forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "шлет"
        forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "шлем"
        forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "шлете"
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "шлют"
 
        forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "слал" 
        forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "слала"
        forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "слало"
        forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "слали"
    end
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-идти"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for verbs derived from идти, including прийти́ and в́ыйти
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
 
    if prefix == "вы́" then
        forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "йти"
        forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "йди"
        forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "йдите"
        present_e_a(forms, prefix .. "йд")
        forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "шедши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "йдя"
    elseif prefix == "при" then
        forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "йти́"
        forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "ди́"
        forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "ди́те"
        present_e_b(forms, prefix .. "д")
        forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "ше́дши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "дя́"
    else
        forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "йти́"
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = prefix .. "иду́щий" 
        forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "йди́"
        forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "йди́те"
        present_e_b(forms, prefix .. "йд")    
        forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "ше́дши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "йдя́"
    end
 
    -- only идти, present imperfective
    if prefix == "" then
        --only used with imperfective идти
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = "идя́"
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = "иду́щий"
        forms["infinitive"] = "идти́"
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = "иду́щий" 
        forms["impr_sg"] = "иди́"
        forms["impr_pl"] = "иди́те"
        present_e_b(forms, "ид") 
        forms["past_adv_part"] = "ше́дши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = ""
    end
 
    -- вы́йти (perfective)
    if prefix == "вы́" then
        forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "шедший"
        forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "шел" 
        forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "шла"
        forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "шло"
        forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "шли"
    else
        forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "ше́дший"
        forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "шёл" 
        forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "шла́"
        forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "шло́"
        forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "шли́"
    end
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-ехать"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for verbs derived from ехать
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    local pres_stem = prefix .. "е́д"
    local past_stem = prefix .. "е́х"
    -- вы́ехать
    if prefix == "вы́" then
        pres_stem = prefix .. "ед"
        past_stem = prefix .. "ех"
    end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = past_stem .. "ать"
    forms["past_actv_part"] = past_stem .. "авший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = past_stem .. "авши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = past_stem .. "ав"
    --вы́ехать has no present
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = pres_stem .. "ущий" 
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
 
    --literary (special) imperative forms for ехать are поезжа́й, поезжа́йте
    if prefix == "" then
        forms["impr_sg"] = "поезжа́й"
        forms["impr_pl"] = "поезжа́йте"
        forms["impr_sg2"] = "езжа́й"
        forms["impr_pl2"] = "езжа́йте"
    elseif prefix == "вы́" then
        forms["impr_sg"] = "выезжа́й"
        forms["impr_pl"] = "выезжа́йте"        
    else
        forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "езжа́й"
        forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "езжа́йте"
    end
 
    present_e_a(forms, pres_stem)
 
    forms["past_m"] = past_stem .. "ал" 
    forms["past_f"] = past_stem .. "ала"
    forms["past_n"] = past_stem .. "ало"
    forms["past_pl"] = past_stem .. "али"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-минуть"] = function(args)
    -- for the irregular verb "ми́нуть"
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local stem_noa = com.make_unstressed(stem)
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "уть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = stem .. "у́щий"
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem_noa .. "у́вший"
    forms["past_actv_part2"] = stem .. "увший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem_noa .. "у́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem_noa .. "у́в"
    forms["past_adv_part2"] = stem .. "увши"; forms["past_adv_part_shor2t"] = stem .. "ув"
 
    present_e_c(forms, stem)
 
    -- no imperative
    forms["impr_sg"] = ""
    forms["impr_pl"] = ""
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem_noa .. "у́л"
    forms["past_f"] = stem_noa .. "у́ла"
    forms["past_n"] = stem_noa .. "у́ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem_noa .. "у́ли"
    forms["past_m2"] = stem .. "ул"
    forms["past_f2"] = stem .. "ула"
    forms["past_n2"] = stem .. "уло"
    forms["past_pl2"] = stem .. "ули"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-живописать-миновать"] = function(args)
    -- for irregular verbs "живописа́ть" and "минова́ть", mixture of types 1 and 2
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local inf_stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local pres_stem = args[3] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Third parameter has not been provided")
 
    forms["infinitive"] = inf_stem .. "ть"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = pres_stem .. "ющий"
    forms["past_actv_part"] = inf_stem .. "вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = pres_stem .. "я"
    forms["past_adv_part"] = inf_stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = inf_stem .. "в"
 
