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Native American mixed gender. Someone has deposited a vast amount of research not well formatted. I think that the substantial cleanup effort requires that the definitions be correct and attestable before the translation-table clean up begins. DCDuringTALK 12:05, 29 August 2009 (UTC)
Uhm, unfortunately, having been involved in published research on this topic, it's essentially undefinable in English which assumes dichotomous sex and gender. I would propose, but solely based on research among 'aboriginal north american peoples' (itself a disputed concept) three primary definitions in common parlance:
Non-heterosexual people, sexual minorities, especially of Aboriginal North American ethnicity.
Non-western gender identified; a person whose dichotomous genetic sex is not the same as the person's gender role or presentation. Especially a person of Aboriginal North American ethnicity.
(queer jargon) Any queer person, especially one embracing a "Native American"-influenced spirituality.
Removed etymology because it is unsubstantiated and suspect for grammatical reasons(see detailed reasons at talk section of Wikipedia article on "two spirit").
the "etymology" of this thing is that it has been touted as a politically correct shibboleth since ca. 1993. This is a cultural thing. In the USA, interest groups only feel they are given due attention if everyone is forced to tiptoe around them and emphatically embraces their preferred terminology du jour. "This attempt at rebranding recalls the shifts from homosexual to gay to queer to GLBT." A descriptive dictionary will report this kind of US-specific proscriptivism, but it will not either endorse or reject it.
personally, I feel that "two-spirit" is much more disingenious than the mere "LGBT" or "queer" because it is an attempt to simulate a Sapir-Whorfian "indigenous cultural viewpoint" expressed in vocabulary by means of made-up vocabulary. The PC people in the US are very fond of doing this, see "never again the burning times" in radical pagan feminism, which simulates a "genocide survivor" trauma expressed in culture-specific vocabulary. Exactly the same thing is going on in Maafa, again simulating "genocide survivor" vocabulary, shamelessly imitating the real term Shoah. To my mind, this is despicable linguistic fraud. The real crime of cultural chauvinism is perpetrated by the people using such fraudulent mimicry terminology.
But I can detach myself from this personal opinion sufficiently to just report the facts. Which are that this is a terminlogical fashion which arose in certain subcultures in the USA in the 1990s. --Dbachmann (talk) 12:11, 4 April 2012 (UTC)
"Illinois" (possibly "Miami", possibly something else): ikoueta(male-bodied person who lives as a woman, participates in religious ceremonies, and goes to war), ickoue ne kioussa(female-bodied person who lives as a man, lit. "hunting women")
Sanpoil: st’a´mia(male-bodied two-spirit? or hermaphrodite?)
Bannock: tuva'sa(male-bodied two-spirit, or any sterile person, lit. "sterile")
Lemhi: tübasa(male- or female-bodied two-spirit, or any sterile person, lit. "sterile"), taikwahni tainnapa'(male-bodied), waip:ü suŋwe(female-bodied, lit. "woman-half") or taikwahni wa'ippena'(female-bodied)
Gosiute: tuvasa(male-bodied two-spirit (also any sterile person?), lit. "sterile")
Fox: i-coo-coo-a/i-cu-cu-a (male-bodied, lit. "man-woman"), äyä‘kwä´(male-bodied) (not only can I not find evidence of these terms, their orthographies are terribly obsolete)
Lakota: kȟoškálaka(this is sometimes said to refer to a female-bodied trans person or a lesbian, but that interpretation is due to an error one anthropologist made based on incorrect information; it actually just means "young man")
Ojibwe: ogichida-akwe(this is sometimes said to refer to a female-bodied trans person; the word itself exists (the Ojibwe People's Dictionary has it as ogichidaakwe); however, it seems to only mean "warrior woman" or, as the OPD defines it, "ceremonial headwoman; wife of ceremonial headman")
Tachi Yokuts: lokowitnono(male-bodied)
^Hugh A. Dempsey, The Venegful Wife and Other Blackfoot Stories: […] [White Backfat] was known throughout the tribe as an A'yai-kik-ahsi, a man who "acts like a woman". […] Anthropologists have applied the term berdache to women as well as men, although the Blackfoot made a distinction by calling a female berdache a "warrior woman", awau-katsik-saki, or a "manly-hearted woman", ninauh-oskiti-pahpyaki. As was the case with men, there were wide variations within these terms. They could apply to a woman who dressed as a man, went to war, and took female mates but were equally applicable to a woman who simply henpecked her husband.
