User:Gilgamesh/English words by phonological interest

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Assorted nondeterministic pronunciations[edit]

any /ˈɛni/ (also /ˈæni/) blood /ˈblʌd/ both /ˈboʊlθ/ (also /ˈboʊθ/) broad /ˈbrɔːd/ broaden /ˈbrɔːdən/ bury /ˈbɛri/ business /ˈbɪznᵻs/ busy /ˈbɪzi/ butte /ˈbjuːt, ˈbɪut/ choir /ˈkwaɪ(ə)r/ colonel /ˈkɜːrnəl, ˈkʌrn-/ comfortable /ˈkʌmftərbəl/ (also /ˈkʌmf(ər)təbəl/) coupon /ˈkjuːpɒn, ˈkɪup-/ (also /ˈkuːpɒn/) debt /ˈdɛt/ doubt /ˈdaʊt/ drawer (compartment) /ˈdrɔər/ (also /ˈdrɔːər/) England /ˈɪŋɡlənd/ English /ˈɪŋɡlᵻʃ/ flood /ˈflʌd/ fount (font) /ˈfɒnt/ (also /ˈfaʊnt/) friend /ˈfrɛnd/ gaol /ˈdʒeɪl/ hiccough /ˈhɪkʌp, -kəp/ Houston (Texas) /ˈhjuːstən, ˈhɪust-/ iron /ˈaɪərn/ lieutenant /lɛfˈtɛnənt/ (also /ljuːˈtɛnənt, lɪu-/) many /ˈmɛni/ (also /ˈmæni/) mayor /ˈmɛər, ˈmeɪr/ (also /ˈmeɪər/) once /ˈwʌns, ˈwɒns/ one /ˈwʌn, ˈwɒn/ people /ˈpiːpəl/ plaid /ˈplæd/ prayer (petition) /ˈprɛər, ˈpreɪr/ pretty /ˈprɪti/ receipt /rɨˈsiːt/ Sean /ˈʃɔːn/ sew /ˈsoʊ/ sewn /ˈsoʊn/ subtle /ˈsʌtəl/ trough /ˈtrɒθ, ˈtrɔːθ/ (also /ˈtrɒf, ˈtrɔːf/) twenty /ˈtwʌnti, ˈtwʊnti/ (also /ˈtwɛnti/) victual /ˈvɪtəl/ women /ˈwɪmən/

Alternate pronunciations with /ʌ/[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where the only pronunciations involve either /ʌ/ or /ʊ/.

anybody /ˈɛnibʌdi, ˈæn-/ (also /ˈɛnibɒdi, ˈæn-/) because /bɨˈkʌz/ (also /bɨˈkɒz, -ˈkɔːz/) 'cause /ˈkʌz/ (also /ˈkɒz, ˈkɔːz/) coney, cony /ˈkʌni/ (also /ˈkoʊni/) coven /ˈkʌvən/ (also /ˈkoʊvən/) donjon /ˈdʌndʒən/ (also /ˈdɒndʒən/) donkey /ˈdʌŋki/ (also /ˈdɒŋki, ˈdɔːŋki/) everybody /ˈɛv(ə)ribʌdi/ (also /ˈɛv(ə)ribɒdi/) from /ˈfrʌm/ (also /ˈfrɒm/) grovel /ˈɡrʌvəl/ (also /ˈɡrɒvəl/) hovel /ˈhʌvəl/ (also /ˈhɒvəl/) hover /ˈhʌvər/ (also /ˈhɒvər/) nobody /ˈnoʊbʌdi/ (also /ˈnoʊbɒdi, -bədi/) of /ˈʌv/ (also /ˈɒv/) once /ˈwʌns/ (also /ˈwɒns/) one /ˈwʌn/ (also /ˈwɒn/) somebody /ˈsʌmbʌdi/ (also /ˈsʌmbɒdi, -bədi/) southerly /ˈsʌðərli/ (also /ˈsaʊðərli/) southern /ˈsʌðərn/ (also /ˈsaʊðərn/) sovereign /ˈsʌv(ə)rᵻn/ (also /ˈsɒv(ə)rᵻn/) tournament /ˈtɜːrnəmənt, ˈtʌrn-/ (also /ˈtʊərnəmənt, ˈtuːrn-/) tourney /ˈtɜːrni, ˈtʌrni/ (also /ˈtʊərni, ˈtuːrni/) twenty /ˈtwʌnti/ (also /ˈtwɛnti, ˈtwʊnti/) was /ˈwʌz/ (also /ˈwɒz/) wast /ˈwʌst/ (also /ˈwɒst/) what /ˈhwʌt/ (also /ˈhwɒt/) won /ˈwʌn/ (also /ˈwɒn/) wont /ˈwʌnt/ (also /ˈwɒnt, ˈwɔːnt/)

Centering diphthong without /r/[edit]

Graham, graham, Graeme /ˈɡrɛəm/ (also /ˈɡreɪəm, ˈɡræm/) Leah /ˈlɪə/ (also /ˈliːə/) mayonnaise /ˈmɛəneɪz/ (also /ˈmeɪəˈneɪz, ˈmæneɪz/) real /ˈrɪəl/ (also /ˈriː(ə)l/) Rhea, rhea /ˈrɪə/ (also /ˈriːə/) theater, theatre /ˈθɪətər/ (also /ˈθiː(ə)tər, ˈθiːæt-, ˈθiːeɪt-/) yeah /ˈjɛə/ (also /ˈjæ/)

Fricative and silent plosive before lateral or nasal[edit]

apostle /əˈpɒsəl/ bristle /ˈbrɪsəl/ bustle /ˈbʌsəl/ castle /ˈkæsəl, ˈkɑːs-/ chasten /ˈtʃeɪsən/ chestnut /ˈtʃɛsnʌt/ christen /ˈkrɪsən/ Christmas /ˈkrɪsməs/ fasten /ˈfæsən, ˈfɑːs-/ glisten /ˈɡlɪsən/ gristle /ˈɡrɪsəl/ hasten /ˈheɪsən/ hustle /ˈhʌsəl/ jostle /ˈdʒɒsəl/ listen /ˈlɪsən/ mistletoe /ˈmɪsəltoʊ/ moisten /ˈmɔɪsən/ muscle /ˈmʌsəl/ mustn't /ˈmʌsənt/ nestle /ˈnɛsəl/ often /ˈɒfən, ˈɔːf-/ (also /ˈɒftən, ˈɔːft-/) pestle /ˈpɛsəl/ (also /ˈpɛstəl/) rastle, wrastle /ræsəl/ rustle /ˈrʌsəl/ soften /ˈsɒfən, ˈsɔːf-/ thistle /ˈθɪsəl/ throstle /ˈθrɒsəl/ whistle /ˈhwɪsəl/ wrestle /rɛsəl/

‹a› as /ɒ/ or /ɔː/[edit]

Most such words have the spelling combinations ‹wa›, ‹ua› or ‹wha›.

This list does not include:

  • Words only pronounced with /ɑː/, such as qualm or suave.
  • Words pronounced with /ɔː(l)/ from L-vocalization, such as squall or walk.

Bengal /bɛŋˈɡɔːl, bɛn-/ (also /ˈbɛŋɡəl, ˈbɛn-, bɛŋˈɡɑːl, bɛn-/) Bengali /bɛŋˈɡɔːli, bɛn-/ (also /bɛŋˈɡɑːli, bɛn-/) bulwark /ˈbʊlwɔːrk, ˈbʌl-, -wɒrk/ (also /ˈbʊlwərk, ˈbʌl-/) dwarf /ˈdwɔːrf, ˈdwɒrf/ dwarves /ˈdwɔːrvz, ˈdwɒrvz/ Lancelot /ˈlɔːns(ə)lɒt, -lət/ (also /ˈlæns(ə)lɒt, ˈlɑːns-, -lət/) quaff /ˈkwɒf, ˈkwɔːf/ (also /ˈkwæf, ˈkwɑːf/) quag /ˈkwɒɡ/ (also /ˈkwæɡ/) quagmire /ˈkwɒɡmaɪ(ə)r/ (also /ˈkwæɡmaɪ(ə)r/) quantum /ˈkwɒntəm/ quarantine /ˈkwɒrəntiːn, ˈkwɔːr-/ quark /ˈkwɔːrk, ˈkwɒrk/ (also /ˈkwɑːrk, ˈkwærk/) quarrel /ˈkwɒrəl, ˈkwɔːr-/ quarry /ˈkwɒri, ˈkwɔːri/ quart /ˈkwɔːrt, ˈkwɒrt/ quarter /ˈkwɔːrtər, ˈkwɒrt-/ quarts, quartz /ˈkwɔːrts, ˈkwɒrts/ quash /ˈkwɒʃ/ sasquatch /ˈsæskwɒtʃ/ (also /ˈsæskwætʃ/) scallop /ˈskɒləp/ (also /ˈskæləp/) Sean /ˈʃɔːn/ Siobhan /ʃɨˈvɔːn/ squabble /ˈskwɒbəl/ squad /ˈskwɒd/ squadron /ˈskwɒdrən/ squalid /ˈskwɒlᵻd/ squalor /ˈskwɒlər/ squander /ˈskwɒndər/ Squanto /ˈskwɒntoʊ/ squash /ˈskwɒʃ, ˈskwɔːʃ/ squat /ˈskwɒt/ squatch /ˈskwɒtʃ/ (also /ˈskwætʃ/) stanch /ˈstɔːntʃ/ (also /ˈstæntʃ, ˈstɑːntʃ/) swab /ˈswɒb/ swaddle /ˈswɒdəl/ swallow /ˈswɒloʊ/ swamp /ˈswɒmp/ swan /ˈswɒn/ swap /ˈswɒp/ swarm /ˈswɔːrm, ˈswɒrm/ swart /ˈswɔːrt, ˈswɒrt/ swarthy /ˈswɔːrði, ˈswɒrði, ˈswɔːrθi, ˈswɒrθi/ swash /ˈswɒʃ, ˈswɔːʃ/ swat /ˈswɒt/ swatch /ˈswɒtʃ/ swath /ˈswɒθ, ˈswɔːθ/ swaths /ˈswɒðz, ˈswɔːðz/ twat /ˈtwɒt/ wabble /ˈwɒbəl/ wad /ˈwɒd/ waddle /ˈwɒdəl/ waffle /ˈwɒfəl, ˈwɔːf-/ Wallace /ˈwɒlᵻs/ wallow /ˈwɒloʊ/ Wally /ˈwɒli, ˈwɔːli/ Walsh /ˈwɒlʃ/ wan (pallid) /ˈwɒn/ wand /ˈwɒnd/ wander /ˈwɒndər/ wanna /ˈwɒnə, ˈwɔːnə/ want /ˈwɒnt, ˈwɔːnt/ wanton /ˈwɒntən/ war /ˈwɔːr, ˈwɒr/ warble /ˈwɔːrbəl, ˈwɒrb-/ ward /ˈwɔːrd, ˈwɒrd/ warden /ˈwɔːrdən, ˈwɒrd-/ warm /ˈwɔːrm, ˈwɒrm/ warmth /ˈwɔːrmθ, ˈwɒrmθ/ warn /ˈwɔːrn, ˈwɒrn/ warp /ˈwɔːrp, ˈwɒrp/ warrant /ˈwɒrənt, ˈwɔːr-/ warranty /ˈwɒrənti, ˈwɔːr-/ Warren, warren /ˈwɒrən, ˈwɔːr-/ warrior /ˈwɒriər, ˈwɔːr-, -rjər, ˈwɔɪər/ Warsaw /ˈwɔːrsɔː, ˈwɒrs-/ wart /ˈwɔːrt, ˈwɒrt/ Warwick /ˈwɒrᵻk, ˈwɔːr-, ˈwɔːrwᵻk, ˈwɒr-/ was /ˈwɒz/ (also /ˈwʌz/) Wash, wash /ˈwɒʃ, ˈwɔːʃ/ Washington /ˈwɒʃᵻŋtən, ˈwɔːʃ-/ wasp /ˈwɒsp/ wassail /ˈwɒsᵻl, -seɪl, wɒˈseɪl/ (also /ˈwæsᵻl, -seɪl, wæˈseɪl/) wast /ˈwɒst/ (also /ˈwʌst/) watch /ˈwɒtʃ/ water /ˈwɔːtər/ watt /ˈwɒt/ whap /ˈhwɒp/ (also /ˈhwæp/) wharf /ˈhwɔːrf, ˈhwɒrf/ wharves /ˈhwɔːrvz, ˈhwɒrvz/ what /ˈhwɒt/ (also /ˈhwʌt/) wrath /ˈrɒθ, ˈrɔːθ/ (also /ˈræθ, ˈrɑːθ/) yacht /ˈjɒt/

‹aCC› as /eɪCC/ and final ‹aC› as /eɪC/[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where the consonant cluster sequence is only /Cl/ (as in table) or only /Cr/ (as in sabre), since vowels are expected to be long in these spellings.
  • Words where the spelling ‹agC› is pronounced /eɪC/ from older /æjC/.
  • Words pronounced with /eɪŋ(ɡ)/ or /eɪŋk/, as this is specific and regular to certain dialects of North American English.

Before /mb/[edit]

Cambridge /ˈkeɪmbrᵻdʒ/ chamber /ˈtʃeɪmbər/ chamberlain /ˈtʃeɪmbərlᵻn/

Before /ndʒ/[edit]

angel /ˈeɪndʒəl/ change /ˈtʃeɪndʒ/ danger /ˈdeɪndʒər/ grange /ˈɡreɪndʒ/ mange /ˈmeɪndʒ/ range /ˈreɪndʒ/ strange /ˈstreɪndʒ/

Before /st/[edit]

baste /ˈbeɪst/ chaste /ˈtʃeɪst/ haste /ˈheɪst/ paste /ˈpeɪst/ pastry /ˈpeɪstri/ taste /ˈteɪst/ waste /ˈweɪst/ wastrel /ˈweɪstrəl/

Influenced[edit]

chasten /ˈtʃeɪsən/ hasten /ˈheɪsən/

Other[edit]

ancient /ˈeɪn(t)ʃənt/ bass (clef) /ˈbeɪs/ Halley /ˈheɪli/ (also /ˈhæli/) nascent /ˈneɪsənt/ (also /ˈnæsənt/) Ralph /ˈreɪf/ (also /ˈrælf, ˈrɑː(l)f/) scarce /ˈskɛərs, ˈskeɪrs/

‹ai› and ‹ay› as /aɪ/[edit]

aisle /ˈaɪl/ ay, aye /ˈaɪ/ (also /ˈeɪ/) banzai /ˈbɑːnˈzaɪ/ bonsai /ˈbɒnˈsaɪ, ˈboʊn-, -ˈzaɪ/ Cairo (Egyptian) /ˈkaɪroʊ/ Dubai /duːˈbaɪ/ Gaia /ˈɡaɪə/ (also /ˈɡeɪə/) Gaius /ˈɡaɪəs/ (also /ˈɡeɪəs/) Hawaii /həˈwaɪi, -ˈvaɪʔi, -ˈwaɪə/ (also /həˈwɑːi, -ˈvɑːʔi/) Isaiah /aɪˈzaɪə/ (also /aɪˈzeɪə/) kaiser /ˈkaɪzər/ Mordecai /ˈmɔːrdəˈkaɪ, ˈmɒrd-/ (also /mɔːrdəˈkeɪaɪ, mɒrd-/) Lorelai /ˈlɒrəlaɪ, ˈlɔːr-/ samurai /ˈsæm(j)ᵿraɪ/ sempai /ˈsɛmpaɪ/ senpai /ˈsɛmpaɪ, ˈsɛn-/ Shanghai /ˈʃæŋˈhaɪ/ Taipei /ˈtaɪˈpeɪ/ Taiwan /ˈtaɪˈwɑːn/ Thai /ˈtaɪ/ Thailand /ˈtaɪlænd/

‹ai› and ‹ay› as /ɛ/[edit]

again /əˈɡɛn/ (also /əˈɡeɪn/) against /əˈɡɛnst/ (also /əˈɡeɪnst/) Craig /ˈkrɛɡ/ (also /ˈkreɪɡ/) said /ˈsɛd/ sayeth /ˈsɛθ/ (also /ˈseɪəθ/) says /ˈsɛz/

/æŋ/[edit]

These words mostly have /eɪŋ/ in North American English, though certain words may still retain /æŋ/.