    present_je_a(forms, pres_stem)
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = pres_stem .. "й"
    forms["impr_pl"] = pres_stem .. "йте"
 
    forms["past_m"] = inf_stem .. "л"
    forms["past_f"] = inf_stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = inf_stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = inf_stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-лечь"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for verbs derived from лечь with the same stress pattern
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "ле́чь"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "лёгший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "лёгши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = ""
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = "" 
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "ля́г"
    forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "ля́гте"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "ля́гу"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "ля́жешь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "ля́жет"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "ля́жем"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "ля́жете"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "ля́гут"
 
    forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "лёг" 
    forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "легла́"
    forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "легло́"
    forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "легли́"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-зиждиться"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for verbs derived from зиждиться with the same stress pattern
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "зи́ждить"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "зи́ждивший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "зи́ждивши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = ""
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = prefix .. "зи́ждущий"
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = prefix .. "зи́ждя"
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "зи́жди"
    forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "зи́ждите"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "зи́жду"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "зи́ждешь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "зи́ждет"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "зи́ждем"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "зи́ждете"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "зи́ждут"
 
    forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "зи́ждил" 
    forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "зи́ждила"
    forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "зи́ждило"
    forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "зи́ждили"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-клясть"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for verbs derived from клясть with the same stress pattern
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "кля́сть"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "кля́вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = prefix .. "кляну́щий"
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "кля́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"]  =prefix .. "кля́в"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = prefix .. "кляну́щий"
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = prefix .. "кляня́"
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "кляни́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "кляни́те"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "кляну́"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "клянёшь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "клянёт"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "клянём"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "клянёте"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "кляну́т"
 
    if args["past_m"] then
        forms["past_m"] = args["past_m"]
        forms["past_n"] = args["past_m"] .. "о"
        forms["past_pl"] = args["past_m"] .. "и"
    else
        forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "кля́л"
        forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "кля́ло"
        forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "кля́ли"        
    end
 
    forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "кляла́"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-слыхать-видать"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for isolated verbs derived from слыхать or видать with the same stress pattern
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
 
    forms["infinitive"] = stem .. "ть"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = stem .. "вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = stem .. "в"
 
    -- no present forms or imperatives
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = ""
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = ""
    forms["impr_pl"] = ""
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = ""
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = ""
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = ""
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = ""
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = ""
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = ""
 
    forms["past_m"] = stem .. "л" 
    forms["past_f"] = stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-стелить-стлать"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for verbs derived from стелить and стлать with the same stress pattern
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local stem = args[2] or (NAMESPACE == "Template" and "-") or error("Second parameter has not been provided")
    local prefix = args[3]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
 
    forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. stem .. "ть"
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. stem .. "вший"
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = prefix .. "стели́мый"
    forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. stem .. "вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix  .. stem .. "в"
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = prefix .. "сте́лющий" 
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = prefix .. "стеля́"
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "стели́"
    forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "стели́те"
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "стелю́"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "сте́лешь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "сте́лет"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "сте́лем"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "сте́лете"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "сте́лют"
 
    forms["past_m"] = prefix .. stem .. "л" 
    forms["past_f"] = prefix .. stem .. "ла"
    forms["past_n"] = prefix .. stem .. "ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. stem .. "ли"
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
conjugations["irreg-быть"] = function(args)
    -- irregular, only for verbs derived from быть with various stress patterns, the actual verb быть different from its derivatives
    local forms = {}
    local categories = {"Russian irregular verbs"}
    local title = "irregular"
 
    local prefix = args[2]; if not prefix then prefix = "" end
    local past_m = args["past_m"]
    local past_f = args["past_f"]
    local past_n = args["past_n"]
    local past_pl = args["past_pl"]
 
    if prefix == ""
        then forms["infinitive"] = "бы́ть"
    else
        forms["infinitive"] = prefix .. "бы́ть"
    end
 
    forms["past_actv_part"] = prefix .. "бы́вший"
 
    forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
 
    --only for "бы́ть" - бу́дучи
    if forms["infinitive"] == "бы́ть" then
        forms["past_adv_part"] = "бу́дучи"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = ""
    end
 
    forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "бы́вши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "бы́в"
 
