User:Gilgamesh/Greek IPA tokens

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This is a concept for a template-argument-based common set of tokens for indicating Classical Greek pronunciation. Ancient, Koine, Byzantine and Contemporary (Modern) periods are covered—how Greek people in these periods pronounced Classical Greek words.

Code Greek Class. IPA Koine IPA Byzan. IPA Cont. IPA Notes
_ Inserts a space in the IPA text.
. . In Ancient IPA only, inserted between two adjacent vowels syllables to clarify that they do not form a single syllable diphthong. Never used in Koine IPA onward.
h h (h) Ancient Greek heavy breathing phoneme, which becomes scarce in Koine and vanishes afterwards.
a a a a a For short α or α of uncertain length (presumed to be short unless otherwise specified).
a' ά (ᾰ) á ˈa ˈa ˈa
a` ὰ (ᾰ) à ˈa ˈa ˈa
aa a(ː) a a
aa' ά (ᾱ) áː ˈa(ː) ˈa ˈa
aa` ὰ (ᾱ) àː ˈa(ː) ˈa ˈa
aa^ ȃː ˈa(ː) ˈa ˈa
ai αι ɛ(ː)
ai' αί áɪ ˈɛ(ː) ˈe̞ ˈe̞
ai` αὶ àɪ ˈɛ(ː) ˈe̞ ˈe̞
ai^ αῖ ȃɪ ˈɛ(ː) ˈe̞ ˈe̞
aai aːj a(ː) a a
aai' áːj ˈa(ː) ˈa ˈa
aai` àːj ˈa(ː) ˈa ˈa
aai^ ȃːj ˈa(ː) ˈa ˈa
au ᾰυ aw av av
au' ᾰύ áʊ ˈaw ˈav ˈav
au` ᾰὺ àʊ ˈaw ˈav ˈav
au^ ᾰῦ ȃʊ ˈaw ˈav ˈav
auh ᾰυ af af Before voiceless consonants or word-final.
auh' ᾰύ áʊ ˈaʍ ˈaf ˈaf
auh` ᾰὺ àʊ ˈaʍ ˈaf ˈaf
auh^ ᾰῦ ȃʊ ˈaʍ ˈaf ˈaf
aub ᾰυβ aʊb awb avv a(v)v
au'b ᾰύβ áʊb ˈawb ˈavv ˈa(v)v
au`b ᾰὺβ àʊb ˈawb ˈavv ˈa(v)v
au^b ᾰῦβ ȃʊb ˈawb ˈavv ˈa(v)v
auph ᾰυφ aʊpʰ aʍpʰ aff a(f)f
au'ph ᾰύφ áʊpʰ ˈaʍpʰ ˈaff ˈa(f)f
au`ph ᾰὺφ àʊpʰ ˈaʍpʰ ˈaff ˈa(f)f
au^ph ᾰῦφ ȃʊpʰ ˈaʍpʰ ˈaff ˈa(f)f
aau ᾱυ aːw a(ː)w av av
aau' ᾱύ áːw ˈa(ː)w ˈav ˈav
aau` ᾱὺ àːw ˈa(ː)w ˈav ˈav
aau^ ᾱῦ ȃːw ˈa(ː)w ˈav ˈav
aauh ᾱυ aːw a(ː)ʍ af af Before voiceless consonants or word-final.
aauh' ᾱύ áːw ˈa(ː)ʍ ˈaf ˈaf
aauh` ᾱὺ àːw ˈa(ː)ʍ ˈaf ˈaf
aauh^ ᾱῦ ȃːw ˈa(ː)ʍ ˈaf ˈaf
aaub ᾱυβ aːwb a(ː)wb avv a(v)v
aau'b ᾱύβ áːwb ˈa(ː)wb ˈavv ˈa(v)v
aau`b ᾱὺβ àːwb ˈa(ː)wb ˈavv ˈa(v)v
aau^b ᾱῦβ ȃːwb ˈa(ː)wb ˈavv ˈa(v)v
aauph ᾱυφ aːwpʰ a(ː)ʍpʰ aff a(f)f
aau'ph ᾱύφ áːwpʰ ˈa(ː)ʍpʰ ˈaff ˈa(f)f
aau`ph ᾱὺφ àːwpʰ ˈa(ː)ʍpʰ ˈaff ˈa(f)f
aau^ph ᾱῦφ ȃːwpʰ ˈa(ː)ʍpʰ ˈaff ˈa(f)f
b β b b v v
bb ββ bb bb vv (v)v
g γ ɡ ɡ ɣ ɣ
gj γ ɡ ɡ ɣ ʝ Before front vowels in Contemporary pronunciation.
ng γγ ŋɡ ŋɡ ŋɣ ŋɡ
ngj γγ ŋɡ ŋɡ ŋɣ ɲɟ Before front vowels in Contemporary pronunciation.
nk γκ ŋk ŋk ŋk ̃ɡ
nkj γκ ŋk ŋk ŋk ̃ɟ Before front vowels in Contemporary pronunciation.
nks γξ ŋkʰs ŋks ŋks ̃ɡz
nkh γχ ŋkʰ ŋkʰ ŋx ŋx
nkhj γχ ŋkʰ ŋkʰ ŋx ɲç Before front vowels in Contemporary pronunciation.