anchor /ˈæŋkər/ anger /ˈæŋɡər/ Angle, angle /ˈæŋɡəl/ Anglia /ˈæŋɡliə/ angry /ˈæŋɡri/ angst /ˈæŋ(k)st/ anguish /ˈæŋɡwᵻʃ/ angular /ˈæŋɡjᵿlər/ Angus /ˈæŋɡəs/ ankh /ˈæŋk/ ankle /ˈæŋkəl/ anxious /ˈæŋ(k)ʃəs/ bang /ˈbæŋ/ Bangalore /ˈbæŋɡəlɔər, -loʊr/ Bangkok /ˈbæŋˈkɒk/ Bangladesh /ˈbæŋɡlədɛʃ/ (also /ˈbɑːŋɡlədɛʃ/) bangle /ˈbæŋɡəl/ Bangor /ˈbæŋɡɔːr, -ɡɒr, -ɡər/ bank /ˈbæŋk/ blank /ˈblæŋk/ brang /ˈbræŋ/ cankle /ˈkæŋkəl/ chank /ˈtʃæŋk/ clang /ˈklæŋ/ clank /ˈklæŋk/ crank /ˈkræŋk/ dang /ˈdæŋ/ dangle /ˈdæŋɡəl/ dank /ˈdæŋk/ doppelganger /ˈdɒpəlɡæŋər/ drank /ˈdræŋk/ fang /ˈfæŋ/ fangle /ˈfæŋɡəl/ flank /ˈflæŋk/ franc, Frank, frank /ˈfræŋk/ gang /ˈɡæŋ/ handkerchief /ˈhæŋkərtʃiːf, -tʃᵻf/ (also /ˈhændkərtʃiːf, -tʃᵻf/) hang /ˈhæŋ/ hangar, hanger /ˈhæŋər/ Hank /ˈhæŋk/ hanker /ˈhæŋkər/ jangle /ˈdʒæŋɡəl/ Lang /ˈlæŋ/ language /ˈlæŋɡwᵻdʒ/ languid /ˈlæŋɡwᵻd/ languish /ˈlæŋɡwᵻʃ/ lank /ˈlæŋk/ mangle /ˈmæŋɡəl/ Manx /ˈmæŋks/ meringue /məˈræŋ/ orangutan /ɵˈræŋᵿtæn, -tæŋ/ pang /ˈpæŋ/ plank /ˈplæŋk/ prank /ˈpræŋk/ rancor, rancour /ˈræŋkər/ rang /ˈræŋ/ rank /ˈræŋk/ rankle /ˈræŋkəl/ sang /ˈsæŋ/ sanguine /ˈsæŋɡwᵻn/ sank /ˈsæŋk/ Shanghai /ˈʃæŋˈhaɪ/ shank /ˈʃæŋk/ shrank /ˈʃræŋk/ skank /ˈskæŋk/ slang /ˈslæŋ/ slank /ˈslæŋk/ spangle /ˈspæŋɡəl/ spank /ˈspæŋk/ sprang /ˈspræŋ/ stang /ˈstæŋ/ stank /ˈstæŋk/ strangle /ˈstræŋɡəl/ swang /ˈswæŋ/ swank /ˈswæŋk/ Tang, tang /ˈtæŋ/ tangle /ˈtæŋɡəl/ tank /ˈtæŋk/ thank /ˈθæŋk/ trank, tranq /ˈtræŋk/ tranquil /ˈtræŋkwᵻl/ twang /ˈtwæŋ/ wang /ˈwæŋ/ wank /ˈwæŋk/ whang /ˈhwæŋ/ Wrangel, Wrangell, wrangle /ˈræŋɡəl/ yang /ˈjæŋ/ Yank, yank /ˈjæŋk/ Yankee /ˈjæŋki/

‹au› as /ɑː/[edit]

This pronunciation mainly occurs before a cluster of /n/ and another consonant, and most such words also have alternate pronunciations with /ɔː/.

aunt /ˈɑːnt/ (also /ˈænt/) daunt /ˈdɑːnt/ (also /ˈdɔːnt/) Gaunt /ˈɡɑːnt/ (also /ˈɡɔːnt/) gauntlet /ˈɡɑːntlᵻt/ (also /ˈɡɔːntlᵻt/) haunch /ˈhɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈhɔːntʃ/) haunt /ˈhɑːnt/ (also /ˈhɔːnt, ˈhænt/) jaundice /ˈdʒɑːndᵻs/ (also /ˈdʒɔːndᵻs/) jaunt /ˈdʒɑːnt/ (also /ˈdʒɔːnt/) Launcelot /ˈlɑːns(ə)lɒt, -lət/ (also /ˈlæns(ə)lɒt, ˈlɔːns-, -lət/) launch /ˈlɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈlɔːntʃ/) launder /ˈlɑːndər/ (also /ˈlɔːndər/) laundry /ˈlɑːndri/ (also /ˈlɔːndri/) paunch /ˈpɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈpɔːntʃ/) raunch /ˈrɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈrɔːntʃ/) Saunders /ˈsɑːndərz/ (also /ˈsɔːndərz/) saunter /ˈsɑːntər/ (also /ˈsɔːntər/) staunch /ˈstɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈstɔːntʃ/) taunt /ˈtɑːnt/ (also /ˈtɔːnt/) vaunt /ˈvɑːnt/ (also /ˈvɔːnt/)

‹au› and ‹aw› as /ɒ/[edit]

because /bɨˈkɒz/ (also /bɨˈkɔːz, -ˈkʌz/) 'cause /ˈkɒz/ (also /ˈkɔːz, ˈkʌz/) laurel /ˈlɒrəl/ (also /ˈlɔːrəl/) Laurence, Lawrence /ˈlɒrəns/ (also /ˈlɔːrəns/) Maurice /ˈmɒrᵻs/ (also /ˈmɔːrᵻs, mɔːˈriːs/) sausage /ˈsɒsᵻdʒ/ (also /ˈsɔːsᵻdʒ/)

/aʊl/[edit]

This sound tends to merge with /æl/ in North American English.

bowel /ˈbaʊl/ (also /ˈbaʊəl/) Cowell /ˈkaʊl/ (also /ˈkaʊəl/) cowl /ˈkaʊl/ foul, fowl /ˈfaʊl/ growl /ˈɡraʊl/ howl /ˈhaʊl/ owl /ˈaʊl/ (also /ˈaʊəl/) Powell /ˈpaʊl/ (also /ˈpaʊəl, ˈpoʊəl/) prowl /ˈpraʊl/ scowl /ˈskaʊl/ towel /ˈtaʊl/ (also /ˈtaʊəl/) trowel /ˈtraʊl/ (also /ˈtraʊəl/) vowel /ˈvaʊl/ (also /ˈvaʊəl/)

‹augh› and ‹ough› as /ɔː/[edit]

aught, ought /ˈɔːt/ besought /bɨˈsɔːt/ bought /ˈbɔːt/ brought /ˈbrɔːt/ caught /ˈkɔːt/ daughter /ˈdɔːtər/ distraught /dᵻˈstrɔːt/ fought /ˈfɔːt/ fraught /ˈfrɔːt/ haughty /ˈhɔːti/ naught, nought /ˈnɔːt/ onslaught /ˈɒnslɔːt, ˈɔːn-/ slaughter /ˈslɔːtər/ sought /ˈsɔːt/ taught /ˈtɔːt/ thought /ˈθɔːt/ Vaughan, Vaughn /ˈvɔːn/ wrought /ˈrɔːt/ Youghal /ˈjɔːl/

BATH lexical set[edit]

These words tend to have /æ ~ ɛə/ in North American English and /ɑː/ in Received Pronunciation. Some accents have both sounds, but varying word by word.

Before /f/[edit]

aft /ˈæft, ˈɑːft/ after /ˈæftər, ˈɑːft-/ chaff /ˈtʃæf, ˈtʃɑːf/ craft /ˈkræft, ˈkrɑːft/ daft /ˈdæft, ˈdɑːft/ draft, draught /ˈdræft, ˈdrɑːft/ giraffe /dʒᵻˈræf, -ˈrɑːf/ graft, graphed /ˈɡræft, ˈɡrɑːft/ graph /ˈɡræf, ˈɡrɑːf/ laugh /ˈlæf, ˈlɑːf/ laughter /ˈlæftər, ˈlɑːft-/ quaff /ˈkwæf, ˈkwɑːf/ (also /ˈkwɒf, ˈkwɔːf/) raft /ˈræft, ˈrɑːft/ shaft /ˈʃæft, ˈʃɑːft/ staff /ˈstæf, ˈstɑːf/

Before /(l)f/ or /(l)v/[edit]

calf /ˈkæ(l)f, ˈkɑː(l)f/ calves /ˈkæ(l)vz, ˈkɑː(l)vz/ calve /ˈkæ(l)v, ˈkɑː(l)v/ half /ˈhæ(l)f, ˈhɑː(l)f/ halves /ˈhæ(l)vz, ˈhɑː(l)vz/ halve /ˈhæ(l)v, ˈhɑː(l)v/ Ralph /ˈrælf, ˈrɑː(l)f/ (also /ˈreɪf/) salve /ˈsæ(l)v, ˈsɑː(l)v/

Before /mp(ə)l/[edit]

example /ᵻɡˈzæmpəl, ɛɡ-, -ˈzɑːmp-/ sample /ˈsæmpəl, ˈsɑːmp-/

Before /nd(ə)r/[edit]

Alexander /ælᵻɡˈzændər, -ˈzɑːnd-/ Alexandra /ælᵻɡˈzændrə, -ˈzɑːnd-/ Alexandretta /ælᵻɡzænˈdrɛtə, -zɑːnd-/ Alexandria /ælᵻɡˈzændriə, -ˈzɑːnd-/ commander /kəˈmændər, -ˈmɑːnd/ Flanders /ˈflændərz, ˈflɑːnd-/ Sanders /ˈsændərz, ˈsɑːnd-/ Sandra /ˈsændrə, ˈsɑːnd-/ slander /ˈslændər, ˈslɑːnd-/

Influenced[edit]

chandler /ˈtʃændlər, ˈtʃɑːnd-/ command /kəˈmænd, -ˈmɑːnd/ demand /dɨˈmænd, -ˈmɑːnd/ remand /rɨˈmænd, -ˈmɑːnd/

Before /ns/[edit]

advance /ædˈvæns, -ˈvɑːns/ answer /ˈænsər, ˈɑːns-/ chance /ˈtʃæns, ˈtʃɑːns/ chancellor /ˈtʃæns(ə)lər, ˈtʃɑːns-/ chancery /ˈtʃænsəri, ˈtʃɑːns-/ dance /ˈdæns, ˈdɑːns/ enhance /ᵻnˈhæns, ɛn-, -ˈhɑːns/ France /ˈfræns, ˈfrɑːns/ Frances (name), Francis /ˈfrænsᵻs, ˈfrɑːns-/ glance /ˈɡlæns, ˈɡlɑːns/ lance /ˈlæns, ˈlɑːns/ Lancelot, Launcelot /ˈlæns(ə)lɒt, ˈlɑːns-, -lət/ (also /ˈlɔːns(ə)lɒt, -lət/) prance /ˈpræns, ˈprɑːns/ Romance, romance /rɵˈmæns, ˈroʊˈmæns, -ˈmɑːns/ stance /ˈstæns, ˈstɑːns/ trance /ˈtræns, ˈtrɑːns/ trans- (stressed) /ˈtrænz-, ˈtrɑːnz-, ˈtræns-, ˈtrɑːns-/

Before /nt/[edit]

advantage /ædˈvæntᵻdʒ, -ˈvɑːnt-/ aunt /ˈænt, ˈɑːnt/ can't /ˈkænt, ˈkɑːnt/ chant /ˈtʃænt, ˈtʃɑːnt/ Grant, grant /ˈɡrænt, ˈɡrɑːnt/ plant /ˈplænt, ˈplɑːnt/ rant /ˈrænt, ˈrɑːnt/ shan't /ˈʃænt, ˈʃɑːnt/

Before /ntʃ/[edit]

blanch, Blanche /ˈblæntʃ, ˈblɑːntʃ/ branch /ˈbræntʃ, ˈbrɑːntʃ/ panch /ˈpæntʃ, ˈpɑːntʃ/ ranch /ˈræntʃ, ˈrɑːntʃ/ stanch /ˈstæntʃ, ˈstɑːntʃ/ (also /ˈstɔːntʃ/)

Before /s/[edit]

alas /əˈlæs, əˈlɑːs/ ask /ˈæsk, ˈɑːsk/ ass (arse) /ˈæs, ˈɑːs/ bask, Basque, basque /ˈbæsk, ˈbɑːsk/ basket /ˈbæskᵻt, ˈbɑːsk-/ bastard /ˈbæstərd, ˈbɑːst-/ Belfast /ˈbɛlfæst, -fɑːst/ blast /ˈblæst, ˈblɑːst/ brass /ˈbræs, ˈbrɑːs/ cask /ˈkæsk, ˈkɑːsk/ casket /ˈkæskᵻt, ˈkɑːsk-/ cast, caste /ˈkæst, ˈkɑːst/ caster, castor /ˈkæstər, ˈkɑːst-/ castle /ˈkæsəl, ˈkɑːs-/ clasp /ˈklæsp, ˈklɑːsp/ class /ˈklæs, ˈklɑːs/ contrast (noun) /ˈkɒntræst, -trɑːst/ contrast (verb) /kənˈtræst, -ˈtrɑːst/ disaster /dᵻˈzæstər, -ˈzɑːst-/ drastic /ˈdræstᵻk, ˈdrɑːst-/ fast /ˈfæst, ˈfɑːst/ fasten /ˈfæsən, ˈfɑːs-/ flask /ˈflæsk, ˈflɑːsk/ gasp /ˈɡæsp, ˈɡɑːsp/ gast, ghast /ˈɡæst, ˈɡɑːst/ Glasgow /ˈɡlæsɡoʊ, ˈɡlɑːs-, -koʊ/ glass /ˈɡlæs, ˈɡlɑːs/ grasp /ˈɡræsp, ˈɡrɑːsp/ grass /ˈɡræs, ˈɡrɑːs/ last /ˈlæst, ˈlɑːst/ mask, masque /ˈmæsk, ˈmɑːsk/ mast /ˈmæst, ˈmɑːst/ master /ˈmæstər, ˈmɑːst-/ nasty /ˈnæsti, ˈnɑːsti/ pass /ˈpæs, ˈpɑːs/ passed, past /ˈpæst, ˈpɑːst/ pastor /ˈpæstər, ˈpɑːst-/ pasture /ˈpæstʃər, ˈpɑːst-/ plaster /ˈplæstər, ˈplɑːst-/ plastic /ˈplæstᵻk, ˈplɑːst-/ rasp /ˈræsp, ˈrɑːsp/ task /ˈtæsk, ˈtɑːsk/ vast /ˈvæst, ˈvɑːst/

Influenced[edit]

raspberry /ˈræzb(ɛ)ri, ˈrɑːz-/

Before /θ/ or /ð/[edit]

Bath, bath /ˈbæθ, ˈbɑːθ/ baths /ˈbæðz, ˈbɑːðz, ˈbæθs, ˈbɑːθs/ lather /ˈlæðər, ˈlɑːð-/ path /ˈpæθ, ˈpɑːθ/ paths /ˈpæðz, ˈpɑːðz, ˈpæθs, ˈpɑːθs/ rather /ˈræðər, ˈrɑːð-/ wrath /ˈræθ, ˈrɑːθ/ (also /ˈrɒθ, ˈrɔːθ/)

Other[edit]

banana /bəˈnænə, -ˈnɑːnə/ corral /kɵˈræl, -ˈrɑːl/ moustache, mustache /ˈmʌstæʃ, -stɑːʃ, məˈstæʃ, -ˈstɑːʃ/ plaque /ˈplæk, ˈplɑːk/ soprano /sɵˈprænoʊ, -ˈprɑːn-/ stache /ˈstæʃ, ˈstɑːʃ/

‹ch› as /ʃ/[edit]

bouche /ˈbuːʃ/ cache /ˈkæʃ/ caroche /kəˈrɒʃ, -ˈroʊʃ/ (also /kəˈroʊtʃ/) chagrin /ʃəˈɡrɪn/ Champagne, champagne /ʃæmˈpeɪn/ charade /ʃəˈrɑːd, -ˈreɪd/ Charlene /ʃɑːrˈliːn, ʃær-/ Charlotte /ˈʃɑːrlət, ˈʃær-/ Charmaine /ʃɑːrˈmeɪn, ʃær-/ chef /ˈʃɛf/ Cher, cher /ˈʃɛər, ˈʃeɪr/ Cheryl /ˈʃɛrᵻl/ chevron /ˈʃɛvrɒn, -rən/ chic /ˈʃiːk/ chiv /ˈʃɪv/ (also /ˈtʃɪv/) chivalrous /ˈʃɪvəlrəs/ chivalry /ˈʃɪvəlri/ chute /ˈʃuːt, ˈʃɪut/ douche /ˈduːʃ/ duchy /ˈdjuːʃi, ˈdɪuʃi/ (also /ˈdʌtʃi/) ganache /ɡəˈnæʃ, -ˈnɑːʃ/ gauche /ˈɡoʊʃ/ machine /məˈʃiːn/ Michelle /mᵻˈʃɛl/ moustache, mustache /ˈmʌstæʃ, -stɑːʃ, məˈstæʃ, -ˈstɑːʃ/ niche /ˈniːʃ/ (also /ˈnɪtʃ/) panache /pəˈnæʃ, -ˈnɑːʃ/ parachute /ˈpærəʃuːt, -ʃɪut/ pastiche /pæˈstiːʃ, pɑː-/ quiche /ˈkiːʃ/ stache /ˈstæʃ, ˈstɑːʃ/ Welch /ˈwɛlʃ/ (also /ˈwɛltʃ/)

CLOTH lexical set[edit]

These words tend to have /ɔː/ in North American English and /ɒ/ in Australian English and Received Pronunciation. Some accents have both sounds, but varying word by word.