    -- if the prefix is stressed
    if mw.ustring.find(prefix, "[́]") then
        forms["past_adv_part"] = prefix .. "бывши"; forms["past_adv_part_short"] = prefix .. "быв"
    end    
 
    forms["pres_actv_part"] = "су́щий" 
    forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
 
    forms["impr_sg"] = prefix .. "бу́дь"
    forms["impr_pl"] = prefix .. "бу́дьте"
 
    -- only for "бы́ть", some forms are archaic
    if forms["infinitive"] == "бы́ть" then
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = "есмь"
        forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = "еси́"
        forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = "есть"
        forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = "есмы́"
        forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = "е́сте"
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = "суть"
    else
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "бу́ду"
        forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "бу́дешь"
        forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "бу́дет"
        forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "бу́дем"
        forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "бу́дете"
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "бу́дут"
    end 
 
    -- if the prefix is stressed, e.g. "вы́быть"
    if mw.ustring.find(prefix, "[́]") then
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = prefix .. "буду"
        forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = prefix .. "будешь"
        forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = prefix .. "будет"
        forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = prefix .. "будем"
        forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = prefix .. "будете"
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = prefix .. "будут"
    end 
 
    forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "бы́л" 
    forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "была́"
    forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "бы́ло"
    forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "бы́ли"
 
    -- if the prefix is stressed
    if mw.ustring.find(prefix, "[́]") then
        forms["past_m"] = prefix .. "был" 
        forms["past_f"] = prefix .. "была"
        forms["past_n"] = prefix .. "было"
        forms["past_pl"] = prefix .. "были"
    end
 
    -- при́был
    if past_m then
        forms["past_m"] = past_m
    end
    -- прибыла́
    if past_f then
        forms["past_f"] = past_f
    end
    -- сбыло́сь
    if past_n then
        forms["past_n"] = past_n
    end
    -- сбыли́сь
    if past_pl then
        forms["past_pl"] = past_pl
    end    
 
    return forms, title, categories
end
 
--[=[
    Partial conjugation functions
]=]--
 
-- Present forms with -e-, no j-vowels.
function present_e_a(forms, stem)
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = stem .. "у"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = stem .. "ешь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = stem .. "ет"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = stem .. "ем"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = stem .. "ете"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "ут"
end
 
function present_e_b(forms, stem)
 
    if mw.ustring.find(stem, "[аэыоуяеиёю́]$") then
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = stem .. "ю́"
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "ю́т"
    else
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = stem .. "у́"
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "у́т"
    end
 
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = stem .. "ёшь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = stem .. "ёт"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = stem .. "ём"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = stem .. "ёте"
end
 
function present_e_c(forms, stem)
    local stem_noa = com.make_unstressed(stem)
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = stem_noa .. "у́"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = stem .. "ешь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = stem .. "ет"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = stem .. "ем"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = stem .. "ете"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "ут"
end
 
-- Present forms with -e-, with j-vowels.
function present_je_a(forms, stem, no_iotation)
    local iotated_stem = com.iotation(stem, shch)
 
    -- Verbs ending in a hushing consonant do not get j-vowels in the endings.
    if mw.ustring.find(iotated_stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = iotated_stem .. "у"
    else
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = iotated_stem .. "ю"
    end
 
    if mw.ustring.find(iotated_stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = iotated_stem .. "ут"
    else
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = iotated_stem .. "ют"
    end
 
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = iotated_stem .. "ешь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = iotated_stem .. "ет"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = iotated_stem .. "ем"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = iotated_stem .. "ете"
 
    if no_iotation then
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = stem .. "у"
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "ут"
        forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = stem .. "ешь"
        forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = stem .. "ет"
        forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = stem .. "ем"
        forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = stem .. "ете"
    end
end
 
function present_je_b(forms, stem)
 
    forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = stem .. "ю́"
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = stem .. "ёшь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = stem .. "ёт"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = stem .. "ём"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = stem .. "ёте"
    forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "ю́т"
end
 
function present_je_c(forms, stem)
    local stem_noa = com.make_unstressed(stem)
    -- iotate the stem
    local iotated_stem = com.iotation(stem)
    -- iotate the 2nd stem
    local iotated_stem_noa = com.iotation(stem_noa)
 
    -- Verbs ending in a hushing consonant do not get j-vowels in the endings.
    if mw.ustring.find(iotated_stem_noa, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = iotated_stem_noa .. "у́"
    else
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = iotated_stem_noa .. "ю́"
    end
 
