User:-sche/inscriptions

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I will move this information to entries in the main namespace as appropriate.

Maya[edit]

Dresdner Kodex[edit]

Dresden Codex

Runen[edit]

Runeninschriften[edit]

Moorfunde von Vimose (Harja) (160)[edit]

Heri
The comb.

The Vimose inscriptions are the oldest runic inscriptions. The comb, inscribed with the male name ᚺᚨᚱᛃᚨ Harja, dates from 160 and is the earliest runic inscription.

Negauer Helm (Harigast)[edit]

The inscription on the Negau B helmet, 𐌇𐌀𐌓𐌉𐌊𐌀𐌔𐌕𐌉𐌕𐌄𐌉𐌅𐌀///𐌉𐌐, harikastiteiva\\\ip. The first part is widely accepted as the name Harikast / Harigast.

Fibel von Meldorf[edit]

One drawing of the inscription on the Meldorf fibula.

The inscription on the Meldorf fibula may be the oldest runic inscription that has been found.

It is frequently read as hiwi (for a/the spouse) (Template:goh hīwa (spouse)); other Runic interpretations are irih, hiri, iwih, iþih, hiþi. Those who interpret the script as Latin read the dative personal name Idin, or as nidi, or as irih or hiri.

Inschrift von Bergakker[edit]

One drawing of the inscription.

The Bergakker inscription, a 5th century inscription on a scabbard-mount, is accepted as a direct attestation of Old Frankish. It is read as ha?*þ*??s : ann, k*sjam / log*ns (* is an odd rune, accepted as a vowel).

Runenschnalle von Pforzen[edit]

The inscription.

The inscription on the Pforzen buckle, from the 6th century, is the oldest West Germanic (Old High German) inscription to preserve stave-rhyme. Its meaning is unclear.

Wodan[edit]

Inschrift von Arguel (Wodan)[edit]

The Arguel inscription, discovered in France and dated to the 5th or 6th century, reads ᚨᚱᛒᛁᛏᚨ- / ᚹᛟᛞᚨᚾ / ᛚ---ᛟ?ᚺᚨᛜ / -ᛖ- / ᚲᛁᛗ, arbita? / wodan / l???o?haŋ / ?e? / kim. The second line is accepted as the name Wodan. At least one scholar, Looijenga, considers it a forgery.

Bügelfibel von Nordendorf (Wodan)[edit]

One of the Nordendorf fibulae contains a rare set of gods' names: awa (l)eubwini / logaþore / wodan / wigiþonar. The middle name is accepted as Wodan.

du[edit]

Fibel von Bülach (du)[edit]

du
One drawing of the inscription.

The inscription on the Bülach fibula is the only runic inscription found in Switzerland. It dates to the 6th century (or as early as the 3rd). The first two lines are accepted as frifridil / du (ᚠᚱᛁᚠᚱᛁᛞᛁᛚ / ᛞᚢ); the rest is unclear. Frifridil is accepted as a pet name for a (male) love (Template:goh fridil), and du as the second person pronoun (Template:goh du, already differentiated from other Germanic languages’ þu).

References[edit]

  • Heinz Klingenberg, Runenfibel von Bülach, Kanton Zürich. Liebesinschrift aus alemannischer Frühzeit, in the Alemannisches Jahrbuch (1973/75), page 308
  • Heinz Klingenberg, Die Runeninschrift aus Bülach, in Helvetia archaeologica, volume 7 (1976), pages 116–121
  • Stephan Opitz, Südgermanische Runeninschriften im älteren Futhark aus der Merowingerzeit (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1977)


runo, runa, runoz[edit]

Einangstein (Godagast, runo, faihido)[edit]

ᚱᚢᚾᛟ, rún
A photograph of the inscription.

The proto-Norse inscription on the Einang stone, dated to the 4th century, is read as (ᛖᚲ ᚷᛟ)ᛞᚨᚷᚨᛋᛏᛁᛉ ᚱᚢᚾᛟ ᚠᚨᛁᚺᛁᛞᛟ, (ek go)ðagastiR runo faihido (the first four runes have been obliterated by time, but are reconstructed). This is translated as "(I, Go)dguest painted this rune [inscription]". It may be the earliest attestation of runo, which is singular on the stone.

References[edit]

  • Terje Spurkland, Norwegian runes and runic inscriptions (The Boydell Press, Woodbridge, ISBN 1 84383 186 4, 2005), pages 42–43 [1]


Fibel von Frei-Laubersheim (runa)[edit]

The Frei-Laubersheim fibula.

The Frei-Laubersheim fibula, found in a grave dated to the 6th century, contains a Germanic (possibly Low Germanic) inscription. The accepted reading of the first line is boso : wraet (:) runa. The first word is the name Boso (Template:ang Bōsa, Template:non Bōsi), the second word is wrote, and the third word is the plural runes.