Before /f/[edit]

coffee /ˈkɒfi, ˈkɔːfi/ coffer /ˈkɒfər, ˈkɔːf-/ coffin /ˈkɒfᵻn, ˈkɔːf-/ cough /ˈkɒf, ˈkɔːf/ croft /ˈkrɒft, ˈkrɔːft/ dolphin /ˈdɒlfᵻn, ˈdɔːlf-/ golf /ˈɡɒ(l)f, ˈɡɔː(l)f/ loft /ˈlɒft, ˈlɔːft/ off /ˈɒf, ˈɔːf/ Offaly /ˈɒfəli, ˈɔːf-/ offer /ˈɒfər, ˈɔːf-/ office /ˈɒfᵻs, ˈɔːf-/ oft /ˈɒft, ˈɔːft/ often /ˈɒf(t)ən, ˈɔːf(t)-/ quaff /ˈkwɒf, ˈkwɔːf/ (also /ˈkwæf, ˈkwɑːf/) soft /ˈsɒft, ˈsɔːft/ soften /ˈsɒfən, ˈsɔːf-/ toffee, toffy /ˈtɒfi, ˈtɔːfi/ trough /ˈtrɒf, ˈtrɔːf/ (also /ˈtrɒθ, ˈtrɔːθ/) waffle /ˈwɒfəl, ˈwɔːf-/

Before /ɡ/[edit]

analog, analogue /ˈænəlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ blog /ˈblɒɡ, ˈblɔːɡ/ bog /ˈbɒɡ, ˈbɔːɡ/ clog /ˈklɒɡ, ˈklɔːɡ/ cog /ˈkɒɡ, ˈkɔːɡ/ demagog, demagogue /ˈdɛməɡɒɡ, -ɡɔːɡ/ dialog, dialogue /ˈdaɪəlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ dog /ˈdɒɡ, ˈdɔːɡ/ epilog, epilogue /ˈɛpᵻlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ flog /ˈflɒɡ, ˈflɔːɡ/ fog /ˈfɒɡ, ˈfɔːɡ/ frog /ˈfrɒɡ, ˈfrɔːɡ/ hog /ˈhɒɡ, ˈhɔːɡ/ log /ˈlɒɡ, ˈlɔːɡ/ monolog, monologue /ˈmɒnɵlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ prolog, prologue /ˈproʊlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ smog /ˈsmɒɡ, ˈsmɔːɡ/ synagog, synagogue /ˈsɪnəɡɒɡ, -ɡɔːɡ/ vlog /ˈvlɒɡ, ˈvlɔːɡ/ vog /ˈvɒɡ, ˈvɔːɡ/

Before /n/[edit]

gone /ˈɡɒn, ˈɡɔːn/ gonna /ˈɡɒnə, ˈɡɔːnə/ (also /ˈɡʌnə/) on /ˈɒn, ˈɔːn/ shone /ˈʃɒn, ˈʃɔːn/ (also /ˈʃoʊn/) wanna /ˈwɒnə, ˈwɔːnə/ (also /ˈwʌnə/) want /ˈwɒnt, ˈwɔːnt/ wont /ˈwɒnt, ˈwɔːnt/ (also /ˈwʌnt/)

Before /ŋ/[edit]

bong /ˈbɒŋ, ˈbɔːŋ/ bonk /ˈbɒŋk, ˈbɔːŋk/ conk /ˈkɒŋk, ˈkɔːŋk/ dong /ˈdɒŋ, ˈdɔːŋ/ dongle /ˈdɒŋɡəl, ˈdɔːŋɡ-/ donkey /ˈdɒŋki, ˈdɔːŋki/ (also /ˈdʌŋki/) gong /ˈɡɒŋ, ˈɡɔːŋ/ honk /ˈhɒŋk, ˈhɔːŋk/ long /ˈlɒŋ, ˈlɔːŋ/ longer /ˈlɒŋɡər, ˈlɔːŋɡ-/ pong /ˈpɒŋ, ˈpɔːŋ/ prong /ˈprɒŋ, ˈprɔːŋ/ song /ˈsɒŋ, ˈsɔːŋ/ strong /ˈstrɒŋ, ˈstrɔːŋ/ stronger /ˈstrɒŋɡər, ˈstrɔːŋɡ-/ thong /ˈθɒŋ, ˈθɔːŋ/ throng /ˈθrɒŋ, ˈθrɔːŋ/ tong /ˈtɒŋ, ˈtɔːŋ/ wonk /ˈwɒŋk, ˈwɔːŋk/ wrong /ˈrɒŋ, ˈrɔːŋ/

Influenced[edit]

longevity /lɒnˈdʒɛvᵻti, lɔːn-/ longitude /ˈlɒndʒᵻtjuːd, ˈlɔːndʒ-, -tɪud/

Before /s/[edit]

albatross /ˈælbətrɒs, -trɔːs/ boss /ˈbɒs, ˈbɔːs/ Boston /ˈbɒstən, ˈbɔːst-/ cost /ˈkɒst, ˈkɔːst/ cross /ˈkrɒs, ˈkrɔːs/ floss /ˈflɒs, ˈflɔːs/ foster /ˈfɒstər, ˈfɔːst-/ frost /ˈfrɒst, ˈfrɔːst/ gloss /ˈɡlɒs, ˈɡlɔːs/ Gloster, Gloucester /ˈɡlɒstər, ˈɡlɔːst-/ hoss /ˈhɒs, ˈhɔːs/ loss /ˈlɒs, ˈlɔːs/ lost /ˈlɒst, ˈlɔːst/ mosque /ˈmɒsk, ˈmɔːsk/ moss /ˈmɒs, ˈmɔːs/ ostrich /ˈɒstrᵻtʃ, ˈɔːst-/ Ross /ˈrɒs, ˈrɔːs/ sausage /ˈsɒsᵻdʒ, ˈsɔːs-/ toss /ˈtɒs, ˈtɔːs/

Before /θ/ or /ð/[edit]

betroth /bɨˈtrɒθ, -ˈtrɔːθ/ (also /bɨˈtroʊð/) bothy /ˈbɒθi, ˈbɔːθi/ broth /ˈbrɒθ, ˈbrɔːθ/ brothel /ˈbrɒθəl, ˈbrɔːθ-, ˈbrɒð-, ˈbrɔːð-/ cloth /ˈklɒθ, ˈklɔːθ/ cloths /ˈklɒðz, ˈklɔːðz, ˈklɒθs, ˈklɔːθs/ froth /ˈfrɒθ, ˈfrɔːθ/ moth /ˈmɒθ, ˈmɔːθ/ mother (moth) /ˈmɒðər, ˈmɔːð-, ˈmɒθ-, ˈmɔːθ-/ moths /ˈmɒðz, ˈmɔːðz, ˈmɒθs, ˈmɔːθs/ Roth /ˈrɒθ, ˈrɔːθ/ sloth /ˈslɒθ, ˈslɔːθ/ (also /ˈsloʊθ/) swath /ˈswɒθ, ˈswɔːθ/ swaths /ˈswɒðz, ˈswɔːðz/ troth /ˈtrɒθ, ˈtrɔːθ/ (also /ˈtroʊθ/) trough /ˈtrɒθ, ˈtrɔːθ/ (also /ˈtrɒf, ˈtrɔːf/) wrath /ˈrɒθ, ˈrɔːθ/ (also /ˈræθ, ˈrɑːθ/) wroth /ˈrɒθ, ˈrɔːθ/ (also /ˈroʊθ/)

After /w/ and before /ʃ/[edit]

squash /ˈskwɒʃ, ˈskwɔːʃ/ swash /ˈswɒʃ, ˈswɔːʃ/ Wash, wash /ˈwɒʃ, ˈwɔːʃ/ Washington /ˈwɒʃᵻŋtən, ˈwɔːʃ-/

Other[edit]

because /bɨˈkɒz, bɨˈkɔːz/ (also /bɨˈkʌz/) 'cause /ˈkɒz, ˈkɔːz/ (also /ˈkʌz/) chocolate /ˈtʃɒk(ɵ)lᵻt, ˈtʃɔːk-/

Initial /dw/[edit]

Duane /ˈdweɪn/ (also /duːˈeɪn/) dwarf /ˈdwɔːrf, ˈdwɒrf/ dwarves /ˈdwɔːrvz, ˈdwɒrvz/ Dwayne /ˈdweɪn/ dweeb /ˈdwiːb/ dwell /ˈdwɛl/ dwelt /ˈdwɛlt/ Dwight /ˈdwaɪt/

Initial /ð/[edit]

than /ˈðæn/ that /ˈðæt/ the /ˈðiː, ðə, ði/ thee /ˈðiː/ their, there, they're /ˈðɛər, ˈðeɪr/ theirs, there's /ˈðɛərz, ˈðeɪrz/ them /ˈðɛm/ then /ˈðɛn/ thence /ˈðɛns/ these /ˈðiːz/ they /ˈðeɪ/ thine /ˈðaɪn/ this /ˈðɪs/ thither /ˈðɪðər/ (also /ˈθɪðər/) those /ˈðoʊz/ thou (pronoun) /ˈðaʊ/ though /ˈðoʊ/ thus /ˈðʌs/ thy /ˈðaɪ/

Interchangeable /ð/ and /θ/[edit]

baths /ˈbæðz, ˈbɑːðz, ˈbæθs, ˈbɑːθs/ blithe /ˈblaɪð, ˈblaɪθ/ Blyth /ˈblaɪð, ˈblaɪθ/ (also /ˈblaɪ/) Booth, booth /ˈbuːð, ˈbuːθ/ cloths /ˈklɒðz, ˈklɔːðz, ˈklɒθs, ˈklɔːθs/ loath /ˈloʊð, ˈloʊθ/ mother (moth) /ˈmɒðər, ˈmɔːð-, ˈmɒθ-, ˈmɔːθ-/ moths /ˈmɒðz, ˈmɔːðz, ˈmɒθs, ˈmɔːθs/ oaths /ˈoʊðz, ˈoʊθs/ paths /ˈpæðz, ˈpɑːðz, ˈpæθs, ˈpɑːθs/ scythe /ˈsaɪð, ˈsaɪθ/ Smithee, smithy /ˈsmɪði, ˈsmɪθi/ Smyth /ˈsmaɪð, ˈsmaɪθ/ (also /ˈsmɪθ/) swarthy /ˈswɔːrði, ˈswɒrði, ˈswɔːrθi, ˈswɒrθi/ thither /ˈðɪðər, ˈθɪð-/ truths /ˈtruːðz, ˈtrɪuðz, ˈtruːθs, ˈtrɪuθs/ with /ˈwɪð, ˈwɪθ/ wreaths /ˈriːðz, ˈriːθs/ youths /ˈjuːðz, ˈjuːθs/ zither /ˈzɪðər, ˈzɪθ-/

‹e› as /eɪ/[edit]

beta /ˈbeɪtə/ (also /ˈbiːtə/) dengue /ˈdɛŋɡeɪ/ (also /ˈdɛŋɡi/) eh /ˈeɪ/ (also /ˈɛ/) ere /ˈɛər, ˈeɪr/ eta /ˈeɪtə/ (also /ˈiːtə/) mega- /meɪɡə-/ (also /mɛɡə-/) Megan /ˈmeɪɡən/ (also /ˈmɛɡən/) omega /oʊˈmeɪɡə/ (also /oʊˈmɛɡə, -ˈmiːɡə, ˈoʊmɨɡə/) Peking /ˈpeɪˈkɪŋ/ (also /ˈpiːˈkɪŋ/) re /ˈreɪ/ suede /ˈsweɪd/ there /ˈðɛər, ˈðeɪr/ theta /ˈθeɪtə/ (also /ˈθiːtə/) Vega /ˈveɪɡə/ (also /ˈviːɡə/) where /ˈhwɛər, ˈhweɪr/ zeta /ˈzeɪtə/ (also /ˈziːtə/)

‹ea› as /ɛ/[edit]

already /ɔːlˈrɛdi/ bread /ˈbrɛd/ breadth /ˈbrɛ(d)θ/ breakfast /ˈbrɛkfəst/ breast /ˈbrɛst/ breath /ˈbrɛθ/ cleanly /ˈklɛnli/ cleanse /ˈklɛnz/ dead /ˈdɛd/ deaden /ˈdɛdən/ deaf /ˈdɛf/ deafen /ˈdɛfən/ dealt /ˈdɛlt/ dearth /ˈdɜːrθ, ˈdɛrθ/ death /ˈdɛθ/ dread /ˈdrɛd/ dreamt /ˈdrɛmt/ Earl, earl /ˈɜːrl, ˈɛrl/ early /ˈɜːrli, ˈɛrli/ earn /ˈɜːrn, ˈɛrn/ earnest /ˈɜːrnᵻst, ˈɛrn-/ Earp /ˈɜːrp, ˈɛrp/ earth /ˈɜːrθ, ˈɛrθ/ earthen /ˈɜːrθən, ˈɛrθ-/ endeavor, endeavour /ᵻnˈdɛvər, ɛn-/ feather /ˈfɛðər/ health /ˈhɛlθ/ heard /ˈhɜːrd, ˈhɛrd/ hearse /ˈhɜːrs, ˈhɛrs/ Hearst /ˈhɜːrst, ˈhɛrst/ Heather, heather /ˈhɛðər/ heaven /ˈhɛvən/ heavy /ˈhɛvi/ jealous /ˈdʒɛləs/ Kearney /ˈkɜːrni, ˈkɛrni/ Kearns /ˈkɜːrnz, ˈkɛrnz/ lead (metal) /ˈlɛd/ leant /ˈlɛnt/ leapt /ˈlɛpt/ learn /ˈlɜːrn, ˈlɛrn/ learned /ˈlɜːrnᵻd, ˈlɛrn-/ (also /ˈlɜːrnd, ˈlɛrnd/) learnt /ˈlɜːrnt, ˈlɛrnt/ leather /ˈlɛðər/ leaven /ˈlɛvən/ meadow /ˈmɛdoʊ/ meant /ˈmɛnt/ measure /ˈmɛʒər/ pearl /ˈpɜːrl, ˈpɛrl/ peasant /ˈpɛzənt/ pheasant /ˈfɛzənt/ pleasant /ˈplɛzənt/ pleasure /ˈplɛʒər/ read (past) /ˈrɛd/ Reading /ˈrɛdᵻŋ/ ready /ˈrɛdi/ realm /ˈrɛlm/ search /ˈsɜːrtʃ, ˈsɛrtʃ/ spread /ˈsprɛd/ stead /ˈstɛd/ steady /ˈstɛdi/ stealth /ˈstɛlθ/ sweat /ˈswɛt/ thread /ˈθrɛd/ threat /ˈθrɛt/ threaten /ˈθrɛtən/ treacherous /ˈtrɛtʃərəs/ treachery /ˈtrɛtʃəri/ tread /ˈtrɛd/ treasure /ˈtrɛʒər/ wealth /ˈwɛlθ/ weapon /ˈwɛpən/ weather /ˈwɛðər/ yearn /ˈjɜːrn, ˈjɛrn/ zealot /ˈzɛlət/ zealous /ˈzɛləs/

‹ea› as /eɪ/[edit]

bear /ˈbɛər, ˈbeɪr/ break /ˈbreɪk/ great /ˈɡreɪt/ lea /ˈleɪ/ (also /ˈliː/) pear /ˈpɛər, ˈpeɪr/ steak /ˈsteɪk/ swear /ˈswɛər, ˈsweɪr/ tear (rip) /ˈtɛər, ˈteɪr/ wear, were (man) /ˈwɛər, ˈweɪr/ yea /ˈjeɪ/ Yeager /ˈjeɪɡər/ Yeats, Yeates /ˈjeɪts/

‹ed› as irregular /ᵻd/[edit]

Alfred /ˈælfrᵻd/ (also /ˈælfrɛd/) beloved /ˈbᵻlʌvᵻd/ (also /ˈbᵻlʌvᵻd/) crooked /ˈkrʊkᵻd/ (also /ˈkrʊkt/) hatred /ˈheɪtrᵻd/ hundred /ˈhʌndrᵻd/ jagged /ˈdʒæɡᵻd/ (also /ˈdʒæɡd/) Jared /ˈdʒærᵻd/ kindred /ˈkɪndrᵻd/ learned /ˈlɜːrnᵻd, ˈlɛrn-/ (also /ˈlɜːrnd, ˈlɛrnd/) legged /ˈlɛɡᵻd/ (also /ˈlɛɡd/) naked /ˈneɪkᵻd/ ragged /ˈræɡᵻd/ (also /ˈræɡd/) rugged /ˈrʌɡᵻd/ sacred /ˈseɪkrᵻd/ wicked /ˈwɪkᵻd/ (also /ˈwɪkt/)

‹ei› and ‹ey› as /aɪ/[edit]