^University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, volume 33 (1965, edited by Frederick Ward Putnam and Alfred Louis Kroeber): Several berdnches (clele) known; did women's work (their baskets finer than women's); bothered no one.
^per one book "female berdaches played an important role in Wiyot ceremonialism", per another book "Male berdaches were present in Wiyot society", but none give the terms used to denote such people
^Sabine Lang, Men as Women, Women as Men: Changing Gender (2010, ISBN 0292777957): According to Kroeber (1925:497), the Yokuts tongochim (tonochim in some subgroups) were both grave-diggers and leaders of the mourning ceremony held immediately after the death and then annually. They alone are supposed to have prepared the dead for burial or cremation (Kroeber 1925:497). They also functioned as professional mourners before the body (Kroeber 1925:500), and among the Tachi Yokuts they led the Tonochim Dance (tonochim hatim) on the occasion of the first public gathering after a death had taken place. [...] Other information, meanwhile, indicates either than these tasks, which formerly were the privilege of women-men, were eventually extended to common persons, or that they possibly were never restricted to women-men. One possible source of confusion is that, in many Yokuts groups, tongochim means "gravedigger", but in others it means "berdache"; in still others, it means both [...] the Choinimni Yokuts, and Gayton's (1948:149) consultants disagreed that tono'cim were "berdaches," stating that "they were just plain men and women." [...]Among the Paleuyami Yokuts, women-men and men shared this task in such a way that there were always two men and two women-men who buried the dead, and who together were called tonocim."
^Two-spirit People: Native American Gender Identity
Moved out of the main entry to here by: - -sche(discuss) 19:09, 26 November 2013 (UTC)
Winnebago: Dedjáŋgtcowiŋga("Blue lake woman", name of a particular ?male-bodied? two-spirit)
^Sabine Lang, Men as Women, Women as Men (2010, ISBN 0292777957), page 113: The aranu'tiq of the Chugach Eskimo probably did not wear women's clothes, but rather men's clothes — or at least mixed costume. Birket-Smith's (1953) consultant mentioned such persons, who were said to be male on one side of their bodies and female on the other side. One aranu'tiq known to this consultant did the work of both sexes with great skill and carried the descriptive personal name "What Kind of People Are These Two?" (Tyakutyik, Birket-Smith 1953:94; this name, however, was also given to a chieftain's daughter in the village of Chenega, who was not an aranu'tiq; 1953:94).
^Thomas Forsyth McIlwraith, The Bella Coola Indians, volume 1 (1948), page 45: "Of slightly greater importance is the hermaphrodite, Sx̭ınts. He resides in the land above, and spends most of his time outside the walls of Nusmät·a, acting as guardian to a number of young girls, the children of various supernatural beings."
^David N. Suggs, Andrew W. Miracle, Culture and human sexuality: a reader (1993), page 384: "In societies lacking visions, mythological sanctions may have substituted for them, although the figures involved were usually hermaphrodites rather than berdaches. The Bella Coola regarded Sxints, a supernatural hermaphrodite, as the prototype of berdaches."
Moved out of the main entry to here by: - -sche(discuss) 19:09, 26 November 2013 (UTC)
The Itelmen translation (koekchuchami) is incorrect. First, the ending -ami is a Russian noun case ending (instrumental plural). Second, Itelmen uses Cyrillic. The word is probably коекчуч. —Stephen(Talk) 04:38, 15 March 2014 (UTC)
Good catch! It seems that the reference which had koekchuchami was in error. Regarding the script, Wikipedia says Itelmen used the Latin alphabet when it was first written (in the 1930s), and switched to Cyrillic in the 1980s. Google Books has mentions of both forms (scripts). - -sche(discuss) 06:12, 15 March 2014 (UTC)
The translation table is in a form that is a substantial departure from our format, using many multi-part language names, unlinked translations, with non-conforming glosses and at least one out-of place comment. It has the look of a data deposit from someone's academic research project.
Someone who had good knowledge of the range of native American languages, tribes, and geography is needed to render this into our format. Alternatively, the data could be copied to the Talk page and the entry perhaps reverted to a state when it was more conformant. DCDuringTALK 15:52, 25 November 2013 (UTC)
What’s more, there is a hidden translation table with the gloss “Similar mixed-gender identities outside of North America”. — Ungoliant(Falai) 15:55, 25 November 2013 (UTC)
I think DCDuring's suggestion of moving the content to the talk page until it can be checked and formatted is best. I have moved it and will begin checking what I can. - -sche(discuss) 20:00, 25 November 2013 (UTC)