    -- Verbs ending in a hushing consonant do not get j-vowels in the endings.
    if mw.ustring.find(iotated_stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = iotated_stem .. "ут"
    else
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = iotated_stem .. "ют"
    end
 
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = iotated_stem .. "ешь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = iotated_stem .. "ет"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = iotated_stem .. "ем"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = iotated_stem .. "ете"
end
 
-- Present forms with -i-.
function present_i_a(forms, stem, shch)
    -- shch - iotatate final т as щ, not ч
    -- iotate the stem
    local iotated_stem = com.iotation(stem, shch)
 
    -- Verbs ending in a hushing consonant do not get j-vowels in the endings.
    if mw.ustring.find(iotated_stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = iotated_stem .. "у"
    else
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = iotated_stem .. "ю"
    end
 
    if mw.ustring.find(stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "ат"
    else
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "ят"
    end
 
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = stem .. "ишь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = stem .. "ит"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = stem .. "им"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = stem .. "ите"
end
 
function present_i_b(forms, stem, no_1sg_futr, shch)
    -- parameter no_1sg_futr - no 1st person singular future if no_1sg_futr = 1
    if not no_1sg_futr then
        no_1sg_futr = 0
    end
 
    -- parameter shch - iotatate final т as щ, not ч
    if not shch then
        shch = ""
    end
 
    -- iotate the stem
    local iotated_stem = com.iotation(stem, shch)
 
    -- Make 1st person future singular blank if no_1sg_futr = 1
    if no_1sg_futr == 1 then
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = ""
    -- Verbs ending in a hushing consonant do not get j-vowels in the endings.
    elseif mw.ustring.find(iotated_stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = iotated_stem .. "у́"
    else
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = iotated_stem .. "ю́"
    end
 
    if mw.ustring.find(stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "а́т"
    else
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "я́т"
    end
 
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = stem .. "и́шь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = stem .. "и́т"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = stem .. "и́м"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = stem .. "и́те"
 
end
 
function present_i_c(forms, stem, shch)
    -- shch - iotatate final т as щ, not ч
 
    local stem_noa = com.make_unstressed(stem)
    -- iotate the stem
    local iotated_stem = com.iotation(stem_noa, shch)
 
    -- Verbs ending in a hushing consonant do not get j-vowels in the endings.
    if mw.ustring.find(iotated_stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = iotated_stem .. "у́"
    else
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = iotated_stem .. "ю́"
    end
 
    if mw.ustring.find(stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "ат"
    else
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "ят"
    end
 
    if mw.ustring.find(stem, "[шщжч]$") then
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "ат"
    else
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = stem .. "ят"
    end
 
    forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = stem .. "ишь"
    forms["pres_futr_3sg"] = stem .. "ит"
    forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = stem .. "им"
    forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = stem .. "ите"
end
 
-- add alternative form stressed on the reflexive particle
function make_reflexive_alt(forms)
 
    for key, form in pairs(forms) do        
        if form ~= "" then
            -- if a form doesn't contain a stress, add a stressed particle "ся́"
            if not mw.ustring.find(form, "[́]") then
                -- only applies to past masculine forms
                if key == "past_m" or key == "past_m2" or key == "past_m3" then
                    forms[key] = form .. "ся́"
                end
            end
        end
    end
end
 
-- Add the reflexive particle to all verb forms
function make_reflexive(forms)
    for key, form in pairs(forms) do
        -- The particle is "сь" after a vowel, "ся" after a consonant
        -- append "ся" if "ся́" was not attached already
        if form ~= "" and not mw.ustring.find(form, "ся́$") then
            if mw.ustring.find(form, "[аэыоуяеиёю́]$") then
                forms[key] = form .. "сь"
            else
                forms[key] = form .. "ся"
            end
        end
    end
 
    -- This form does not exist for reflexive verbs.
    forms["past_adv_part_short"] = ""
end
 
-- Make the table
function make_table(forms, title, perf, intr, impers)
    local title = ("Conjugation of <span lang=\"ru\" class=\"Cyrl\">''%s''</span>%s"):format( forms["infinitive"], title and " (" .. title .. ")" or "" )
 