Ebeye /ˈiːbaɪ/ either /ˈaɪðər/ (also /ˈiːðər/) eye /ˈaɪ/ eyrie, eyry /ˈaɪ(ə)ri/ (also /ˈɪəri, ˈiːri, ˈɛəri, ˈeɪri/) feist /ˈfaɪst/ geyser /ˈɡaɪzər/ (also /ˈɡiːzər/) gneiss /ˈnaɪs/ heigh /ˈhaɪ/ (also /ˈheɪ/) height /ˈhaɪt/ heighten /ˈhaɪtən/ heist /ˈhaɪst/ leitmotif /ˈlaɪtmoʊtiːf/ Lorelei /ˈlɒrəlaɪ, ˈlɔːr-/ meister /ˈmaɪstər/ neither /ˈnaɪðər/ (also /ˈniːðər/) poltergeist /ˈpoʊltərɡaɪst, ˈpɒlt-/ Poseidon /pɵˈsaɪdən/ sleight /ˈslaɪt/ zeitgeist /ˈtsaɪtɡaɪst, ˈzaɪt-/

‹ei› and ‹ey› as /ɛ/[edit]

Leicester /ˈlɛstər/ leisure /ˈlɛʒər/ (also /ˈliːʒər/) Reynold /ˈrɛnəld/

‹ei› and ‹ey› as /eɪ/[edit]

beige /ˈbeɪʒ/ Beijing /ˈbeɪˈ(d)ʒɪŋ/ convey /kənˈveɪ/ deign /ˈdeɪn/ eight /ˈeɪt/ eighteen /ˈeɪˈtiːn/ eighth /ˈeɪ(t)θ/ eighty /ˈeɪti/ Eyre, eyre, heir /ˈɛər, ˈeɪr/ eyrie, eyry /ˈɛəri, ˈeɪri/ (also /ˈɪəri, ˈiːri, ˈaɪ(ə)ri/) feign /ˈfeɪn/ feint /ˈfeɪnt/ fey /ˈfeɪ/ freight /ˈfreɪt/ Grey, grey /ˈɡreɪ/ heigh /ˈheɪ/ (also /ˈhaɪ/) heinous /ˈheɪnəs/ heiress /ˈɛərᵻs, ˈeɪr-/ hey /ˈheɪ/ lei /ˈleɪ/ ley /ˈleɪ/ (also /ˈliː/) neigh /ˈneɪ/ neighbour /ˈneɪbər/ obey /oʊˈbeɪ/ osprey /ˈɒspreɪ/ (also /ˈɒspri/) prey /ˈpreɪ/ reign, rein /ˈreɪn/ sheik /ˈʃeɪk/ (also /ˈʃiːk/) sleigh /ˈsleɪ/ survey /ˈsɜːrveɪ, ˈsʌr-/ Taipei /ˈtaɪˈpeɪ/ their, they're /ˈðɛər, ˈðeɪr/ theirs /ˈðɛərz, ˈðeɪrz/ they /ˈðeɪ/ Trey, trey /ˈtreɪ/ veil /ˈveɪl/ vein /ˈveɪn/ weigh /ˈweɪ/ weight /ˈweɪt/ whey /ˈhweɪ/

‹ei› and ‹ey› as /iː/[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where ‹ei› or ‹ey› only represents the HAPPY vowel /i/.

ceil /ˈsiːl/ conceit /kənˈsiːt/ conceive /kənˈsiːv/ deceit /dɨˈsiːt/ deceive /dɨˈsiːv/ either /ˈiːðər/ (also /ˈaɪðər/) eyrie, eyry /ˈɪəri, ˈiːri/ (also /ˈɛəri, ˈeɪri, ˈaɪ(ə)ri/) geyser /ˈɡiːzər/ (also /ˈɡaɪzər/) keister /ˈkiːstər/ Keith /ˈkiːθ/ key /ˈkiː/ leisure /ˈliːʒər/ (also /ˈlɛʒər/) ley /ˈliː/ (also /ˈleɪ/) Neil /ˈniːl/ neither /ˈniːðər/ (also /ˈnaɪðər/) perceive /pərˈsiːv/ receipt /rɨˈsiːt/ receive /rɨˈsiːv/ Reid /ˈriːd/ seize /ˈsiːz/ sheik /ˈʃiːk/ (also /ˈʃeɪk/) transceive /trænˈsiːv/ weir /ˈwɪər, ˈwiːr/ weird /ˈwɪərd, ˈwiːrd/

Final ‹el› and ‹ell› as /əl/[edit]

Abel /ˈeɪbəl/ angel /ˈeɪndʒəl/ Ariel, ariel /ˈɛəriəl/ Axel /ˈæksəl/ Babel /ˈbeɪbəl, ˈbæb-/ bagel /ˈbeɪɡəl/ barrel /ˈbærəl/ Bethel /ˈbɛθəl/ (also /ˈbɛθˈɛl/) bevel /ˈbɛvəl/ bowel /ˈbaʊəl/ (also /ˈbaʊl/) camel /ˈkæməl/ channel /ˈtʃænəl/ chapel /ˈtʃæpəl/ chattel /ˈtʃætəl/ chisel /ˈtʃɪzəl/ Connell /ˈkɒnəl/ Daniel /ˈdænjəl/ diesel /ˈdiːzəl/ dishevel /ðᵻˈʃɛvəl/ Donnell /ˈdɒnəl/ drivel /ˈdrɪvəl/ duel /ˈdjuːəl, ˈdɪu-/ (also /ˈdjuːl/) easel /ˈiːzəl/ Farrell /ˈfærəl/ flannel /ˈflænəl/ fuel /ˈfjuːəl, ˈfɪu-/ (also /ˈfjuːl/) funnel /ˈfʌnəl/ Gabriel /ˈɡeɪbriəl/ gavel /ˈɡævəl/ gimel /ˈɡɪməl/ gospel /ˈɡɒspəl/ gravel /ˈɡrævəl/ grovel /ˈɡrɒvəl, ˈɡrʌv-/ gruel /ˈɡruːəl, ˈɡrɪu-/ (also /ˈɡruːl/) Handel /ˈhændəl/ hostel /ˈhɒstəl/ hovel /ˈhɒvəl, ˈhʌv-/ Israel /ˈɪzriəl, -reɪ-/ jewel /ˈdʒuːəl, ˈdʒɪu-/ (also /ˈdʒuːl/) Joel /ˈdʒoʊəl/ (also /ˈdʒoʊl/) kennel /ˈkɛnəl/ kernel /ˈkɜːrnəl, ˈkɛrn-/ label /ˈleɪbəl/ level /ˈlɛvəl/ Lowell /ˈloʊəl/ (also /ˈloʊl/) Mabel /ˈmeɪbəl/ marvel /ˈmɑːrvəl, ˈmærv-/ Mendel /ˈmɛndəl/ Mitchell /ˈmɪtʃəl/ model /ˈmɒdəl/ Muriel /ˈmjʊəriəl, ˈmjuːr-, ˈmɪʊər-/ mussel /ˈmʌsəl/ navel /ˈneɪvəl/ nickel /ˈnɪkəl/ Noel /ˈnoʊəl/ (also /ˈnoʊl, noʊˈɛl, nɵˈwɛl/) novel /ˈnɒvəl/ Orel /ˈɔərəl/ panel /ˈpænəl/ pixel /ˈpɪksəl/ (also /ˈpɪksɛl/) pommel /ˈpɒməl/ Powell /ˈpaʊəl, ˈpoʊ-/ (also /ˈpaʊl/) pummel /ˈpʌməl/ Rachel /ˈreɪtʃəl/ ravel /ˈrævəl/ rebel (noun) /ˈrɛbəl/ Russell /ˈrʌsəl/ Samuel /ˈsæmjuəl, -mɪu-/ satchel /ˈsætʃəl/ scalpel /ˈskælpəl/ scoundrel /ˈskaʊndrəl/ shovel /ˈʃʌvəl/ shrapnel /ˈʃræpnəl/ shrivel /ˈʃrɪvəl/ snivel /ˈsnɪvəl/ snorkel /ˈsnɔːrkəl, ˈsnɒrk-/ spinel /ˈspɪnəl/ (also /spᵻˈnɛl/) squirrel /ˈskwɪrəl/ (also /ˈskwɜːrl, ˈskwɪrl/) swivel /ˈswɪvəl/ towel /ˈtaʊəl/ (also /ˈtaʊl/) travel /ˈtrævəl/ trowel /ˈtraʊəl/ (also /ˈtraʊl/) tunnel /ˈtʌnəl/ vowel /ˈvaʊəl/ (also /ˈvaʊl/) wastrel /ˈweɪstrəl/ weasel /ˈwiːzəl/ yodel /ˈjoʊdəl/ yokel /ˈjoʊkəl/

/ɛŋ/[edit]

These words mostly have /eɪŋ/ in North American English, though certain words may still retain /ɛŋ/.

Bengal /ˈbɛŋɡəl, bɛŋˈɡɑːl, -ˈɡɔːl/ (also /ˈbɛnɡəl, bɛnˈɡɑːl, -ˈɡɔːl/) Bengali /bɛŋˈɡɑːli, -ˈɡɔːli/ (also /bɛnˈɡɑːli, -ˈɡɔːli/) dengue /ˈdɛŋɡeɪ, ˈdɛŋɡi/ ginseng /ˈdʒɪnsɛŋ/ length /ˈlɛŋ(k)θ/ (also /ˈlɛnθ/) penguin /ˈpɛŋɡwᵻn/ strength /ˈstrɛŋ(k)θ/ (also /ˈstrɛnθ/) wrength /ˈrɛŋ(k)θ/ (also /ˈrɛnθ/)

‹eo› as one syllable[edit]

Geoffrey /ˈdʒɛfri/ George /ˈdʒɔːrdʒ, ˈdʒɒrdʒ/ Georgia /ˈdʒɔːrdʒə, ˈdʒɒrdʒə/ jeopardy /ˈdʒɛpərdi/ Leonard /ˈlɛnərd/ leopard /ˈlɛpərd/ people /ˈpiːpəl/ theory /ˈθɪəri/ (also /ˈθiːɵri/) yeoman, yeomen /ˈjoʊmən/

‹f› and ‹ph› as /v/[edit]

nephew /ˈnɛvjuː, -vɪu/ (also /ˈnɛfjuː, -fɪu/) of /ˈɒv, ˈʌv/ Stephen /ˈstiːvən/ (also /ˈstɛfən/)

‹g› as /ɡ/ before ‹e›, ‹i› or ‹y›[edit]

This list does not include:

anger /ˈæŋɡər/ bagel /ˈbeɪɡəl/ begin /bɨˈɡɪn/ bogey, bogy /ˈboʊɡi, ˈbʊɡi, ˈbuːɡi/ booger /ˈbʊɡər/ boogie /ˈbʊɡi, ˈbuːɡi/ bugger /ˈbʌɡər, ˈbʊɡ-/ buggy /ˈbʌɡi/ burger /ˈbɜːrɡər, ˈbʌrɡ-/ dagger /ˈdæɡər/ doppelganger /ˈdɒpəlɡæŋər/ eager /ˈiːɡər/ finger /ˈfɪŋɡər/ forget /fɔːrˈɡɛt, fɒr-/ forgive /fɔːrˈɡɪv, fɒr-/ forgiven /fɔːrˈɡɪvən, fɒr-/ gear /ˈɡɪər, ˈɡiːr/ gecko /ˈɡɛkoʊ/ geek /ˈɡiːk/ geese /ˈɡiːs/ geezer /ˈɡiːzər/ gelding /ˈɡɛldᵻŋ/ Gertrude /ˈɡɜːrtruːd, ˈɡɛr-, -trɪud/ get /ˈɡɛt/ geyser /ˈɡaɪzər, ˈɡiːz-/ gibbon /ˈɡɪbən/ Gibbs /ˈɡɪbz/ giddy /ˈɡɪdi/ Gifford /ˈɡɪfərd/ gift /ˈɡɪft/ giga- /ɡɪɡə-, ɡaɪɡə-/ (also /dʒɪɡə-/) giggle /ˈɡɪɡəl/ Gil, gill /ˈɡɪl/ Gilbert /ˈɡɪlbərt/ gild /ˈɡɪld/ Gilliam /ˈɡɪliəm/ gilt /ˈɡɪlt/ gimp /ˈɡɪmp/ ginkgo /ˈɡɪŋkoʊ/ gird /ˈɡɜːrd, ˈɡɪrd/ girdle /ˈɡɜːrdəl, ˈɡɪrd-/ girl /ˈɡɜːrl, ˈɡɪrl/ girth /ˈɡɜːrθ, ˈɡɪrθ/ git /ˈɡɪt/ give /ˈɡɪv/ given /ˈɡɪvən/ gizzard /ˈɡɪzərd/ hamburger /ˈhæmbɜːrɡər, -bʌrɡ-/ hoagie, hoagy /ˈhoʊɡi/ jagged /ˈdʒæɡᵻd/ (also /ˈdʒæɡd/) legged /ˈlɛɡᵻd/ (also /ˈlɛɡd/) liger /ˈlaɪɡər/ linger /ˈlɪŋɡər/ meager /ˈmiːɡər/ nugget /ˈnʌɡᵻt/ poltergeist /ˈpoʊltərɡaɪst, ˈpɒlt-/ ragged /ˈræɡᵻd/ (also /ˈræɡd/) rugged /ˈrʌɡᵻd/ stagger /ˈstæɡər/ target /ˈtɑːrɡᵻt, ˈtærɡ-/ tiger /ˈtaɪɡər/ together /tᵿˈɡɛðər/

Lenited ‹g› and ‹c›[edit]

align /əˈlaɪn/ arraign /əˈreɪn/ benign /bɨˈnaɪn/ campaign /kæmˈpeɪn/ Champagne, champagne /ʃæmˈpeɪn/ deign /ˈdeɪn/ design /dɨˈzaɪn/ feign /ˈfeɪn/ foreign /ˈfɒrᵻn, ˈfɔːr-/ impugn /ᵻmˈpjuːn, -ˈpɪun/ indict /ᵻnˈdaɪt/ malign /məˈlaɪn/ paradigm /ˈpærədaɪm/ reign /ˈreɪn/ repugn /rɨˈpjuːn, -ˈpɪun/ resign (yield) /rɨˈzaɪn/ sign /ˈsaɪn/ sovereign /ˈsɒv(ə)rᵻn, ˈsʌv-/ Thegn, thegn /ˈθeɪn/

Initial ‹gn› as /n/[edit]

gnarl /ˈnɑːrl, ˈnærl/ gnash /ˈnæʃ/ gnat /ˈnæt/ gneiss /ˈnaɪs/ gnoll /ˈnoʊl/ gnome /ˈnoʊm/ Gnostic /ˈnɒstᵻk/ gnu /ˈnjuː, ˈnɪu/

Initial silent ‹h›[edit]

heir /ˈɛər, ˈeɪr/ herb /ˈɜːrb, ˈɛrb/ (also /ˈhɜːrb, ˈhɛrb/) homage /ˈɒmᵻdʒ/ (also /ˈhɒmᵻdʒ/) honest /ˈɒnᵻst/ honor, honour /ˈɒnər/ hour /ˈaʊ(ə)r/

/hw/[edit]

Juan /ˈhwɑːn/ marijuana /mærɨˈhwɑːnə/ whack /ˈhwæk/ whale /ˈhweɪl/ wham /ˈhwæm/ whang /ˈhwæŋ/ whap /ˈhwɒp, ˈhwæp/ wharf /ˈhwɔːrf, ˈhwɒrf/ wharves /ˈhwɔːrvz, ˈhwɒrvz/ what /ˈhwɒt, ˈhwʌt/ wheat /ˈhwiːt/ wheel /ˈhwiːl/ wheeze /ˈhwiːz/ Whelan /ˈhwiːlən/ whelk /ˈhwɛlk/ whelm /ˈhwɛlm/ whelp /ˈhwɛlp/ when /ˈhwɛn/ whence /ˈhwɛns/ where /ˈhwɛər, ˈhweɪr/ whet /ˈhwɛt/ whey /ˈhweɪ/ which /ˈhwɪtʃ/ whiff /ˈhwɪf/ whiffle /ˈhwɪfəl/ whig /ˈhwɪɡ/ while /ˈhwaɪl/ whilst /ˈhwaɪlst/ whim /ˈhwɪm/ whimper /ˈhwɪmpər/ whine /ˈhwaɪn/ whinny /ˈhwɪni/ whip /ˈhwɪp/ whir, whirr /ˈhwɜːr, ˈhwɪr/ whirl /ˈhwɜːrl, ˈhwɪrl/ whisk /ˈhwɪsk/ whisker /ˈhwɪskər/ whisper /ˈhwɪspər/ whistle /ˈhwɪsəl/ whit /ˈhwɪt/ white /ˈhwaɪt/ whiten /ˈhwaɪtən/ whither /ˈhwɪðər/ Whitney /ˈhwɪtni/ whittle /ˈhwɪtəl/ whomp /ˈhwɒmp/ whoosh /ˈhwuːʃ, ˈhwʊʃ/ whop /ˈhwɒp/ why /ˈhwaɪ/

/ᵻ/ not spelt ‹e›, ‹i› or ‹y›[edit]

-ace (unstressed) /-ᵻs/ -age (unstressed) /-ᵻdʒ/ -ate (unstressed) /-ᵻt/ -ave (unstressed) /-ᵻv/ bargain /ˈbɑːrɡᵻn, ˈbær-/ captain /ˈkæptᵻn/ carriage /ˈkærᵻdʒ/ certain /ˈsɜːrtᵻn, ˈsɛrt-/ chamberlain /ˈtʃeɪmbərlᵻn/ character /ˈkærᵻktər/ chieftain /ˈtʃiːftᵻn/ curtain /ˈkɜːrtᵻn, ˈkʌrt-/ foreign /ˈfɒrᵻn, ˈfɔːr-/ forfeit /ˈfɔːrfᵻt, ˈfɒr-/ fountain /ˈfaʊntᵻn/ Kwajalein /ˈkwɑːdʒəlᵻn, ˈkwɒdʒ-/ lettuce /ˈlɛtᵻs/ marriage /ˈmærᵻdʒ/ minute (noun) /ˈmɪnᵻt/ mountain /ˈmaʊntᵻn/ porcelain /ˈpɔərs(ə)lᵻn, ˈpoʊrs-/ sovereign /ˈsɒv(ə)rᵻn, ˈsʌv-/ spinach /ˈspɪnᵻtʃ, -ᵻdʒ/ villain /ˈvɪlᵻn/ wassail /ˈwɒsᵻl, ˈwæs-/ (also /ˈwɒˈseɪl, ˈwæˈs-/)

‹i› and ‹y› as /iː/[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where ‹i› and ‹y› only represent the HAPPY vowel /i/.