Brakteaten von Tjurkö (runoz) (450-650)[edit]

A replica.

The first of the Tjurkö bracteates from the fifth to the seventh century contains the inscription ᚹᚢᚱᛏᛖᚱᚢᚾᛟᛉᚨᚾᚹᚨᛚᚺᚨᚲᚢᚱᚾᛖ··ᚺᛖᛚᛞᚨᛉᚲᚢᚾᛁᛗᚢᚾᛞᛁᚢ···, wurte runoz an walhakurne heldaz kunimudiu, "Heldaz wrought runes on the foreign 'grain' [=gold] for Kunimunduz".

ek[edit]

Amulett von Lindholm (ek) (150-350)[edit]

The bone.

The Lindholm amulet is a 2nd to 4th century piece of bone inscribed ᛖᚳᛖᚱᛁᛚᚨᛉ..., ekerilazsa[w]ilagazhateka: / aaaaaaaazzznn[n]bmuttt:alu:. The second line is gibberish, perhaps magical; the first line is ek erilaz sa Wilagaz haiteka or ek erilaz Sawilagaz haiteka, "I [am an] erilaz, Sawilagaz hight I".

Runenstein von Tune (ek) (250-450)[edit]

Side A / I.
Side B / III.

The Tune stone, from the 3rd to 5th century, bears a Proto-Norse inscription. Side A reads:

ekwiwazafter-woduri (ᛖᚲᚹᛁᚹᚨᛉ...)
dewitadahalaiban:worathto-?[???]

Side B reads:

[???]?zwoduride:staina:
þrijozdohtrizdalidun
arbijasijostezarbijano

This is interpreted as:

A: Ek Wiwaz after Woduride witandahlaiban worhto r[unoz].
B: [Me]z(?) Woduride staina þrijoz dohtriz dalidun(?) arbija arjostez(?) arbijano.

This translates to:

I, Wiwaz, made the runes after Woduridaz, my lord.
For me, Woduridaz, [with?] three daughters, the most distinguished of the heirs, prepared the stone.


Runenstein von Rö (ek, fahido) (425)[edit]

The Rö runestone is from the early 5th century. "The runes are in the elder futhark and the language is Proto-Norse with preserved declensions and intermediate vowels that would much later be lost when the language turned into Old Norse." It is read as ek hra[z/þ]az satido -tain / ana----(r) / swabaharjaz / s-irawidaz / ... stainawarijaz fahido, which is Ek Hraþaz satido / [s]tain[a] / ... / Swabaharjaz / s[a]irawidaz. / ... Stainawarijaz fahido, "I, Hraþaz raised the stone ... Swabaharjaz with wide wounds. ... Stainawarijaz painted".

Goldhörner von Gallehus (ek, horna) (425)[edit]

1734 drawing of inscription.

The inscription on the w:Golden Horns of Gallehus, dated to the early 5th century, is the oldest North Germanic inscription to preserve stave-rhyme. It is ᛖᚲᚺᛚᛖᚹᚨᚷᚨᛊᛏᛁᛉ᛬ᚺᛟᛚᛏᛁᛃᚨᛉ᛬ᚺᛟᚱᚾᚨ᛬ᛏᚨᚹᛁᛞᛟ᛬, ek hlewagastiz:holtijaz:horna:tawido:. This is read as ek Hlewagastiz Holtijaz horna tawidō, "I Hlewagastiz Holtijaz made the horn".

Runenstein von Hogganvik (ek, stainaz, Naudigast) (450)[edit]

The stone.
The inscription.

The 5th century Hogganvik runestone, discovered in 2009, bears a Proto-Norse inscription read as:

[s]kelbaþewas:st⁀ainaz:aasrpkf — "Skelba-þewa's [Shaking-servant's] stone" + aasrpkf [runic alphabet magic]
aarpaa:inanana[l/b/w]oz — aarpaa [runic alphabet magic] + "?within/from within the ?wheel-nave/?cabin-corner [or: ?needle]" [difficult to interpet]

The colophon, located between lines A and B:

ek naudigastiz (ᛖᚲᚾᚨᚢᛞᛁᚷᚨᛋᛏᛁᛉ) — "I, Naudigastiz [Need-guest]"
ek erafaz — "I, [nicknamed] Wolverine"

References[edit]


Kragehul I (ek) (200-475)[edit]

The shaft.

Kragehul I is a late 5th century spear shaft. The first part is accepted as reading ᛖᚳᛖ⁀ᚱᛁᛚᚨ⁀ᛉ..., ek e⁀rila⁀z asugisalas m⁀uh⁀a h⁀aite g⁀ag⁀ag⁀a, "I, erilaz of Asugisalaz, hight Muha, ga-ga-ga!"