    -- Intransitive verbs have no passive participles.
    if intr then
        forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
        forms["pres_pasv_part2"] = nil
        forms["past_pasv_part"] = ""
        forms["past_pasv_part2"] = nil
    end
 
    if impers then
        forms["pres_futr_1sg"] = ""
        forms["pres_futr_2sg"] = ""
        forms["pres_futr_1pl"] = ""
        forms["pres_futr_2pl"] = ""
        forms["pres_futr_3pl"] = ""
        forms["past_m"] = ""
        forms["past_f"] = ""
        forms["past_pl"] = ""
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = ""
        forms["past_actv_part"] = ""
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = ""
        forms["past_adv_part"] = ""
        forms["past_adv_part_short"] = ""
        forms["impr_sg"] = ""
        forms["impr_pl"] = ""
        --alternatives
        forms["pres_futr_1sg2"] = nil
        forms["pres_futr_2sg2"] = nil
        forms["pres_futr_1pl2"] = nil
        forms["pres_futr_2pl2"] = nil
        forms["pres_futr_3pl2"] = nil
        forms["past_m2"] = nil
        forms["past_m3"] = nil
        forms["past_f2"] = nil
        forms["past_pl2"] = nil
        forms["pres_actv_part2"] = nil
        forms["past_actv_part2"] = nil
        forms["pres_adv_part2"] = nil
        forms["past_adv_part2"] = nil
        forms["past_adv_part_short2"] = nil
        forms["impr_sg2"] = nil
        forms["impr_pl2"] = nil
    end
 
    -- Perfective verbs have no present forms.
    if perf then
        forms["pres_actv_part"] = ""        
        forms["pres_pasv_part"] = ""
        forms["pres_adv_part"] = "" 
        forms["pres_1sg"] = ""
        forms["pres_2sg"] = ""
        forms["pres_3sg"] = ""
        forms["pres_1pl"] = ""
        forms["pres_2pl"] = ""
        forms["pres_3pl"] = ""
        --alternatives
        forms["pres_actv_part2"] = nil
        forms["pres_pasv_part2"] = nil
        forms["pres_adv_part2"] = nil
        forms["pres_1sg2"] = nil
        forms["pres_2sg2"] = nil
        forms["pres_3sg2"] = nil
        forms["pres_1pl2"] = nil
        forms["pres_2pl2"] = nil
        forms["pres_3pl2"] = nil
 
        forms["futr_1sg"] = forms["pres_futr_1sg"]
        forms["futr_2sg"] = forms["pres_futr_2sg"]
        forms["futr_3sg"] = forms["pres_futr_3sg"]
        forms["futr_1pl"] = forms["pres_futr_1pl"]
        forms["futr_2pl"] = forms["pres_futr_2pl"]
        forms["futr_3pl"] = forms["pres_futr_3pl"]
        -- alternatives
        forms["futr_1sg2"] = forms["pres_futr_1sg2"]
        forms["futr_2sg2"] = forms["pres_futr_2sg2"]
        forms["futr_3sg2"] = forms["pres_futr_3sg2"]
        forms["futr_1pl2"] = forms["pres_futr_1pl2"]
        forms["futr_2pl2"] = forms["pres_futr_2pl2"]
        forms["futr_3pl2"] = forms["pres_futr_3pl2"]        
    else
        forms["pres_1sg"] = forms["pres_futr_1sg"]
        forms["pres_2sg"] = forms["pres_futr_2sg"]
        forms["pres_3sg"] = forms["pres_futr_3sg"]
        forms["pres_1pl"] = forms["pres_futr_1pl"]
        forms["pres_2pl"] = forms["pres_futr_2pl"]
        forms["pres_3pl"] = forms["pres_futr_3pl"]
        forms["pres_2sg"] = forms["pres_futr_2sg"]
        -- alternatives
        forms["pres_1sg2"] = forms["pres_futr_1sg2"]
        forms["pres_2sg2"] = forms["pres_futr_2sg2"]
        forms["pres_3sg2"] = forms["pres_futr_3sg2"]
        forms["pres_1pl2"] = forms["pres_futr_1pl2"]
        forms["pres_2pl2"] = forms["pres_futr_2pl2"]
        forms["pres_3pl2"] = forms["pres_futr_3pl2"]        
    end
 
    local inf = forms["infinitive"]
    local inf_tr = translit.tr(forms["infinitive"])
 
