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The following documentation is located at Template:es-verb/documentation. [edit]


This template is designed for the lemma of all Spanish verbs. Only use this template for the verb's lemma entry (impersonal infinitive). For non-lemma forms, use {{es-verb-form}}.

This template should be placed in all Spanish verb sections, immediately following the ===Verb=== section header. It provides the inflection line for the entry. The template also automatically categorizes the entry in Category:Spanish verbs and the appropriate Spanish verb subcategory (e.g. Category:Spanish verbs ending in -ar).

As with other Wiktionary inflection templates, please do not use subst:.


This template requires two or more parameters. All verbs should have the two unnamed parameters.[1] Regular verbs may have only the two unnamed parameters (in sequence), or they may include any of the named parameters (in any order) in addition to the two unnamed parameters. Irregular verbs require one or more of the named parameters in addition to the two unnamed ones.

If in doubt abut the three displayed forms in the inflection line, simply use {{es-verb}} to generate the inflection line. In cases where one (or both) of the required parameters is omitted, the inflection line will simply show the pagename in bold, and the entry will be added to Category:Spanish terms needing attention. Someone else will then add the necessary parameters.

Unnamed parameters

For all verbs, divide the infinitive between the two unnamed parameters:

{{{1}}} — the stem: everything before the ending ar, er, ir, or ír. (For the verb ir (to go), just put a dummy value such as -.)
{{{2}}} — the ending: either ar, er, ir, or ír.

For example, at the entry for cantar, type this:

{{ es-verb | cant | ar }}

to produce this:

cantar (first-person singular present canto, first-person singular preterite canté, past participle cantado)

Named parameters

Fully regular verbs do not require these parameters, though they may be used. Stem-changing verbs and irregular verbs will require one or more named parameters, as follows:

{{{pres}}} - first-person singular present indicative, or use pres=no for defective verbs without this form.
{{{pret}}} - first-person singular preterite indicative, or use pret=no for defective verbs without this form.
{{{part}}} - past participle

Additional named parameters allow for additional functionality:

{{{head}}} - replaces {{PAGENAME}} as the first form displayed, and may be used to link components of phrasal verbs.
{{{prep}}} - preposition; used in phrasal verbs (see examples below).
{{{part2}}} - adds a second form of the past participle.
{{{ref}}} - used in reflexive verbs; if ref=y is included, the first-person singular present will be preceded by me.
When ref=y is included, this will also categorize the entry in Category:Spanish reflexive verbs.


  1. Regular verb - cantar (to sing) :
    {{ es-verb | cant | ar }}
    cantar (first-person sg present canto, first-person sg preterite canté, past participle cantado)
    Because all the dispayed forms are regular, none of the named parameters are included.
  2. Irregular verb - decir (to say, tell) :
    {{ es-verb | dec | ir | pres=digo | pret=dije | part=dicho }}
    decir (first-person sg present digo, first-person sg preterite dije, past participle dicho)
    Because all the dispayed forms are irregular, all three named parameters are included in the template.
  3. Stem-changing verb (present) - perder (to lose) :
    {{ es-verb | perd | er | pres=pierdo }}
    perder (first-person sg present pierdo, first-person sg preterite perdí, past participle perdido)
    The named parameter pres= is included because that form includes a stem change. However, the first-person singular preterite and the past participle of perder are regularly formed, so named parameters for those forms are not required, although they may be included explicitly, if desired.
  4. Stem-changing verb (preterite) - pagar (to pay) :
    {{ es-verb | pag | ar | pret=pagué }}
    pagar (first-person sg present pago, first-person sg preterite pagué, past participle pagado)
    The named parameter pret= is included because that form includes a stem change. However, the first-person singular present and the past participle of pagar are regularly formed, so named parameters for those forms are not required, although they may be included explicitly, if desired.
  5. Reflexive verb - acostarse (to lie down, go to bed) :
    {{ es-verb | acost | ar | pres=acuesto | ref=y }}
    acostarse (first-person sg present me acuesto, first-person sg preterite me acosté, past participle acostado)
    Setting the named parameter ref=y identifies the verb as reflexive, and adds the reflexive pronoun to the inflection line.
  6. Phrasal verb - tener que (to have to) :
    {{ es-verb | ten | er | head=[[tener#Spanish|tener]] [[que#Spanish|que]] | pres=tengo | pret=tuve | prep=que }}
    tener que (first-person sg present tengo que, first-person sg preterite tuve que, past participle tenido que)
    The named parameter head= allows the first item on the inflection line to have its components linked to their respective pages. The parameter prep= adds the preposition after each inflected form. Since the base verb tener is irregular, the present and preterite forms are also included in this example, but they need not be included when the base verb is regular.
  7. Alternative participle - describir (to describe) :
    {{ es-verb | describ | ir | part2=descripto }}
    describir (first-person sg present describo, first-person sg preterite describí, past participle describido or descripto)
    The named parameter part2= is included because there is an alternative past participle form used in Argentina and Uruguay. Details about such forms may be included in a "Usage notes" section later in the entry.
  8. Defective verbs - garantir (to guarantee) :
    {{ es-verb | garant | ir | pres=no }}
    garantir (first-person singular present —, first-person singular preterite garantí, past participle garantido)