Template:nl-conj-st

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The following documentation is located at Template:nl-conj-wk/documentation. [edit]


This template is part of a set of templates that creates tables with inflected forms of Dutch verbs. They use Module:nl-verb as a back-end. This documentation applies to the following templates:

  • {{nl-conj-wk}} for weak verbs, which have a past tense in -d- or -t-. This includes most verbs.
  • {{nl-conj-wk-cht}} for a few weak verbs, which have a past tense in -cht- and a change in the stem vowel.
  • {{nl-conj-st}} for strong verbs, which have a vowel change in the past tense, no -d- or -t-, and a past participle in -en.
  • {{nl-conj-irr}} for a few verbs that are particularly irregular.

For each of these templates, numbered (positional) parameters provide the basic stems that the verb forms are built on. If a verb has a separable part (like afhalen), or an unstressed prefix that replaces ge- in the past participle (like behalen) then that is not a part of the stem. It should be included with a separate parameter, listed below.

The bot MewBot uses these templates to automatically create entries for verb forms. If you add a template to an entry, tell the bot about it here. If you change how these templates or their underlying module work, please notify the bot owner so the bot can be updated!

General parameters[edit]

These parameters are available for all of the templates.

  • aux= The auxiliary verb that is used with the past participle. This defaults to "hebben". If the verb does not allow "hebben" and requires "zijn", provide aux=zijn.
  • pref= The unstressed prefix of this verb, such as ge, be, ver. When this is provided, the prefix ge- is automatically omitted from the past participle.
  • sep= The separable part, which is normally an adverb such as aan, mee, af. When this is provided, the table is expanded to include the forms used in subordinate clauses.

A note about prefixed and separable parts: Some verbs like doorvertellen have both a separable part (door) and an unstressed prefix (ver-). When they are both provided, it is assumed that the separable part goes before the unstressed prefix.

Weak verbs[edit]

The following parameters are available for {{nl-conj-wk}}:

  • 1= (required) The present first-person singular (ik) form. This is the basic stem of the verb.
  • 2= (optional) The present singular subjunctive form, which is the present plural form without the -n. This only needs to be provided if the spelling changes between single and double vowel/consonant in different forms. Otherwise, it defaults to basic stem+e.
  • 3= (optional, rarely needed) The past participle, but without its prefix (ge- or any other prefix). This parameter rarely needs to be provided, as the default is correct for almost all verbs by applying the 't kofschip rule. The main use of this parameter is for verbs like laden, which are weak but have a strong past participle in -en.
  • dt= (optional, rarely needed) The suffixed consonant of the past tense, according to the 't kofschip/'t fokschaap rule (d or t). This parameter is rarely needed, as the 't kofschip rule allows this to be determined automatically from the last consonant of the stem. However, a few verbs that were borrowed from English have a spelling that does not match the pronunciation; for example browsen is spelled with "s" but pronounced (and thus conjugated) as though it had "z". This parameter should be provided for such verbs.

Examples[edit]

For a simple regular verb, only the first numbered parameter is enough.

On the page wandelen:

  • {{nl-conj-wk|wandel}}

On the page fietsen:

  • {{nl-conj-wk|fiets}}

Some verbs lose a vowel or gain a consonant in the plural/subjunctive form. If they end in -f or -s, that changes to -v and -z. For these verbs, the second parameter must be provided.

On the page leven:

  • {{nl-conj-wk|leef|leve}}

On the page razen:

  • {{nl-conj-wk|raas|raze}}

Weak verbs with a past tense in -cht-[edit]

The following parameters are available for {{nl-conj-wk-cht}}:

  • 1= (required) The present first-person singular (ik) form. This is the basic stem of the verb.
  • 2= (optional) The present singular subjunctive form, which is the present plural form without the -n. This only needs to be provided if the spelling changes between single and double vowel/consonant in different forms. Otherwise, it defaults to basic stem+e.
  • 3= (required) The past tense form, but with -cht removed.

Examples[edit]

On the page denken:

  • {{nl-conj-wk-cht|denk||da}}

On the page kopen:

  • {{nl-conj-wk-cht|koop|kope|ko}}

Strong verbs[edit]

The following parameters are available for {{nl-conj-st}}:

  • class= (optional) The class of strong verb, numbered from 1 to 7. If this is left out, it is considered "unknown" or "not belonging to any of the normal 7 classes".
  • 1= (required) The present first-person singular (ik) form. This is the present stem of the verb.
  • 2= (required) The past singular form. This is the past stem of the verb.
  • 3= (required) The past participle, but without its prefix (ge- or any other prefix).
  • 4= (optional) The present singular subjunctive form, which is the present plural form without the -n. This only needs to be provided if the spelling changes between single and double vowel/consonant in different forms. Otherwise, it defaults to present stem+e.
  • 5= (optional) The past singular subjunctive form, which is the past plural form without the -n. This only needs to be provided if the spelling changes between single and double vowel/consonant in different forms. Otherwise, it defaults to past stem+e.
  • 6= (optional) The past second-person singular form for 'gij'. The gij-form uses the vowel of the plural, but with -t added, causing other spelling changes. This parameter is needed whenever there is a change in vowel (length) between the past singular and plural, as in stelen. If not specified, it defaults to past singular stem+t.