    -- Add transliterations to all forms
    for key, form in pairs(forms) do
        -- check for empty strings and nil's
        if form ~= "" and form then
            forms[key] = "<span lang=\"ru\" class=\"Cyrl\">[[" .. com.remove_accents(form) .. "#Russian|" .. form .. "]]</span><br/><span style=\"color: #888\">" .. translit.tr(form) .. "</span>"
        else
            forms[key] = "—"
        end
    end
 
    if not perf then
        forms["futr_1sg"] = "<span lang=\"ru\" class=\"Cyrl\">[[буду#Russian|бу́ду]] " .. inf .. "</span><br/><span style=\"color: #888\">búdu " .. inf_tr .. "</span>" 
        forms["futr_2sg"] = "<span lang=\"ru\" class=\"Cyrl\">[[будешь#Russian|бу́дешь]] " .. inf .. "</span><br/><span style=\"color: #888\">búdešʹ " .. inf_tr .. "</span>"
        forms["futr_3sg"] = "<span lang=\"ru\" class=\"Cyrl\">[[будет#Russian|бу́дет]] " .. inf .. "</span><br/><span style=\"color: #888\">búdet " .. inf_tr .. "</span>"
        forms["futr_1pl"] = "<span lang=\"ru\" class=\"Cyrl\">[[будем#Russian|бу́дем]] " .. inf .. "</span><br/><span style=\"color: #888\">búdem " .. inf_tr .. "</span>"
        forms["futr_2pl"] = "<span lang=\"ru\" class=\"Cyrl\">[[будете#Russian|бу́дете]] " .. inf .. "</span><br/><span style=\"color: #888\">búdete " .. inf_tr .. "</span>"
        forms["futr_3pl"] = "<span lang=\"ru\" class=\"Cyrl\">[[будут#Russian|бу́дут]] " .. inf .. "</span><br/><span style=\"color: #888\">búdut " .. inf_tr .. "</span>"
    end
 
    -- only for "бы́ть" the future forms are бу́ду, бу́дешь, etc.
    if inf == "бы́ть" then
        forms["futr_1sg"] = "<span lang=\"ru\" class=\"Cyrl\">[[буду#Russian|бу́ду]] " .. "</span><br/><span style=\"color: #888\">búdu " .. "</span>" 
        forms["futr_2sg"] = "<span lang=\"ru\" class=\"Cyrl\">[[будешь#Russian|бу́дешь]] " .. "</span><br/><span style=\"color: #888\">búdešʹ " .. "</span>"
        forms["futr_3sg"] = "<span lang=\"ru\" class=\"Cyrl\">[[будет#Russian|бу́дет]] "  .. "</span><br/><span style=\"color: #888\">búdet " .. "</span>"
        forms["futr_1pl"] = "<span lang=\"ru\" class=\"Cyrl\">[[будем#Russian|бу́дем]] "  .. "</span><br/><span style=\"color: #888\">búdem "  .. "</span>"
        forms["futr_2pl"] = "<span lang=\"ru\" class=\"Cyrl\">[[будете#Russian|бу́дете]] "  .. "</span><br/><span style=\"color: #888\">búdete "  .. "</span>"
        forms["futr_3pl"] = "<span lang=\"ru\" class=\"Cyrl\">[[будут#Russian|бу́дут]] "  .. "</span><br/><span style=\"color: #888\">búdut "  .. "</span>"
    end
 
    if impers then
        forms["futr_1sg"] = ""
        forms["futr_2sg"] = ""
        forms["futr_1pl"] = ""
        forms["futr_2pl"] = ""
        forms["futr_3pl"] = ""
        --alternatives
        forms["futr_1sg2"] = nil
        forms["futr_2sg2"] = nil
        forms["futr_1pl2"] = nil
        forms["futr_2pl2"] = nil
        forms["futr_3pl2"] = nil
    end
 
    if forms["past_adv_part_short"] ~= "—" then
        forms["past_adv_part"] = forms["past_adv_part_short"] .. ",<br/>" .. forms["past_adv_part"]
    end
    -- collect forms specified explicitly
    for k,v in pairs(args) do
        if type(k)=='string' then
            local base,n = k:match('^(.*)(%d)$') -- alternative forms, from 2
            if n then --build table of alt-forms
                n=tonumber(n)
                if type(forms[k])=='table' then
                    forms[k][n] = v
                else
                    forms[k] = { [1]=forms[k]; [n]=v }
                end
            else
                if type(forms[k])=='table' then
                    forms[k][1] = v
                else
                    forms[k] = v
                end
            end
        end
    end
    -- concatenate alt-forms
    for k, v in forms do
        if type(v) == 'table' then forms[k] = table.concat(v,',<br/>') end
    end
 