Camille /kəˈmiːl/ Cecile /sᵻˈsiːl/ Cecilia /sᵻˈsiːljə/ chic /ˈʃiːk/ Christina /krᵻˈstiːnə/ Christine /krᵻˈstiːn/ clique /ˈkliːk/ (also /ˈklɪk/) Felicia /fᵻˈliːʃə, -ˈliːsiə/ (also /fᵻˈlɪʃə, -ˈlɪsiə/) intrigue /ˈɪntriːɡ, ᵻnˈtriːɡ/ Janine /dʒəˈniːn/ Katrina /kəˈtriːnə/ Lille /ˈliːl/ Lima /ˈliːmə/ Lisa /ˈliːsə, ˈliːzə/ liter, litre /ˈliːtər/ Lucille /ljuːˈsiːl/ machine /məˈʃiːn/ Maria /məˈriːə/ (also /məˈraɪə/) Marina, marina /məˈriːnə/ marine /məˈriːn/ Maurice /mɔːˈriːs/ (also /ˈmɒrᵻs, ˈmɔːr-/) Mia /ˈmiːə/ Nice /ˈniːs/ Nina /ˈniːnə/ philia /fiːliə, -ljə/ (also /ˈfɪliə, -ljə/) pique /ˈpiːk/ Pisa /ˈpiːzə/ pita /ˈpiːtə/ pizza /ˈpiːtsə/ police /pɵˈliːs, ˈpoʊliːs/ prestige /prɛˈstiːʒ, -ˈstiːdʒ/ quarantine /ˈkwɒrəntiːn, ˈkwɔːr-/ Rhys /ˈriːs/ Sikh /ˈsiːk/ Tina /ˈtiːnə/ unique /juːˈniːk/ visa /ˈviːzə/ viva /ˈviːvə/ (also /ˈvaɪvə/)

‹iCC› and ‹yCC› as /aɪCC/ and final ‹iC› and ‹yC› as /aɪC/[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where the spelling ‹igC› is pronounced /aɪC/ from older /iːC/ from previous /ɪjC/.

bind /ˈbaɪnd/ blind /ˈblaɪnd/ Blyth /ˈblaɪð, ˈblaɪθ/ (also /ˈblaɪ/) child /ˈtʃaɪld/ Christ /ˈkraɪst/ climb /ˈklaɪm/ dissect /daɪˈsɛkt/ (also /dɨˈsɛkt/) find /ˈfaɪnd/ grind /ˈɡraɪnd/ hind /ˈhaɪnd/ kind /ˈkaɪnd/ mic /ˈmaɪk/ mild /ˈmaɪld/ mind /ˈmaɪnd/ ninth /ˈnaɪnθ/ pint /ˈpaɪnt/ Pisces /ˈpaɪsiːz/ (also /ˈpɪsiːz/) psych /ˈsaɪk/ rind /ˈraɪnd/ shyster /ˈʃaɪstər/ Smyth /ˈsmaɪð, ˈsmaɪθ/ (also /ˈsmɪθ/) whilst /ˈhwaɪlst/ wild, Wilde /ˈwaɪld/ wind (coil) /ˈwaɪnd/

‹ie› as /iː/[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where ‹ie› only represents the HAPPY vowel /i/.

achieve /əˈtʃiːv/ belief /bɨˈliːf/ believe /bɨˈliːv/ brie /ˈbriː/ brief /ˈbriːf/ cashier /kæˈʃɪər, -ˈʃiːr/ cavalier /kævəˈlɪər, -ˈliːr/ chandelier /ʃændᵻˈlɪər, -ˈliːr/ chief /ˈtʃiːf/ chieftain /ˈtʃiːftᵻn/ diesel /ˈdiːzəl/ fief /ˈfiːf/ field /ˈfiːld/ fiend /ˈfiːnd/ fierce /ˈfɪərs, ˈfiːrs/ frieze /ˈfriːz/ frontier /frʌnˈtɪər, -ˈtiːr/ Genevieve /ˈdʒɛnᵻviːv/ grief /ˈɡriːf/ grieve /ˈɡriːv/ kerchief /ˈkɜːrtʃiːf, ˈkɛr-/ (also /ˈkɜːrtʃᵻf, ˈkɛr-/) liege /ˈliː(d)ʒ/ lien (claim) /ˈliːn/ (also /ˈliːən/) Marie /məˈriː/ mischief /ˈmɪstʃiːf/ (also /ˈmɪstʃᵻf/) niece /ˈniːs/ piece /ˈpiːs/ pier /ˈpɪər, ˈpiːr/ pierce /ˈpɪərs, ˈpiːrs/ priest /ˈpriːst/ relief /rɨˈliːf/ relieve /rɨˈliːv/ reprieve /rɨˈpriːv/ retrieve /rɨˈtriːv/ shield /ˈʃiːld/ shriek /ˈʃriːk/ siege /ˈsiːdʒ/ thief /ˈθiːf/ thieve /ˈθiːv/ thieves /ˈθiːvz/ tier (rank) /ˈtɪər, ˈtiːr/ wield /ˈwiːld/ yield /ˈjiːld/

‹igh› and ‹eigh› as /aɪ/[edit]

almighty /ɔːlˈmaɪti/ bight /ˈbaɪt/ blight /ˈblaɪt/ bright /ˈbraɪt/ brighten /ˈbraɪtən/ delight /dɨˈlaɪt/ Dwight /ˈdwaɪt/ fight /ˈfaɪt/ flight /ˈflaɪt/ fright /ˈfraɪt/ frighten /ˈfraɪtən/ height /ˈhaɪt/ heighten /ˈhaɪtən/ high /ˈhaɪ/ knight, night /ˈnaɪt/ light /ˈlaɪt/ lightning /ˈlaɪtnᵻŋ/ might /ˈmaɪt/ nigh /ˈnaɪ/ plight /ˈplaɪt/ right, Wright, wright /ˈraɪt/ sigh /ˈsaɪ/ sight /ˈsaɪt/ sleight, slight /ˈslaɪt/ spright /ˈspraɪt/ thigh /ˈθaɪ/ tight /ˈtaɪt/ tighten /ˈtaɪtən/ Wight, wight /ˈwaɪt/

Final /ᵻl/[edit]

April /ˈeɪprᵻl/ Averill /ˈæv(ə)rᵻl/ Basil, basil /ˈbæzᵻl, ˈbæs-, ˈbeɪz-, ˈbeɪs-/ Beryl, beryl /ˈbɛrᵻl/ Cecil /ˈsɛsᵻl, ˈsiːs-/ Cheryl /ˈʃɛrᵻl/ council /ˈkaʊnsᵻl/ Daryl /ˈdærᵻl/ devil /ˈdɛvᵻl/ ethyl /ˈɛθᵻl/ evil /ˈiːvᵻl/ fossil /ˈfɒsᵻl/ gerbil /ˈdʒɜːrbᵻl, ˈdʒɛrb-/ Hamill /ˈhæmᵻl/ -ile /-ᵻl/ (also /-aɪl/) lentil /ˈlɛntᵻl/ Meryl /ˈmɛrᵻl/ Neville /ˈnɛvᵻl/ nostril /ˈnɒstrᵻl/ pencil /ˈpɛnsᵻl/ peril /ˈpɛrᵻl/ stencil /ˈstɛnsᵻl/ tonsil /ˈtɒnsᵻl/ vinyl /ˈvaɪnᵻl/ weevil /ˈwiːvᵻl/

/ɪŋ/[edit]

These words mostly have /iːŋ/ in North American English, though certain words may still retain /ɪŋ/.

Beijing /ˈbeɪˈ(d)ʒɪŋ/ bing /ˈbɪŋ/ bingle /ˈbɪŋɡəl/ bingo /ˈbɪŋɡoʊ/ bling /ˈblɪŋ/ blink /ˈblɪŋk/ bring /ˈbrɪŋ/ brink /ˈbrɪŋk/ Ching, Qing /ˈtʃɪŋ/ chink /ˈtʃɪnk/ cling /ˈklɪŋ/ clink /ˈklɪŋk/ crinkle /ˈkrɪŋkəl/ ding /ˈdɪŋ/ Dingle, dingle /ˈdɪŋɡəl/ dingo /ˈdɪŋɡoʊ/ dink /ˈdɪŋk/ drink /ˈdrɪŋk/ England /ˈɪŋɡlənd/ English /ˈɪŋɡlᵻʃ/ finger /ˈfɪŋɡər/ fink /ˈfɪŋk/ fling /ˈflɪŋ/ ginkgo /ˈɡɪŋkoʊ/ hinky /ˈhɪŋki/ Ingrid /ˈɪŋɡrᵻd/ ink /ˈɪŋk/ inkle /ˈɪnkəl/ jingle /ˈdʒɪŋɡəl/ jink /ˈdʒɪŋk/ jinks, jinx /ˈdʒɪŋks/ king /ˈkɪŋ/ kink /ˈkɪŋk/ Lincoln /ˈlɪŋkən/ ling /ˈlɪŋ/ linger /ˈlɪŋɡər/ lingo /ˈlɪŋɡoʊ/ lingua /ˈlɪŋɡwə/ linguist /ˈlɪŋɡwᵻst/ link /ˈlɪŋk/ links, lynx /ˈlɪŋks/ Ming /ˈmɪŋ/ mingle /ˈmɪŋɡəl/ mink /ˈmɪŋk/ Peking /ˈpiːˈkɪŋ, ˈpeɪ-/ ping /ˈpɪŋ/ pink /ˈpɪŋk/ pinken /ˈpɪŋkən/ plink /ˈplɪŋk/ ring, wring /ˈrɪŋ/ Ringo /ˈrɪŋɡoʊ/ rink /ˈrɪŋk/ shingle /ˈʃɪŋɡəl/ shrink /ˈʃrɪŋk/ sing, Singh /ˈsɪŋ/ Singapore /ˈsɪŋəpɔər, -poʊr/ single /ˈsɪŋɡəl/ singular /ˈsɪŋɡjᵿlər/ sink, sync, synch /ˈsɪŋk/ skink /ˈskɪŋk/ sling /ˈslɪŋ/ slink /ˈslɪŋk/ sphinx /ˈsfɪŋks/ spring /ˈsprɪŋ/ sprinkle /ˈsprɪŋkəl/ sting /ˈstɪŋ/ stink /ˈstɪŋk/ string /ˈstrɪŋ/ swing /ˈswɪŋ/ synchronise /ˈsɪŋkrɵnaɪz/ thing /ˈθɪŋ/ think /ˈθɪŋk/ tingle /ˈtɪŋɡəl/ tinkle /ˈtɪŋkəl/ trinket /ˈtrɪŋkᵻt/ twink /ˈtwɪŋk/ twinkle /ˈtwɪŋkəl/ wing /ˈwɪŋ/ wink /ˈwɪŋk/ wrinkle /ˈrɪŋkəl/ zinc /ˈzɪŋk/ zing /ˈzɪŋ/

‹kn› as /n/[edit]

knack /ˈnæk/ knapsack /ˈnæpsæk/ knave /ˈneɪv/ knead, kneed /ˈniːd/ knee /ˈniː/ kneel /ˈniːl/ knell /ˈnɛl/ knelt /ˈnɛlt/ knew /ˈnjuː, ˈnɪu/ knickers /ˈnɪkərz/ knife /ˈnaɪf/ knight /ˈnaɪt/ knit /ˈnɪt/ knives /ˈnaɪvz/ knob /ˈnɒb/ knock /ˈnɒk/ knocks, Knox /ˈnɒks/ knoll /ˈnoʊl/ knot /ˈnɒt/ know /ˈnoʊ/ knowledge /ˈnɒlᵻdʒ/ known /ˈnoʊn/ knuckle /ˈnʌkəl/

Silent ‹l›[edit]

alms /ˈɑːmz/ (also /ˈɑːlmz/) balk /ˈbɔːk/ (also /ˈbɔːlk/) balm /ˈbɑːm/ (also /ˈbɑːlm/) calf /ˈkæf, ˈkɑːf/ (also /ˈkælf, ˈkɑːlf/) calk, caulk /ˈkɔːk/ (also /ˈkɔːlk/) calm /ˈkɑːm/ (also /ˈkɑːlm/) calve /ˈkæv, ˈkɑːv/ (also /ˈkælv, ˈkɑːlv/) calves /ˈkævz, ˈkɑːvz/ (also /ˈkælvz, ˈkɑːlvz/) chalk /ˈtʃɔːk/ (also /ˈtʃɔːlk/) Chalmers /ˈtʃɑːmərz/ (also /ˈtʃɑːlmərz/) Chisholm /ˈtʃɪzəm/ could /ˈkʊd/ Dundalk /ˈdʌndɔːk/ (also /ˈdʌndɔːlk/) falcon /ˈfɔːkən/ (also /ˈfɔːlkən, ˈfælk-/) Falkland /ˈfɔːklənd/ (also /ˈfɔːlklənd/) Faulkner /ˈfɔːknər/ (also /ˈfɔːlknər/) folk /ˈfoʊk/ (also /ˈfoʊlk/) golf /ˈɡɒf, ˈɡɔːf/ (also /ˈɡɒlf, ˈɡɔːlf/) guillotine /ˈɡiːɵtiːn/ (also /ˈɡɪlɵtiːn/) half /ˈhæf, ˈhɑːf/ (also /ˈhælf, ˈhɑːlf/) halve /ˈhæv, ˈhɑːv/ (also /ˈhælv, ˈhɑːlv/) halves /ˈhævz, ˈhɑːvz/ (also /ˈhælvz, ˈhɑːlvz/) holm /ˈhoʊm/ (also /ˈhoʊlm/) Holmes, holms /ˈhoʊmz/ (also /ˈhoʊlmz/) Lincoln /ˈlɪŋkən/ Marseille /mɑːrˈseɪ, mær-/ Norfolk /ˈnɔːrfək, ˈnɒr-, -fɔːk/ palm /ˈpɑːm/ (also /ˈpɑːlm/) Polk /ˈpoʊk/ (also /ˈpoʊlk/) polka /ˈpoʊkə/ (also /ˈpoʊlkə, ˈpɒlkə/) psalm /ˈsɑːm/ (also /ˈsɑːlm/) qualm /ˈkwɑːm/ (also /ˈkwɑːlm/) Ralph /ˈreɪf, ˈrɑːf/ (also /ˈrælf, ˈrɑːlf/) salmon /ˈsæmən/ (also /ˈsælmən/) salve /ˈsæv, ˈsɑːv/ (also /ˈsælv, ˈsɑːlv/) should /ˈʃʊd/ solder /ˈsɒdər/ (also /ˈsɒldər/) stalk /ˈstɔːk/ (also /ˈstɔːlk/) Suffolk /ˈsʌfək/ talk /ˈtɔːk/ (also /ˈtɔːlk/) Versailles /vɜːrˈsaɪ, vɛr-, vɛər-, veɪr-/ (also /vɜːrˈseɪlz, vɛr-, vɛər-, veɪr-/) walk /ˈwɔːk/ (also /ˈwɔːlk/) would /ˈwʊd/ yolk /ˈjoʊk/ (also /ˈjoʊlk/)

‹le› as /əl/[edit]

