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Comparatives and Superlatives[edit]


Comparatives and Superlatives[edit]

Verbs: Conjugation Table Patterns[edit]

"Vowel" patterns[edit]

Diaeresis means that the vowel has a macron unless it is suppressed by the ending, and ° meaning that the vowel becomes long only when followed by the -∅ ending.

Ending which suppress macrons: -m, -t, -nt, -r, -ndus.

ROW \ CONJ. 1st 2nd 3rd 3rd (IO) 4th
1 ö ä ë ö i u i iu ï iu
2 ābö ābi ābu ēbö ēbi ēbu
ä ë
3 ābä ēbä ēbä iēbä iēbä
4 ēru ēru ēru ēru ēru
5 erō eri erō eri erō eri erō eri erō eri
6 erä erä erä erä erä
7 ö ä ë ö e i u iö e i iu io ï iu
8 ābö ābe ābi ābu ēbö ēbe ēbi ēbu ä ë
9 ābä ēbä ēbä iēbä iēbä
10 ë ä
11 ārë ērë erë erë īrë
12 erï erï erï erï erï
13 issë issë issë issë issë
14 ë ä
15 ārë ērë erë erë īrë
Imp. ä ë e i u e i iu ī iu
Inf. ā i ā u ē i ē u e i ī u e i ī u ī i ī u
Part. ä ū u ä ë ū u ë ë ū u ë ië ū u ië ië ū u ië
  • Vowel patterns for 3rd (IO) are either the same as 3rd or derived from 3rd by prepending 'i'. If the stem is from the first principal part, then if the 3rd conjugation vowel pattern is (or starts with) a long vowel, or is a 'u', then prepend 'i', otherwise don't.
  • Vowel patterns for 4th conjugation (for first stem): same as 3rd (IO) whenever it differs from 3rd, otherwise change the 3rd IO pattern's first vowel to long ī.
  • Moving from 1st/2nd conjugations to 3rd: grab letter ä from 1st row of 1st conjugation and letter ë from 1st row of 2nd conjugation, and place them in 2nd row of 3rd conjugation. Remove 'ēb' from beginning of elements in 2nd row of 2nd conjugation and place the resulting elements in 1st row of 3rd conjugation. Thus, the first and second rows "cross over," as it were. 3rd row is the same as 2nd conjugation. Remove 'ēb' from beginning of elements in 8th row of 2nd conjugation and place the result in 7th row of 3rd conjugation. Otherwise, rows 7/8/9 are copies of rows 1/2/3 (of same conjugation), respectively. Row 10: remove initial 'e' from 2nd conjugation. Row 11: remove initial 'e' from 2nd conjugation (turns long 'ē' into short 'e'). So rows 10, 11 move "parallel."
  • Imperative row can be obtained from 7th row by removing initial ö/eö/iö.
  • First letter of infinitive row: same as first letter of Imperative row. Second letter: constant. (Perfect active infinitive is the same as 13th row (pluperfect subjunctive) with ending removed.) Third letter: same as first letter except convert short 'e' to long 'ī'.
  • First element of participle row: same as row 9 with 'bä' ending removed. Second and third elements: constant. Fourth element: same as first element.
  • Moving from 1st row to 2nd row: convert beginning 'ä' to beginning 'ë', beginning 'ë' to 'eä', lone 'ö' to 'eö'. Note: "eā" means "she," "eō" means "I go," "ē" means "out of," and first-stem vowel patterns for the 2nd conjugation all start with 'eā', 'eō' or 'ē'. So long initial vowels (there are no short vowels with the first stem) convert as follows: 'ä' --> 'ë', 'ë' --> 'ä', 'ö' --> 'ö', and then get prepended with 'e', though the 'ë' absorbs its own short version. Perfectives and third stem forms stay constant.
  • The first column can be filled in by first conjugating a 1st conjugation verb "naturally", i.e. by ear, sounding out the verb forms row by row. Then the result can be analyzed to extract the vowel patterns and fill out the first column (rows 1 to 15). With the first column filled, the 2nd, 3rd, 3rd IO and 4th columns can successively be filled (rows 1 to 15) with help of the above hints. Then the last three rows can be filled, and with the table one can proceed to conjugate the rest of the conjugations, in a natural way.
  • However, for the first conjugation, note that: beginning vowels (including lone vowels) of first-stem vowel patterns are all long (and there are just three of them: ä, ë and ö), whereas beginning vowels of second-stem vowel patterns are all short.
  • Final vowels of 1st-conjugation vowel patterns are short only on the 2nd, 5th and 8th rows (these are the future tenses).
  • The final 'ï' of row 12 is long in order to distinguish it from the final (short) 'i' on row 5.
  • Row 5 can be obtained from row 2 by changing 'āb' to 'er' and removing the last element. Likewise, row 3 transforms to row 6 (changing 'āb' to 'er').
  • Moving from indicative mood to subjunctive mood, the future tense is discarded: row 1 moves to row 10 and row 3 moves to row 11. Row 1 discards the first element 'ö', the remaining two elements transform the final 'ä' to final 'ë' (this is reminescent of the movement from the 1st conjugation to the 2nd conjugation). The 'b' changes to 'r': there are no b's in the subjunctive. Consonants in the indicative are only: {'b', 'r'}, and in the subjunctive: {'r', 'ss'}.
  • Only present tenses (rows 1, 4, 7, 10, (12), 14) have a lone vowel (as either first or only element).
  • For the first conjugation: there are no vowel patterns consisting of combinations of two vowels. Each element is either: a lone vowel or a triple combination of vowel + consonant + vowel.
  • Between the two of rows 2 and 3, the only final vowel missing is 'e', which gets added when moving from row 2 to row 8.
  • After completing rows 1 though 15 for all conjugations: move from row 7 to Imperatives row, row 11 to Infinitives row, and row 9 to Participles row. "7-Eleven, Oh thank Cloud Nine."
  • A vowel pattern with three or four elements gets the next-to-last element underlined. A pattern with two elements gets the last element underlined, with the sole exception of row 4.