    return table.concat({[=[<div class="NavFrame" style="width:49.6em;">
<div class="NavHead" style="text-align:left; background:#e0e0ff;">]=] , title , [=[</div>
<div class="NavContent">
{| class="inflection inflection-ru inflection-verb"
|+ Note 1: for declension of participles, see their entries. Adverbial participles are indeclinable.
|- class="rowgroup"
! colspan="3" | ]=] , (perf and [=[[[совершенный вид|perfective aspect]]]=] or [=[[[несовершенный вид|imperfective aspect]]]=]) , [=[
 
|-
! [[неопределённая форма|infinitive]]
| colspan="2" | ]=] , forms["infinitive"] , [=[
 
|- class="rowgroup"
! style="width:15em" | [[причастие|participles]]
! [[настоящее время|present tense]]
! [[прошедшее время|past tense]]
|-
! [[действительный залог|active]]
| ]=] , alt_pres_actv_part , [=[ || ]=] , alt_past_actv_part , [=[
 
|-
! [[страдательный залог|passive]]
| ]=] , alt_pres_pasv_part , [=[ || ]=] , alt_past_pasv_part, [=[
 
|-
! [[деепричастие|adverbial]]
| ]=], alt_pres_adv_part, [=[ || ]=], alt_past_adv_part, [=[
 
|- class="rowgroup"
! 
! [[настоящее время|present tense]]
! [[будущее время|future tense]]
|-
! [[первое лицо|1st]] [[единственное число|singular]] (<span lang="ru" class="Cyrl">я</span>)
| ]=], alt_pres_1sg, [=[ || ]=], alt_futr_1sg, [=[
 
|-
! [[второе лицо|2nd]] [[единственное число|singular]] (<span lang="ru" class="Cyrl">ты</span>)
| ]=], alt_pres_2sg, [=[ || ]=], alt_futr_2sg, [=[
 
|-
! [[третье лицо|3rd]] [[единственное число|singular]] (<span lang="ru" class="Cyrl">он/она́/оно́</span>)
| ]=], alt_pres_3sg, [=[ || ]=], alt_futr_3sg, [=[
 
|-
! [[первое лицо|1st]] [[множественное число|plural]] (<span lang="ru" class="Cyrl">мы</span>)
| ]=], alt_pres_1pl, [=[ || ]=], alt_futr_1pl, [=[
 
|-
! [[второе лицо|2nd]] [[множественное число|plural]] (<span lang="ru" class="Cyrl">вы</span>)
| ]=], alt_pres_2pl, [=[ || ]=], alt_futr_2pl, [=[
 
|-
! [[третье лицо|3rd]] [[множественное число|plural]] (<span lang="ru" class="Cyrl">они́</span>)
| ]=], alt_pres_3pl, [=[ || ]=], alt_futr_3pl, [=[
 
|- class="rowgroup"
! [[повелительное наклонение|imperative]]
! [[единственное число|singular]]
! [[множественное число|plural]]
|-
! 
| ]=], alt_impr_sg, [=[ || ]=], alt_impr_pl, [=[
 
|- class="rowgroup"
! [[прошедшее время|past tense]]
! [[единственное число|singular]]
! [[множественное число|plural]]<br/>(<span lang="ru" class="Cyrl">мы/вы/они́</span>)
|-
! [[мужской род|masculine]] (<span lang="ru" class="Cyrl">я/ты/он</span>)
| ]=], alt_past_m, [=[ || rowspan="3" | ]=], alt_past_pl, [=[
 
|-
! [[женский род|feminine]] (<span lang="ru" class="Cyrl">я/ты/она́</span>)
| ]=], alt_past_f, [=[
 
|- 
! style="background-color:#ffffe0; text-align:left;" | [[средний род|neuter]] (<span lang="ru" class="Cyrl">оно́</span>)
| ]=], alt_past_n, [=[
 
|}
</div>
</div>]=]})
end
 
return export