-able (unstressed) /-əbəl/ able /ˈeɪbəl/ -acle (unstressed) /-əkəl/ ample /ˈæmpəl/ Angle, angle /ˈæŋɡəl/ ankle /ˈæŋkəl/ apostle /əˈpɒsəl/ apple /ˈæpəl/ Aristotle /ˈærᵻstɒtəl/ axle /ˈæksəl/ babble /ˈbæbəl/ baffle /ˈbæfəl/ bangle /ˈbæŋɡəl/ battle /ˈbætəl/ bauble /ˈbɔːbəl/ beagle /ˈbiːɡəl/ beetle /ˈbiːtəl/ bible /ˈbaɪbəl/ bingle /ˈbɪŋɡəl/ bobble /ˈbɒbəl/ boggle /ˈbɒɡəl/ bottle /ˈbɒtəl/ bramble /ˈbræmbəl/ bridle /ˈbraɪdəl/ bristle /ˈbrɪsəl/ brittle /ˈbrɪtəl/ bubble /ˈbʌbəl/ buckle /ˈbʌkəl/ bugle /ˈbjuːɡəl, ˈbɪuɡ-/ bumble /ˈbʌmbəl/ bundle /ˈbʌndəl/ bungle /ˈbʌŋɡəl/ burgle /ˈbɜːrɡəl, ˈbʌrɡ-/ bustle /ˈbʌsəl/ buttle /ˈbʌtəl/ cable /ˈkeɪbəl/ cackle /ˈkækəl/ candle /ˈkændəl/ cankle /ˈkæŋkəl/ carbuncle /ˈkɑːrbʌŋkəl, ˈkær-/ castle /ˈkæsəl, ˈkɑːs-/ cattle /ˈkætəl/ caudle /ˈkɔːdəl/ chortle /ˈtʃɔːrtəl, ˈtʃɒrt-/ chuckle /ˈtʃʌkəl/ circle /ˈsɜːrkəl, ˈsɪrk-/ cobble /ˈkɒbəl/ coddle /ˈkɒdəl/ couple /ˈkʌpəl/ crackle /ˈkrækəl/ cradle /ˈkreɪdəl/ cringle /ˈkrɪŋɡəl/ crinkle /ˈkrɪŋkəl/ cripple /ˈkrɪpəl/ cuddle /ˈkʌdəl/ curdle /ˈkɜːrdəl, ˈkʌrd-/ cuttle /ˈkʌtəl/ cycle /ˈsaɪkəl/ dabble /ˈdæbəl/ dangle /ˈdæŋɡəl/ dawdle /ˈdɔːdəl/ dazzle /ˈdæzəl/ diddle /ˈdɪdəl/ Dingle, dingle /ˈdɪŋɡəl/ doddle /ˈdɒdəl/ dongle /ˈdɒŋɡəl, ˈdɔːŋɡ-/ doodle /ˈduːdəl/ double /ˈdʌbəl/ drabble /ˈdræbəl/ dribble /ˈdrɪbəl/ drizzle /ˈdrɪzəl/ eagle /ˈiːɡəl/ embezzle /ᵻmˈbɛzəl, ɛm-/ example /ᵻɡˈzæmpəl, ɛɡ-, -ˈzɑːmp-/ fable /ˈfeɪbəl/ fangle /ˈfæŋɡəl/ feeble /ˈfiːbəl/ fickle /ˈfɪkəl/ fiddle /ˈfɪdəl/ fizzle /ˈfɪzəl/ fondle /ˈfɒndəl/ frazzle /ˈfræzəl/ freckle /ˈfrɛkəl/ fuddle /ˈfʌdəl/ fuzzle /ˈfʌzəl/ gabble /ˈɡæbəl/ gaggle /ˈɡæɡəl/ gamble /ˈɡæmbəl/ gargle /ˈɡɑːrɡəl, ˈɡærɡ-/ gentle /ˈdʒɛntəl/ giggle /ˈɡɪɡəl/ girdle /ˈɡɜːrdəl, ˈɡɪrd-/ goggle /ˈɡɒɡəl/ Google, google /ˈɡuːɡəl/ grabble /ˈɡræbəl/ grapple /ˈɡræpəl/ gribble /ˈɡrɪbəl/ griddle /ˈɡrɪdəl/ gristle /ˈɡrɪsəl/ grizzle /ˈɡrɪzəl/ grumble /ˈɡrʌmbəl/ gruntle /ˈɡrʌntəl/ gurgle /ˈɡɜːrɡəl, ˈɡʌrɡ-/ guzzle /ˈɡʌzəl/ haggle /ˈhæɡəl/ handle /ˈhændəl/ heckle /ˈhɛkəl/ hobble /ˈhɒbəl/ Hubble, hubble /ˈhʌbəl/ huckle /ˈhʌkəl/ huddle /ˈhʌdəl/ huggle /ˈhʌɡəl/ humble /ˈhʌmbəl/ hurdle /ˈhɜːrdəl, ˈhʌrd-/ hurtle /ˈhɜːrtəl, ˈhʌrt-/ hustle /ˈhʌsəl/ -ible (unstressed) /-ᵻbəl/ -icle (unstressed) /-ᵻkəl/ inkle /ˈɪŋkəl/ jangle /ˈdʒæŋɡəl/ jiggle /ˈdʒɪɡəl/ jingle /ˈdʒɪŋɡəl/ jostle /ˈdʒɒsəl/ juggle /ˈdʒʌɡəl/ jumble /ˈdʒʌmbəl/ jungle /ˈdʒʌŋɡəl/ kettle /ˈkɛtəl/ kindle /ˈkɪndəl/ knuckle /ˈnʌkəl/ ladle /ˈleɪdəl/ little /ˈlɪtəl/ mangle /ˈmæŋɡəl/ mantle /ˈmæntəl/ maple /ˈmeɪpəl/ marble /ˈmɑːrbəl, ˈmærb-/ measle /ˈmiːzəl/ meddle /ˈmɛdəl/ mettle /ˈmɛtəl/ middle /ˈmɪdəl/ mingle /ˈmɪŋɡəl/ mistletoe /ˈmɪsəltoʊ/ muddle /ˈmʌdəl/ muggle /ˈmʌɡəl/ mumble /ˈmʌmbəl/ muscle /ˈmʌsəl/ muzzle /ˈmʌzəl/ myrtle /ˈmɜːrtəl, ˈmɪrt-/ needle /ˈniːdəl/ nestle /ˈnɛsəl/ nettle /ˈnɛtəl/ nibble, nybble /ˈnɪbəl/ nimble /ˈnɪmbəl/ nipple /ˈnɪpəl/ noble /ˈnoʊbəl/ noddle /ˈnɒdəl/ noodle /ˈnuːdəl/ nozzle /ˈnɒzəl/ nubble /ˈnʌbəl/ nuzzle /ˈnʌzəl/ ogle /ˈoʊɡəl/ paddle /ˈpædəl/ pebble /ˈpɛbəl/ peddle /ˈpɛdəl/ people /ˈpiːpəl/ pestle /ˈpɛs(t)əl/ pettle /ˈpɛtəl/ pickle /ˈpɪkəl/ pintle /ˈpɪntəl/ poodle /ˈpuːdəl/ prattle /ˈprætəl/ prickle /ˈprɪkəl/ puddle /ˈpʌdəl/ purple /ˈpɜːrpəl, ˈpʌrp-/ puzzle /ˈpʌzəl/ quibble /ˈkwɪbəl/ raffle /ˈræfəl/ ramble /ˈræmbəl/ rankle /ˈræŋkəl/ rassle, rastle, wrastle /ˈræsəl/ rattle /ˈrætəl/ razzle /ˈræzəl/ riddle /ˈrɪdəl/ riffle /ˈrɪfəl/ rifle /ˈraɪfəl/ ripple /ˈrɪpəl/ rubble /ˈrʌbəl/ ruffle /ˈrʌfəl/ rustle /ˈrʌsəl/ saddle /ˈsædəl/ sample /ˈsæmpəl, ˈsɑːmp-/ scrabble /ˈskræbəl/ scramble /ˈskræmbəl/ scribble /ˈskrɪbəl/ scruple /ˈskruːpəl/ scuffle /ˈskʌfəl/ scuttle /ˈskʌtəl/ Seattle /siˈætəl/ settle /ˈsɛtəl/ shackle /ˈʃækəl/ shamble /ˈʃæmbəl/ shingle /ˈʃɪŋɡəl/ shuffle /ˈʃʌfəl/ shuttle /ˈʃʌtəl/ sickle /ˈsɪkəl/ simple /ˈsɪmpəl/ single /ˈsɪŋɡəl/ sizzle /ˈsɪzəl/ skittle /ˈskɪtəl/ smuggle /ˈsmʌɡəl/ sniffle /ˈsnɪfəl/ snuggle /ˈsnʌɡəl/ Spackle, spackle /ˈspækəl/ spangle /ˈspæŋɡəl/ sparkle /ˈspɑːrkəl, ˈspærk-/ spindle /ˈspɪndəl/ sprinkle /ˈsprɪŋkəl/ squabble /ˈskwɒbəl/ squiggle /ˈskwɪɡəl/ stable /ˈsteɪbəl/ staple /ˈsteɪpəl/ startle /ˈstɑːrtəl, ˈstært-/ steeple /ˈstiːpəl/ stickle /ˈstɪkəl/ stifle /ˈstaɪfəl/ straddle /ˈstrædəl/ straggle /ˈstræɡəl/ strangle /ˈstræŋɡəl/ struggle /ˈstrʌɡəl/ stubble /ˈstʌbəl/ subtle /ˈsʌtəl/ suckle /ˈsʌkəl/ supple /ˈsʌpəl/ swaddle /ˈswɒdəl/ swindle /ˈswɪndəl/ swizzle /ˈswɪzəl/ table /ˈteɪbəl/ tackle /ˈtækəl/ tangle /ˈtæŋɡəl/ tattle /ˈtætəl/ temple /ˈtɛmpəl/ thimble /ˈθɪmbəl/ thistle /ˈθɪsəl/ throstle /ˈθrɒsəl/ throttle /ˈθrɒtəl/ tickle /ˈtɪkəl/ tingle /ˈtɪŋɡəl/ tinkle /ˈtɪŋkəl/ title /ˈtaɪtəl/ tittle /ˈtɪtəl/ toddle /ˈtɒdəl/ toggle /ˈtɒɡəl/ tootle /ˈtuːtəl/ topple /ˈtɒpəl/ trample /ˈtræmpəl/ treble /ˈtrɛbəl/ tremble /ˈtrɛmbəl/ trickle /ˈtrɪkəl/ trifle /ˈtraɪfəl/ triple /ˈtrɪpəl/ trouble /ˈtrʌbəl/ truffle /ˈtrʌfəl/ trundle /ˈtrʌndəl/ tumble /ˈtʌmbəl/ turtle /ˈtɜːrtəl, ˈtʌrt-/ twaddle /ˈtwɒdəl/ twinkle /ˈtwɪŋkəl/ uncle /ˈʌŋkəl/ vittle /ˈvɪtəl/ wabble, wobble /ˈwɒbəl/ waddle /ˈwɒdəl/ waffle /ˈwɒfəl, ˈwɔːf-/ warble /ˈwɔːrbəl, ˈwɒrb-/ whiffle /ˈhwɪfəl/ whistle /ˈhwɪsəl/ whittle /ˈhwɪtəl/ wiggle /ˈwɪɡəl/ wrangle /ˈræŋɡəl/ wrestle /ˈrɛsəl/ wriggle /ˈrɪɡəl/ wrinkle /ˈrɪŋkəl/

‹mb› as /m/[edit]

bomb /ˈbɒm/ climb /ˈklaɪm/ comb /ˈkoʊm/ combe, coomb /ˈkuːm, ˈkoʊm/ crumb /ˈkrʌm/ dumb /ˈdʌm/ jamb, jambe /ˈdʒæm/ lamb /ˈlæm/ limb /ˈlɪm/ numb /ˈnʌm/ plumb /ˈplʌm/ succumb /səˈkʌm/ thumb /ˈθʌm/ tomb /ˈtuːm/ womb /ˈwuːm/

‹o› and ‹oe› as /ʌ/[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where ‹o› only represents /ə/.

above /əˈbʌv/ amok /əˈmʌk/ (also /əˈmɒk/) among /əˈmʌŋ/ amongst /əˈmʌŋ(k)st/ anybody /ˈɛnibʌdi, ˈæn-/ (also /ˈɛnibɒdi, ˈæn-/) attorney /əˈtɜːrni, əˈtʌrni/ borough /ˈbʌroʊ, -rə/ brother /ˈbrʌðər/ colonel /ˈkɜːrnəl, ˈkʌrn-/ color, colour /ˈkʌlər/ come /ˈkʌm/ comfort /ˈkʌmfərt/ comfortable /ˈkʌmf(ər)təbəl, ˈkʌmftərbəl/ company /ˈkʌmpəni/ compass /ˈkʌmpəs/ coney, cony /ˈkʌni/ (also /ˈkoʊni/) coven /ˈkʌvən/ (also /ˈkoʊvən/) covenant /ˈkʌvənənt/ Coventry /ˈkʌvəntri/ cover /ˈkʌvər/ discover /dᵻˈskʌvər/ does (verb) /ˈdʌz/ done /ˈdʌn/ donkey /ˈdʌŋki/ (also /ˈdɒŋki, ˈdɔːŋki/) dost /ˈdʌst/ doth /ˈdʌθ/ dove (pigeon) /ˈdʌv/ dozen /ˈdʌzən/ enough /ɨˈnʌf/ everybody /ˈɛv(ə)ribʌdi/ (also /ˈɛv(ə)ribɒdi/) from /ˈfrʌm/ (also /ˈfrɒm/) front /ˈfrʌnt/ frontier /frʌnˈtɪər, -ˈtiːr/ glove /ˈɡlʌv/ govern /ˈɡʌvərn/ grovel /ˈɡrʌvəl/ (also /ˈɡrɒvəl/) honey /ˈhʌni/ hovel /ˈhʌvəl/ (also /ˈhɒvəl/) hover /ˈhʌvər/ (also /ˈhɒvər/) London /ˈlʌndən/ love /ˈlʌv/ Monday /ˈmʌndeɪ, -di/ money /ˈmʌni/ monies /ˈmʌniz/ monk /ˈmʌŋk/ monkey /ˈmʌŋki/ month /ˈmʌnθ/ Moray /ˈmʌri/ mother (parent) /ˈmʌðər/ nobody /ˈnoʊbʌdi/ (also /ˈnoʊbɒdi, -bədi/) none /ˈnʌn/ nothing /ˈnʌθᵻŋ/ of /ˈʌv/ (also /ˈɒv/) onion /ˈʌnjən/ other /ˈʌðər/ oven /ˈʌvən/ rough /ˈrʌf/ roughen /ˈrʌfən/ shove /ˈʃʌv/ shovel /ˈʃʌvəl/ sloven /ˈslʌvən/ smother /ˈsmʌðər/ some /ˈsʌm/ somebody /ˈsʌmbʌdi/ (also /ˈsʌmbɒdi, -bədi/) somersault /ˈsʌmərsɔːlt/ Somerset /ˈsʌmərsɛt/ son /ˈsʌn/ sovereign /ˈsʌv(ə)rᵻn/ (also /ˈsɒv(ə)rᵻn/) sponge /ˈspʌndʒ/ stomach /ˈstʌmək/ thorough /ˈθʌroʊ, -rə/ ton, tonne /ˈtʌn/ tongue /ˈtʌŋ/ tough /ˈtʌf/ toughen /ˈtʌfən/ won /ˈwʌn/ (also /ˈwɒn/) wont /ˈwʌnt/ (also /ˈwɒnt, ˈwɔːnt/) word /ˈwɜːrd, ˈwʌrd/ work /ˈwɜːrk, ˈwʌrk/ world /ˈwɜːrld, ˈwʌrld/ worm /ˈwɜːrm, ˈwʌrm/ worry /ˈwʌri/ worse /ˈwɜːrs, ˈwʌrs/ worsen /ˈwɜːrsən, ˈwʌrs-/ worship /ˈwɜːrʃᵻp, ˈwʌrʃ-/ worst /ˈwɜːrst, ˈwʌrst/ wort /ˈwɜːrt, ˈwʌrt/ (also /ˈwɔːrt, ˈwɒrt/) worth /ˈwɜːrθ, ˈwʌrθ/ worthy /ˈwɜːrði, ˈwʌrði/

‹o› and ‹oe› as /ʊ/[edit]

bosom /ˈbʊzəm/ wolf /ˈwʊlf/ Wolsey /ˈwʊlzi/ wolverine /ˈwʊlvəˈriːn/ wolves /ˈwʊlvz/ woman /ˈwʊmən/ yod /ˈjʊd/

‹o› and ‹oe› as /uː/[edit]

canoe /kəˈnuː/ combe /ˈkuːm/ (also /ˈkoʊm/) do /ˈduː/ domesday /ˈduːmzdeɪ/ lose /ˈluːz/ move /ˈmuːv/ movie /ˈmuːvi/ prove /ˈpruːv/ proven /ˈpruːvən/ (also /ˈproʊvən/) shoe /ˈʃuː/ to /ˈtuː/ tomb /ˈtuːm/ womb /ˈwuːm/

‹oCC› as /oʊCC/ and final ‹oC› as /oʊC/[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where the consonant cluster sequence is only /Cl/ (as in noble) or only /Cr/ (as in cobra), since vowels are expected to be long in these spellings.
  • Plurals formed with -s.
  • Words with ‹olC› or final ‹ol›.