Examples[edit]

For some strong verbs in classes 3 and 7, only the first three numbered parameters are enough.

On the page binden:

  • {{nl-conj-st|class=3|bind|bond|bonden}}

On the page hangen:

  • {{nl-conj-st|class=7|hang|hing|hangen}}

Most strong verbs lose a vowel or gain a consonant in the plural/subjunctive form. If they end in -f or -s, that changes to -v and -z. For these verbs, the fourth and/or fifth parameter must be provided.

On the page kijken:

  • {{nl-conj-st|class=1|kijk|keek|keken||keke}}

On the page vriezen:

  • {{nl-conj-st|class=2|vries|vroor|vroren|vrieze|vrore}}

Strong verbs of classes 4 and 5 have a short vowel in the singular past, but a long vowel in the plural past. The form for 'gij' in the past tense then takes the long (plural) vowel, unless the past stem ends in -d or -t. For such verbs, the sixth numbered parameter must be provided.

On the page stelen:

  • {{nl-conj-st|class=4|steel|stal|stolen|stele|stale|staalt}}

On the page geven:

  • {{nl-conj-st|class=5|geef|gaf|geven|geve|gave|gaaft}}

Irregular verbs[edit]

The template {{nl-conj-irr}} is used for a few verbs that are very irregular and/or don't easily fit into the normal strong-weak split. This includes the following verbs, as well as their derivatives: hebben, kunnen, moeten, mogen, weten, willen, zijn, zullen.

The template takes only one numbered parameter, which specifies the infinitive form of the verb that is to be conjugated.

Examples[edit]

On the page willen:

  • {{nl-conj-irr|willen}}

On the page zijn:

  • {{nl-conj-irr|zijn|aux=zijn}}

Prefixed and separable verbs[edit]

Some verbs have unstressed prefixes that override the normal ge- prefix for past participles, and ge- is not added. Verbs beginning with ge-, be-, her-, er-, ver-, ont- are normally prefixed verbs, but there are also other prefixes. For such verbs, provide the pref= parameter, and remove the prefix from any of the numbered parameters.

On the page verdelen:

  • {{nl-conj-wk|pref=ver|deel|dele}}

On the page bezoeken:

  • {{nl-conj-wk-cht|pref=be|zoek||zo}}

On the page bekijken:

  • {{nl-conj-st|class=1|pref=be|kijk|keek|keken||keke}}

On the page vermogen:

  • {{nl-conj-irr|pref=ver|mogen}}

Separable verbs are verbs that have a prefix, and are split into two separate words when conjugated in a main clause. An example is opdelen where you conjugate it as ik deel op rather than ik opdeel. For such verbs, the forms you list with parameters 1 and 2 should not have the separable part. Rather, you should supply the separable part with the sep= parameter. The template will then reattach it in the appropriate places.

On the page opdelen:

  • {{nl-conj-wk|sep=op|deel|dele}}

On the page uitzoeken:

  • {{nl-conj-wk-cht|sep=uit|zoek||zo}}

On the page uitkijken:

  • {{nl-conj-st|class=1|sep=uit|kijk|keek|keken||keke}}

On the page doorhebben:

  • {{nl-conj-irr|sep=door|hebben}}

A few verbs have both a prefix and a separable part. Normally, it's assumed that the separable part comes first. Thus:

On the page doorvertellen:

  • {{nl-conj-wk|sep=door|pref=ver|tel|telle}}

On the page aanbevelen:

  • {{nl-conj-st|class=4|sep=aan|pref=be|veel|val|volen|vele|vale|vaalt}}
However, there are a few verbs, mostly those with the prefix her- like herinrichten, where the order of the separable part and the prefix is reversed (the prefix comes before the separable part rather than after it). Since the unstressed prefix cannot be attached to the separable part when it functions as an independent word, such verbs are defective and lack main clause forms. So one cannot say ik richt herin, although a subordinate clause form is possible: zij zag dat ik de kamer herinrichtte. There is currently no way to create inflection tables for these verbs.