-m (-∅)   -s (-stī)   -t   -mus   -tis (-stis)   -nt 
"M.S.T. must isn't"


-r   -ris   -tur   -mur   -minī   -ntur 
"Rristúrmur Miníntur."


-∅   -tō   -te   -tōte   -ntō
-re   -tor   -minī   —   -ntor 
"tōtōte tōte nn tō"
"R(h)etor mini (me)ntor (est)."


-re   -sse   -rī (-∅)   -m 


-ns   -rus   -s   -ndus 
-ns → -n(du)s
-s → -(ru)s

-∅ vs. -m: Always use -m for subjunctive, for indicative: if the Verb Pattern ends in 'a', then use -m, otherwise use -∅.
-s vs. -stī: -stī is used on the 4th row (perfect tense) and nowhere else.
-tis vs. -stis: -stis is used on the 4th row (perfect tense) and nowhere else.
-rī vs. -∅: -∅ is used for 3rd and 3rd (IO) and nothing else.


VOICE \ PERSON·NUMBER 1 s 2 s 3 s 1 p 2 p 3 p
ACTIVE -m (-∅) -s (-stī) -t -mus -tis (-stis) -nt
PASSIVE -r -ris -tur -mur -minī -ntur

TENSE pres fut pres fut fut
PERSON·NUMBER 2 s 2/3 s 2 p 2 p 3 p
ACTIVE -∅ -tō -te -tōte -ntō
PASSIVE -re -tor -minī -ntor

ENDING -re -sse -rī (-∅) -m

ENDING -ns -rus -s -ndus


 VerbForm = Stem + VowelPattern + Ending

Stem patterns[edit]

Let {0} be the stem of the lemma, {1} be the perfective stem, {2} be the supine stem.


1. {0}
2. {0}
3. {0}
4. {1}
5. {1}
6. {1}
7. {0}
8. {0}
9. {0}

10. {0}
11. {0}
12. {1}
13. {1}
14. {0}
15. {0}

INFINITIVES : {0} - {1} - {0} - {2}
PARTICIPLES : {0} - {2} - {2} - {0}

Simple Algorithm for Determining Conjugation[edit]

(Of garden-variety verbs.)

1. Does present infinitive end in -āre?

1a. If so, then the verb is 1st conjugation.
1b. If not, then go to 2.

2. Does present active end in -eō?

2a. If so, then the verb is 2nd conjugation.*
2b. If not, then go to 3.

3. Does present active end in -iō?

3a. If so, then go to 4.
3b. If not, then the verb is 3rd conjugation.**

4. Does present infinitive end in -īre?

4a. If so, then the verb is 4th conjugation.
4b. If not, then the verb is 3rd (IO) conjugation.


* - The 2nd conjugation infinitive tends to be paroxytone.
** - The 3rd conjugation infinitive tends to be proparoxytone.


Diphthong IPA
ae /ai̯/
au /au̯/
ei /ei̯/
eu /eu̯/
oe /oi̯/
ui /ui̯/

Cf. Esperanto.


The above is from (Charles Bennett's New Latin Grammar). (LATINA dependency parser of classical Latin)