almost /ˈɔːlˈmoʊst/ betroth /bɨˈtroʊð/ (also /bɨˈtrɒθ, -ˈtrɔːθ/) borne /ˈbɔərn, ˈboʊrn/ Borneo /ˈbɔərnioʊ, ˈboʊrn-/ both /ˈboʊθ/ (also /ˈboʊlθ/) comb /ˈkoʊm/ divorce /dᵻˈvɔərs, -ˈvoʊrs/ don't /ˈdoʊnt/ fiord, fjord /ˈfjɔərd, ˈfjoʊrd/ force /ˈfɔərs, ˈfoʊrs/ ford /ˈfɔərd, ˈfoʊrd/ forge /ˈfɔərdʒ, ˈfoʊrdʒ/ fort /ˈfɔərt, ˈfoʊrt/ forth /ˈfɔərθ, ˈfoʊrθ/ ghost /ˈɡoʊst/ gross /ˈɡroʊs/ horde /ˈhɔərd, ˈhoʊrd/ host /ˈhoʊst/ most /ˈmoʊst/ porcelain /ˈpɔərs(ə)lᵻn, ˈpoʊrs-/ porch /ˈpɔərtʃ, ˈpoʊrtʃ/ pork /ˈpɔərk, ˈpoʊrk/ port /ˈpɔərt, ˈpoʊrt/ portend /ˈpɔərtɛnd, ˈpoʊrt-/ portent /ˈpɔərtɛnt, ˈpoʊrt-/ portion /ˈpɔərʃən, ˈpoʊrʃ-/ portrait /ˈpɔərtrᵻt, ˈpoʊrt-/ post /ˈpoʊst/ shorn /ˈʃɔərn, ˈʃoʊrn/ sloth /ˈsloʊθ/ (also /ˈslɒθ, ˈslɔːθ/) sport /ˈspɔərt, ˈspoʊrt/ sword /ˈsɔərd, ˈsoʊrd/ sworn /ˈswɔərn, ˈswoʊrn/ torn /ˈtɔərn, ˈtoʊrn/ troth /ˈtroʊθ/ (also /ˈtrɒθ, ˈtrɔːθ/) won't /ˈwoʊnt/ worn /ˈwɔərn, ˈwoʊrn/ wroth /ˈroʊθ/ (also /ˈrɒθ, ˈrɔːθ/)

/ɔːl/[edit]

assault /əˈsɔːlt/ bawl /ˈbɔːl/ brawl /ˈbrɔːl/ cauldron /ˈkɔːldrən/ caulk /ˈkɔːlk/ (also /ˈkɔːk/) drawl /ˈdrɔːl/ Faulkner /ˈfɔːlknər/ (also /ˈfɔːknər/) fault /ˈfɔːlt/ Gaul /ˈɡɔːl/ haul /ˈɡɔːl/ maul /ˈmɔːl/ Paul, pawl /ˈpɔːl/ Saul /ˈsɔːl/ scrawl /ˈskrɔːl/ shawl /ˈʃɔːl/ somersault /ˈsʌmərsɔːlt/ sprawl /ˈskrɔːl/ trawl /ˈtrɔːl/ vault /ˈvɔːlt/

‹alC› /ɔːlC/ or final ‹al› as /ɔːl/[edit]

Albany /ˈɔːlbəni/ albeit /ɔːlˈbiːᵻt/ Alderney /ˈɔːldərni/ all /ˈɔːl/ almighty /ɔːlˈmaɪti/ almost /ˈɔːlˈmoʊst/ already /ɔːlˈrɛdi/ also /ˈɔːlsoʊ/ altar, alter /ˈɔːltər/ alternate (adjective) /ˈɔːltərnᵻt/ alternate (verb) /ˈɔːltərneɪt/ although /ɔːlˈðoʊ/ altogether /ˈɔːltᵿˈɡɛðər/ always /ˈɔːlweɪz, -wiz/ asphalt /ˈæsfɔːlt, ˈæʃ-/ (also /ˈæsfælt, ˈæʃ-/) bald, balled /ˈbɔːld/ Balder, balder /ˈbɔːldər/ balk /ˈbɔːlk/ (also /ˈbɔːk/) ball /ˈbɔːl/ Balt /ˈbɔːlt/ Baltimore /ˈbɔːl(tᵻ)mɔər, -moʊr/ calk /ˈkɔːlk/ (also /ˈkɔːk/) call /ˈkɔːl/ chalk /ˈtʃɔːlk/ (also /ˈtʃɔːk/) cobalt /ˈkoʊbɔːlt/ Cornwall /ˈkɔːrnwɔːl, ˈkɒrn-/ (also /ˈkɔːrnwəl, ˈkɒrn-/) Dundalk /ˈdʌndɔːlk/ (also /ˈdʌndɔːk/) falcon /ˈfɔːlkən/ (also /ˈfɔːkən, ˈfælk-/) Falkland /ˈfɔːlklənd/ (also /ˈfɔːklənd/) fall /ˈfɔːl/ fallen /ˈfɔːlən/ false /ˈfɔːls/ falter /ˈfɔːltər/ gall /ˈɡɔːl/ hall /ˈhɔːl/ halt /ˈhɔːlt/ mall /ˈmɔːl/ malt /ˈmɔːlt/ Malta /ˈmɔːltə/ Nepal /nᵻˈpɔːl/ (also /nᵻˈpɑːl, -ˈpæl/) pall /ˈpɔːl/ palsy /ˈpɔːlzi/ paltry /ˈpɔːltri/ Salisbury /ˈsɔːlzb(ɛ)ri/ (also /ˈsælzb(ɛ)ri/) salt /ˈsɔːlt/ scald /ˈskɔːld/ small /ˈsmɔːl/ Spalding /ˈspɔːldᵻŋ/ squall /ˈskwɔːl/ stalk /ˈstɔːlk/ (also /ˈstɔːk/) stall /ˈstɔːl/ talk /ˈtɔːlk/ (also /ˈtɔːk/) tall /ˈtɔːl/ thrall /ˈθrɔːl/ walk /ˈwɔːlk/ (also /ˈwɔːk/) wall /ˈwɔːl/ Walt /ˈwɔːlt/ Walter /ˈwɔːltər/ waltz /ˈwɔːlts/

‹oo› as /oʊ/[edit]

boor /ˈbɔər, ˈboʊr/ (also /ˈbʊər, ˈbuːr/) brooch /ˈbroʊtʃ/ (also /ˈbruːtʃ/) door /ˈdɔər, ˈdoʊr/ floor /ˈflɔər, ˈfloʊr/ moor, Moore /ˈmɔər, ˈmoʊr/ (also /ˈmʊər, ˈmuːr/) poor /ˈpɔər, ˈpoʊr/ (also /ˈpʊər, ˈpuːr/)

‹oo› as /ʊ/[edit]

booger /ˈbʊɡər/ boogie /ˈbʊɡi/ (also /ˈbuːɡi/) book /ˈbʊk/ Booker /ˈbʊkər/ brook, Brooke /ˈbrʊk/ broom /ˈbrʊm/ (also /ˈbruːm/) cook /ˈkʊk/ cookie, cooky /ˈkʊki/ coop (enclosure) /ˈkʊp/ (also /ˈkuːp/) crook /ˈkrʊk/ crooked /ˈkrʊkᵻd, ˈkrʊkt/ good /ˈɡʊd/ groom /ˈɡrʊm/ (also /ˈɡruːm/) hood /ˈhʊd/ hoof /ˈhʊf/ (also /ˈhuːf/) hook /ˈhʊk/ hoop /ˈhʊp/ (also /ˈhuːp/) hooves /ˈhʊvz/ (also /ˈhuːvz/) look /ˈlʊk/ nook /ˈnʊk/ nookie, nooky /ˈnʊki/ oops /ˈʊps/ (also /ˈuːps/) roof /ˈrʊf/ (also /ˈruːf/) rook /ˈrʊk/ room /ˈrʊm/ (also /ˈruːm/) shook /ˈʃʊk/ soot /ˈsʊt/ (also /ˈsuːt/) squoosh /ˈskwʊʃ/ stood /ˈstʊd/ swoosh /ˈswʊʃ/ (also /ˈswuːʃ/) took /ˈtʊk/ tootsie /ˈtʊtsi/ whoop /ˈhwʊp/ (also /ˈhwuːp/) whoosh /ˈhwʊʃ/ (also /ˈhwuːʃ/) wood /ˈwʊd/ wooden /ˈwʊdən/ woof /ˈwʊf/ (also /ˈwuːf/) wool /ˈwʊl/ woolen, woollen /ˈwʊlən/ woolly, wooly /ˈwʊli/ Woolsey /ˈwʊlzi/

‹ou› as /ʌ/[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words where ‹ou› only represents /ə/.

adjourn /əˈdʒɜːrn, əˈdʒʌrn/ bourgeon /ˈbɜːrdʒən, ˈbʌrdʒ-/ country /ˈkʌntri/ couple /ˈkʌpəl/ courage /ˈkʌrᵻdʒ/ courier /ˈkɜːriər, ˈkʌr-/ (also /ˈkʊ(ə)riər, ˈkuːr-/) courteous /ˈkɜːrtiəs, ˈkʌrt-/ courtesy /ˈkɜːrt(ᵻ)si, ˈkʌrt-/ cousin /ˈkʌzᵻn/ double /ˈdʌbəl/ doublet /ˈdʌblᵻt/ doubloon /dʌˈbluːn/ Doug /ˈdʌɡ/ Douglas /ˈdʌɡləs/ flourish /ˈflʌrᵻʃ/ hiccough /ˈhɪkʌp/ (also /ˈhɪkəp/) journal /ˈdʒɜːrnəl, ˈdʒʌrn-/ journey /ˈdʒɜːrni, ˈdʒʌrni/ joust /ˈdʒʌst/ (also /ˈdʒaʊst, ˈdʒuːst/) moustache /ˈmʌstæʃ, -stɑːʃ/ (also /məˈstæʃ, -ˈstɑːʃ/) nourish /ˈnʌrᵻʃ/ scourge /ˈskɜːrdʒ, ˈskʌrdʒ/ sojourn /ˈsoʊdʒɜːrn, -dʒʌrn/ southerly /ˈsʌðərli/ (also /ˈsaʊðərli/) southern /ˈsʌðərn/ (also /ˈsaʊðərn/) touch /ˈtʌtʃ/ tournament /ˈtɜːrnəmənt, ˈtʌrn-/ (also /ˈtʊərnəmənt, ˈtuːrn-/) tourney /ˈtɜːrni, ˈtʌrni/ (also /ˈtʊərni, ˈtuːrni/) trouble /ˈtrʌbəl/ young /ˈjʌŋ/ younger /ˈjʌŋɡər/

‹ou› and ‹ow› as /oʊ/[edit]

This sound historically never overlapped with ‹ou› or ‹ow› as /uː/ or post-Great Vowel Shift /aʊ/.

blow /ˈbloʊ/ blown /ˈbloʊn/ boulder, bowlder /ˈboʊldər/ bourn, Bourne, bourne /ˈbɔərn, ˈboʊrn/ (also /ˈbʊərn, ˈbuːrn/) bow (shape) /ˈboʊ/ bowl /ˈboʊl/ course /ˈkɔərs, ˈkoʊrs/ court /ˈkɔərt, ˈkoʊrt/ dough /ˈdoʊ/ flow /ˈfloʊ/ flown /ˈfloʊn/ four /ˈfɔər, ˈfoʊr/ fourteen /ˈfɔərˈtiːn, ˈfoʊr-/ fourth /ˈfɔərθ, ˈfoʊrθ/ glow /ˈɡloʊ/ gourd /ˈɡɔərd, ˈɡoʊrd/ (also /ˈɡʊərd, ˈɡuːrd/) grow /ˈɡroʊ/ grown /ˈɡroʊn/ growth /ˈɡroʊθ/ low, Lowe /ˈloʊ/ Lowell /ˈloʊəl/ (also /ˈloʊl/) lower (descend) /ˈloʊər/ mould /ˈmoʊld/ moult /ˈmoʊlt/ mourn /ˈmɔərn, ˈmoʊrn/ mow /ˈmoʊ/ mown /ˈmoʊn/ owe /ˈoʊ/ own /ˈoʊn/ poultry /ˈpoʊltri/ pour /ˈpɔər, ˈpoʊr/ row (line) /ˈroʊ/ Seymour /ˈsiːmɔər, -moʊr/ shoulder /ˈʃoʊldər/ show /ˈʃoʊ/ shown /ˈʃoʊn/ slow /ˈsloʊ/ smoulder /ˈsmoʊldər/ snow /ˈsnoʊ/ soul /ˈsoʊl/ source /ˈsɔərs, ˈsoʊrs/ sow (seed) /ˈsoʊ/ sown /ˈsoʊn/ though /ˈðoʊ/ throw /ˈθroʊ/ thrown /ˈθroʊn/ tow /ˈtoʊ/ your, you're /ˈjɔər, ˈjoʊr/ (also /ˈjʊər, ˈjuːr/) yourn /ˈjɔərn, ˈjoʊrn/ (also /ˈjʊərn, ˈjuːrn/) yours /ˈjɔərz, ˈjoʊrz/ (also /ˈjʊərz, ˈjuːrz/)

Final unstressed[edit]

arrow /ˈæroʊ/ barrow /ˈbæroʊ/ bellow /ˈbɛloʊ/ bellows (device) /ˈbɛloʊz/ (also /ˈbɛləz/) billow /ˈbɪloʊ/ borough /ˈbʌroʊ/ (also /ˈbʌrə/) borrow /ˈbɒroʊ/ bungalow /ˈbʌŋɡəloʊ/ burrow /ˈbʌroʊ/ elbow /ˈɛlboʊ/ fallow /ˈfæloʊ/ farrow /ˈfæroʊ/ fellow /ˈfɛloʊ/ follow /ˈfɒloʊ/ furlough /ˈfɜːrloʊ, ˈfʌr-/ gallows /ˈɡæloʊz/ (also /ˈɡæləz/) hallow /ˈhæloʊ/ harrow /ˈhæroʊ/ hollow /ˈhɒloʊ/ mallow /ˈmæloʊ/ Marlowe /ˈmɑːrloʊ, ˈmær-/ marrow /ˈmæroʊ/ meadow /ˈmɛdoʊ/ mellow /ˈmɛloʊ/ minnow /ˈmɪnoʊ/ morrow /ˈmɒroʊ/ Moscow /ˈmɒskoʊ/ (also /ˈmɒskaʊ/) narrow /ˈnæroʊ/ pillow /ˈpɪloʊ/ sallow /ˈsæloʊ/ shadow /ˈʃædoʊ/ shallow /ˈʃæloʊ/ sorrow /ˈsɒroʊ/ sparrow /ˈspæroʊ/ swallow /ˈswɒloʊ/ tallow /ˈtæloʊ/ thorough /ˈθʌroʊ/ (also /ˈθʌrə/) wallow /ˈwɒloʊ/ Wicklow /ˈwɪkloʊ/ widow /ˈwɪdoʊ/ willow /ˈwɪloʊ/ window /ˈwɪndoʊ/ Winslow /ˈwɪnzloʊ/ yellow /ˈjɛloʊ/

‹ou› as /uː/[edit]

All these words imply ‹ou› that remained /uː/ after ‹ou› had regularly shifted to /aʊ/ in the Great Vowel Shift.

For historical reasons, this list also includes ‹ou› as /ʊ/ from older post-GVS /uː/.

bouche /ˈbuːʃ/ boulevard /ˈbuːl(ə)vɑːr(d), ˈbʊl-, -vær(d)/ cougar /ˈkuːɡər/ could /ˈkʊd/ coupon /ˈkuːpɒn/ (also /ˈkjuːpɒn, ˈkɪup-/) courier /ˈkʊ(ə)riər, ˈkuːr-/ (also /ˈkɜːriər, ˈkʌr-/) couscous /ˈkuːskuːs/ couth /ˈkuːθ/ douche /ˈduːʃ/ Dougal /ˈduːɡəl/ ghoul /ˈɡuːl/ gourd /ˈɡʊərd, ˈɡuːrd/ (also /ˈɡɔərd, ˈɡoʊrd/) group /ˈɡruːp/ joust /ˈdʒuːst/ (also /ˈdʒaʊst, ˈdʒʌst/) Lou /ˈluː/ Louie /ˈluːi/ Louis /ˈluːᵻs/ mousse /ˈmuːs/ rouge /ˈruːʒ/ route /ˈruːt/ (also /ˈraʊt/) should /ˈʃʊd/ soup /ˈsuːp/ stoup /ˈstuːp/ through /ˈθruː/ tour /ˈtʊər, ˈtuːr/ tournament /ˈtʊərnəmənt, ˈtuːrn-/ (also /ˈtɜːrnəmənt, ˈtʌrn-/) tourney /ˈtʊərni, ˈtuːrni/ (also /ˈtɜːrni, ˈtʌrni/) troupe /ˈtruːp/ would /ˈwʊd/ wound (injury) /ˈwuːnd/ you /ˈjuː/ your, you're /ˈjʊər, ˈjuːr/ (also /ˈjɔər, ˈjoʊr/) yourn /ˈjʊərn, ˈjuːrn/ (also /ˈjɔərn, ˈjoʊrn/) yours /ˈjʊərz, ˈjuːrz/ (also /ˈjɔərz, ˈjoʊrz/) youth /ˈjuːθ/ youths /ˈjuːðz, ˈjuːθs/

‹olC› as /oʊlC/ or final ‹ol› as /oʊl/[edit]

bold, bowled /ˈboʊld/ bolster /ˈboʊlstər/ bolt /ˈboʊlt/ Bolton /ˈboʊltən/ Colby /ˈkoʊlbi/ cold /ˈkoʊld/ Colgate /ˈkoʊlɡeɪt/ colt /ˈkoʊlt/ Colton /ˈkoʊltən/ control /kənˈtroʊl/ Dolby /ˈdoʊlbi/ dolt /ˈdoʊlt/ droll /ˈdroʊl/ extol /ᵻkˈstoʊl/ fold /ˈfoʊld/ Folger /ˈfoʊldʒər/ folk /ˈfoʊlk/ (also /ˈfoʊk/) gnoll, knoll /ˈnoʊl/ gold /ˈɡoʊld/ golden /ˈɡoʊldən/ hold /ˈhoʊld/ holm /ˈhoʊlm/ (also /ˈhoʊm/) Holmes, holms /ˈhoʊlmz/ (also /ˈhoʊmz/) holster /ˈhoʊlstər/ holt /ˈhoʊlt/ Holton /ˈhoʊltən/ jolt /ˈdʒoʊlt/ mold /ˈmoʊld/ molt /ˈmoʊlt/ molten /ˈmoʊltən/ old /ˈoʊld/ olden /ˈoʊldən/ olfactory /oʊlˈfækt(ɵ)ri/ (also /ɒlˈfækt(ɵ)ri/) Olsen, Olson /ˈoʊlsən/ patrol /pəˈtroʊl/ polder /ˈpoʊldər/ Polk /ˈpoʊlk/ (also /ˈpoʊk/) polka /ˈpoʊlkə/ (also /ˈpoʊkə, ˈpɒlkə/) poll /ˈpoʊl/ poltergeist /ˈpoʊltərɡaɪst/ (also /ˈpɒltərɡaɪst/) roll /ˈroʊl/ scroll /ˈskroʊl/ smolder /ˈsmoʊldər/ smolt /ˈsmoʊlt/ Sol, sol /ˈsoʊl/ (also /ˈsɒl/) sold /ˈsoʊld/ soldier /ˈsoʊldʒər/ stroll /ˈstroʊl/ swollen /ˈswoʊlən/ told, tolled /ˈtoʊld/ toll /ˈtoʊl/ troll /ˈtroʊl/ volt /ˈvoʊlt/ Volta, volta /ˈvoʊltə/ (also /ˈvɒltə/) wold (forest) /ˈwoʊld/ yolk /ˈjoʊlk/ (also /ˈjoʊk/)

‹our› as /ər/[edit]

arbour /ˈɑːrbər, ˈærb-/ armour /ˈɑːrmər, ˈærm-/ behaviour /bɨˈheɪvjər/ clamour /ˈklæmər/ colour /ˈkʌlər/ endeavour /ᵻnˈdɛvər, ɛn-/ favour /ˈfeɪvər/ flavour /ˈfleɪvər/ glamour /ˈɡlæmər/ harbour /ˈhɑːrbər, ˈhærb-/ honour /ˈɒnər/ humour /ˈhjuːmər, ˈhɪum-/ labour /ˈleɪbər/ neighbour /ˈneɪbər/ parlour /ˈpɑːrlər, ˈpær-/ rancour /ˈræŋkər/ rigour /ˈrɪɡər/ rumour /ˈruːmər, ˈrɪum-/ saviour /ˈseɪvjər/ savour /ˈseɪvər/ splendour /ˈsplɛndər/ tumour /ˈtjuːmər, ˈtɪum-/ vigour /ˈvɪɡər/

PALM lexical set[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Words with a common alternate pronunciation with /æ/, /ɒ/ or /ɔː/.
  • Words in the START lexical set.

alms /ˈɑː(l)mz/balm /ˈbɑː(l)m/ barrage /bəˈrɑːʒ, ˈbærɑːʒ/ blah /ˈblɑː/ bra /ˈbrɑː/ calm /ˈkɑː(l)m/ Chalmers /ˈtʃɑː(l)mərz/ charade /ʃəˈrɑːd, -ˈreɪd/ (also /ʃəˈreɪd/) collage /kɵˈlɑːʒ, koʊ-/ fa /ˈfɑː/ father /ˈfɑːðər/ garage /ɡəˈrɑːʒ, -ˈrɑːdʒ, ˈɡærɑːʒ/ (also /ˈɡærᵻdʒ/) genre /ˈʒɑːnrə/ ha, hah /ˈhɑː/ la /ˈlɑː/ mirage /mɨˈrɑːʒ/ montage /mɒnˈtɑːʒ/ palm /ˈpɑː(l)m/ Prague /ˈprɑːɡ/ psalm /ˈsɑː(l)m/ qualm /ˈkwɑː(l)m/ ska /ˈskɑː/ spa /ˈspɑː/ svengali /svɛnˈɡɑːli, sfɛn-/ ta /ˈtɑː/ taco /ˈtɑːkoʊ/

Single ‹s› as /z/ or /ʒ/ after a short vowel in an open syllable[edit]

-asm /-æzəm/ busy /ˈbɪzi/ chisel /ˈtʃɪzəl/ closet /ˈklɒzᵻt/ cousin /ˈkʌzᵻn/ doesn't (verb) /ˈdʌzənt/ Elisabeth /ɨˈlɪzəbəθ/ hasn't /ˈhæzənt/ -ism /-ɪzəm/ isn't /ˈɪzənt/ leisure /ˈlɛʒər/ (also /ˈliːʒər/) measure /ˈmɛʒər/ misery /ˈmɪzəri/ peasant /ˈpɛzənt/ pheasant /ˈfɛzənt/ pleasant /ˈplɛzənt/ pleasure /ˈplɛʒər/ posit /ˈpɒzᵻt/ present (noun) /ˈprɛzənt/ prison /ˈprɪzən/ resin /ˈrɛzᵻn/ risen /ˈrɪzən/ treasure /ˈtrɛʒər/ visit /ˈvɪzᵻt/ wasn't /ˈwɒzənt, ˈwʌz-/

‹sl› as /l/[edit]

aisle, isle /ˈaɪl/ Carlisle /ˈkɑːrlaɪl, ˈkær-/ island /ˈaɪlənd/ islet /ˈaɪlᵻt/

‹ss› and ‹sc› as /z/[edit]

brassiere /brəˈzɪər, -ˈziːr, ˈbræziɛər, -eɪr, ˈbræzɪər, -ziːr/ (also /ˈbræsiɛər, -eɪr, ˈbræsɪər, -siːr/) crescent /ˈkrɛzənt/ (also /ˈkrɛsənt/) dessert /dɨˈzɜːrt, -ˈzɛrt/ dissolve /dᵻˈzɒlv/

‹th› as /t/[edit]

Thai /ˈtaɪ/ Thailand /ˈtaɪlænd/ Thames /ˈtɛmz, ˈteɪmz/ (also /ˈθeɪmz/) Thomas /ˈtɒməs/ Thompson /ˈtɒmpsən/ thyme /ˈtaɪm/ (also /ˈθaɪm/)

Initial /θw/[edit]

thwack /ˈθwæk/ thwaite /ˈθweɪt/ thwart /ˈθwɔːrt, ˈθwɒrt/ thwomp /ˈθwɒmp/

Silent ‹u› and ‹w›[edit]

This list does not include:

  • Silent ‹w› in ‹wr›.

analogue /ˈænəlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ answer /ˈænsər, ˈɑːns-/ antique /ænˈtiːk/ baroque /bəˈrɒk, -ˈroʊk/ Basque /ˈbæsk, ˈbɑːsk/ beleaguer /bɨˈliːɡər/ biscuit /ˈbɪskᵻt/ bisque /ˈbɪsk/ Borgue /ˈbɔːrɡ, ˈbɒrɡ/ brogue /ˈbroʊɡ/ brusque /ˈbruːsk, ˈbrʊsk, ˈbrʌsk/ build /ˈbɪld/ built /ˈbɪlt/ buy /ˈbaɪ/ catalogue /ˈkætəlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ cheque /ˈtʃɛk/ chequer /ˈtʃɛkər/ circuit /ˈsɜːrkᵻt, ˈsɪrk-/ cirque /ˈsɜːrk, ˈsɪrk/ clique /ˈklɪk, ˈkliːk/ conquer /ˈkɒŋkər/ dengue /ˈdɛŋɡeɪ, ˈdɛŋɡi/ dialogue /ˈdaɪəlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ epilogue /ˈɛpᵻlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ Fenwick /ˈfɛnᵻk/ (also /ˈfɛnwᵻk/) fugue /ˈfjuːɡ, ˈfɪuɡ/ Greenwich /ˈɡrɛnᵻdʒ, -ᵻtʃ/ (also /ˈɡriːnwᵻtʃ, -wᵻdʒ/) grotesque /ɡroʊˈtɛsk/ guarantee /ɡærənˈtiː/ guaranty /ˈɡærənti/ guard /ˈɡɑːrd, ˈɡærd/ guardian /ˈɡɑːrdiən, ˈɡærd-/ Guernsey /ˈɡɜːrnzi, ˈɡɛrnzi/ guess /ˈɡɛs/ guessed, guest /ˈɡɛst/ guide /ˈɡaɪd/ guild /ˈɡɪld/ guilder /ˈɡɪldər/ guile /ˈɡaɪl/ guillotine /ˈɡiːɵtiːn, ˈɡɪlɵ-/ guilt /ˈɡɪlt/ guise /ˈɡaɪz/ guitar /ɡᵻˈtɑːr, -ˈtær, ˈɡɪtɑːr, -tær/ Guy, guy /ˈɡaɪ/ Hague /ˈheɪɡ/ intrigue /ˈɪntriːɡ, ᵻnˈtriːɡ/ knowledge /ˈnɒlᵻdʒ/ lacquer /ˈlækər/ league /ˈliːɡ/ liquor, liquour /ˈlɪkər/ liquorice /ˈlɪk(ɵ)rᵻʃ, -rᵻs/ masque /ˈmæsk, ˈmɑːsk/ masquerade /mæskəˈreɪd/ meringue /məˈræŋ/ monologue /ˈmɒnɵlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ morgue /ˈmɔːrɡ, ˈmɒrɡ/ mosque /ˈmɒsk, ˈmɔːsk/ mosquito /məˈskiːtoʊ/ Norwich /ˈnɒrᵻdʒ, ˈnɔːr-, -ᵻtʃ/ (also /ˈnɔːrwᵻtʃ, ˈnɒr-, -wᵻdʒ/) oblique /ɵˈbliːk, oʊ-/ opaque /oʊˈpeɪk/ pique /ˈpiːk/ plague /ˈpleɪɡ/ plaque /ˈplæk/ Prague /ˈprɑːɡ/ prologue /ˈproʊlɒɡ, -lɔːɡ/ queue /ˈkjuː, ˈkɪu/ quiche /ˈkiːʃ/ racquet /ˈrækᵻt/ rogue /ˈroʊɡ/ sword /ˈsɔərd, ˈsoʊrd/ synagogue /ˈsɪnəɡɒɡ, -ɡɔːɡ/ technique /tɛkˈniːk/ tongue /ˈtʌŋ/ toque /ˈtoʊk/ torque /ˈtɔːrk, ˈtɒrk/ unique /juːˈniːk, ɪu-/ vague /ˈveɪɡ/ vogue /ˈvoʊɡ/ Warwick /ˈwɒrᵻk, ˈwɔːr-/ (also /ˈwɔːrwᵻk, ˈwɒr-/) whole /ˈhoʊl/ wholly /ˈhoʊl(l)i/ whore /ˈhɔər, ˈhoʊr/ (also /ˈhʊər, ˈhuːr/)

‹u› as /ʊ/[edit]

Bulgaria /bʊlˈɡɛəriə, -ˈɡeɪr-/ (also /bʌlˈɡɛəriə, -ˈɡeɪr-/) bull /ˈbʊl/ bullet /ˈbʊlᵻt/ Bullock, bullock /ˈbʊlək/ bully /ˈbʊli/ bulwark /ˈbʊlwərk, -wɔːrk, -wɒrk/ (also /ˈbʌlwərk, -wɔːrk, -wɒrk/) Bush, bush /ˈbʊʃ/ butch /ˈbʊtʃ/ butcher /ˈbʊtʃər/ chutzpa, chutzpah, hutzpa, hutzpah /ˈxʊtspə, ˈhʊts/ Cush /ˈkʊʃ/ (also /ˈkʌʃ/) cushion /ˈkʊʃən/ cushy /ˈkʊʃi/ full /ˈfʊl/ fully /ˈfʊl(l)i/ hummus /ˈhʊməs/ (also /ˈhʌməs/) kibbutz /kɨˈbʊts/ (also /kɨˈbuːts/) mush /ˈmʊʃ/ (also /ˈmʌʃ/) pudding /ˈpʊdᵻŋ/ pull /ˈpʊl/ pulley /ˈpʊli/ pulpit /ˈpʊlpᵻt/ (also /ˈpʌlpᵻt/) push /ˈpʊʃ/ puss /ˈpʊs/ put /ˈpʊt/ schtup, shtup /ˈʃtʊp/ tush (tushie) /ˈtʊʃ/ tushie /ˈtʊʃi/ wuss /ˈwʊs/

‹ugh› as /f/[edit]

cough /ˈkɒf, ˈkɔːf/ draught /ˈdræft, ˈdrɑːft/ enough /ɨˈnʌf/ laugh /ˈlæf, ˈlɑːf/ laughter /ˈlæftər, ˈlɑːft-/ rough /ˈrʌf/ roughen /ˈrʌfən/ rough /ˈrʌf/ slough (sluff) /ˈslʌf/ toughen /ˈtʌfən/ trough /ˈtrɒf, ˈtrɔːf/ (also /ˈtrɒθ, ˈtrɔːθ/)

‹ui› as /(j)uː/[edit]

bruise /ˈbruːz, ˈbrɪuz/ cruise /ˈkruːz, ˈkrɪuz/ fruit /ˈfruːt, ˈfrɪut/ juice /ˈdʒuːs, ˈdʒɪus/ Muir /ˈmjʊər, ˈmjuːr, ˈmɪʊər, ˈmɪur/ nuisance /ˈnjuːsəns, ˈnɪus-/ puisne /ˈpjuːni, ˈpɪuni/ pursuit /pərˈs(j)uːt, -ˈsɪut/ recruit /rɨˈkruːt, -ˈkrɪut/ suit /ˈs(j)uːt, ˈsɪut/

‹wo› as /uː/ and ‹who› as /huː/[edit]

two /ˈtuː/ who /ˈhuː/ whom /ˈhuːm/ who're /ˈhʊər, ˈhuːr/ whore /ˈhʊər, ˈhuːr/ (also /ˈhɔər, ˈhoʊr/) who's, whose /ˈhuːz/

‹wr› as /r/[edit]

wraith /ˈreɪθ/ Wrangel, Wrangell, wrangle /ˈræŋɡəl/ wrap /ˈræp/ wrastle /ˈræsəl/ wrath /ˈræθ, ˈrɑːθ, ˈrɒθ, ˈrɔːθ/ wreak /ˈriːk/ wreath /ˈriːθ/ wreathe /ˈriːð/ wreaths /ˈriːðz, ˈriːθs/ wreck /ˈrɛk/ wren /ˈrɛn/ wrench /ˈrɛntʃ/ wrength /ˈrɛŋ(k)θ/ (also /ˈrɛnθ/) wrest /ˈrɛst/ wrestle /ˈrɛsəl/ wretch /ˈrɛtʃ/ wretched /ˈrɛtʃᵻd/ wriggle /ˈrɪɡəl/ Wrigley /ˈrɪɡli/ wright, write /ˈraɪt/ wring /ˈrɪŋ/ wrinkle /ˈrɪŋkəl/ wrist /ˈrɪst/ writ /ˈrɪt/ write /ˈraɪt/ writhe /ˈraɪð/ written /ˈrɪtən/ wrong /ˈrɒŋ, ˈrɔːŋ/ wrote /ˈroʊt/ wroth /ˈrɒθ, ˈrɔːθ, ˈroʊθ/ wrought /ˈrɔːt/ wrung /ˈrʌŋ/ wry /ˈraɪ/

/ʒ/ not from modern yod-coalescence[edit]

barrage /bəˈrɑːʒ, ˈbærɑːʒ/ beige /ˈbeɪʒ/ Beijing /ˈbeɪˈʒɪŋ/ (also /ˈbeɪˈdʒɪŋ/) collage /kɵˈlɑːʒ, koʊ-/ garage /ɡəˈrɑːʒ, ˈɡærɑːʒ/ (also /ɡəˈrɑːdʒ, ˈɡærᵻdʒ/) genre /ˈʒɑːnrə/ liege /ˈliːʒ/ (also /ˈliːdʒ/) luge /ˈljuːʒ, ˈlɪuʒ/ mirage /mɨˈrɑːʒ/ montage /mɒnˈtɑːʒ/ prestige /prɛˈstiːʒ/ (also /prɛˈstiːdʒ/) rouge /ˈruːʒ/