d δ d d ð ð
(d) δ d ð ð Before ζ σ ς. Suppressed in Ancient pronunciation.
dd δδ dd dd ðð (ð)ð
e ε e ɛ
e' έ é ˈɛ ˈe̞ ˈe̞
e` è ˈɛ ˈe̞ ˈe̞
ei ει i(ː) i i
ei' εί éː ˈi(ː) ˈi ˈi
ei` εὶ èː ˈi(ː) ˈi ˈi
ei^ εῖ ȇː ˈi(ː) ˈi ˈi
eu ευ ɛw e̞v e̞v
eu' εύ éʊ ˈɛw ˈe̞v ˈe̞v
eu` εὺ èʊ ˈɛw ˈe̞v ˈe̞v
eu^ εῦ ȇʊ ˈɛw ˈe̞v ˈe̞v
euh ευ ɛʍ e̞f e̞f Before voiceless consonants or word-final.
euh' εύ éʊ ˈɛʍ ˈe̞f ˈe̞f
euh` εὺ èʊ ˈɛʍ ˈe̞f ˈe̞f
euh^ εῦ ȇʊ ˈɛʍ ˈe̞f ˈe̞f
eub ευβ eʊb ɛwb e̞vv e̞(v)v
eu'b εύβ éʊb ˈɛwb ˈe̞vv ˈe̞(v)v
eu`b εὺβ èʊb ˈɛwb ˈe̞vv ˈe̞(v)v
eu^b εῦβ ȇʊb ˈɛwb ˈe̞vv ˈe̞(v)v
euph ευφ eʊpʰ ɛʍpʰ e̞ff e̞(f)f
eu'ph εύφ éʊpʰ ˈɛʍpʰ ˈe̞ff ˈe̞(f)f
eu`ph εὺφ èʊpʰ ˈɛʍpʰ ˈe̞ff ˈe̞(f)f
eu^ph εῦφ ȇʊpʰ ˈɛʍpʰ ˈe̞ff ˈe̞(f)f
z ζ zd z z z
zz ζ zd zz z z Between vowels in Koine.
ee η ɛː e(ː) i i
ee' ή ɛ́ː ˈe(ː) ˈi ˈi
ee` ɛ̀ː ˈe(ː) ˈi ˈi
ee^ ɛ̑ː ˈe(ː) ˈi ˈi
eei ɛːj e(ː) i i
eei' ɛ́ːj ˈe(ː) ˈi ˈi
eei` ɛ̀ːj ˈe(ː) ˈi ˈi
eei^ ɛ̑ːj ˈe(ː) ˈi ˈi
eeu ηυ ɛːw e(ː)w iv iv
eeu' ηύ ɛ́ːw ˈe(ː)w ˈiv ˈiv
eeu` ηὺ ɛ̀ːw ˈe(ː)w ˈiv ˈiv
eeu^ ηῦ ɛ̑ːw ˈe(ː)w ˈiv ˈiv
eeuh ηυ ɛːw e(ː)ʍ if if Before voiceless consonants or word-final.
eeuh' ηύ ɛ́ːw ˈe(ː)ʍ ˈif ˈif
eeuh` ηὺ ɛ̀ːw ˈe(ː)ʍ ˈif ˈif
eeuh^ ηῦ ɛ̑ːw ˈe(ː)ʍ ˈif ˈif
eeub ηυβ ɛːwb e(ː)wb ivv i(v)v
eeu'b ηύβ ɛ́ːwb ˈe(ː)wb ˈivv ˈi(v)v
eeu`b ηὺβ ɛ̀ːwb ˈe(ː)wb ˈivv ˈi(v)v
eeu^b ηῦβ ɛ̑ːwb ˈe(ː)wb ˈivv ˈi(v)v
eeuph ηυφ ɛːwpʰ e(ː)ʍpʰ iff i(f)f
eeu'ph ηύφ ɛ́ːwpʰ ˈe(ː)ʍpʰ ˈiff ˈi(f)f
eeu`ph ηὺφ ɛ̀ːwpʰ ˈe(ː)ʍpʰ ˈiff ˈi(f)f
eeu^ph ηῦφ ɛ̑ːwpʰ ˈe(ː)ʍpʰ ˈiff ˈi(f)f
th θ θ θ
(th) θ θ θ Before ζ σ ς. Suppressed in Ancient pronunciation.
thth θθ ttʰ ttʰ θθ (θ)θ
i i i i i For short ι or ι of uncertain length (presumed to be short unless otherwise specified).
i' ί (ῐ) í ˈi ˈi ˈi
i` ὶ (ῐ) ì ˈi ˈi ˈi
ii i(ː) i i
ii' ί (ῑ) íː ˈi(ː) ˈi ˈi
ii` ὶ (ῑ) ìː ˈi(ː) ˈi ˈi
ii^ ȋː ˈi(ː) ˈi ˈi
k κ k k k k
kj κ k k k c Before front vowels in Contemporary pronunciation.
k$ κ ɡ ɡ ɡ ɡ When pronounced as voiced before voiced consonants.
kj$ κ ɡ ɡ ɡ ɟ When pronounced as voiced before voiced consonants that have a Contemporary palatal pronunciation.
kk κκ kk kk kk k(ʰ)
kkj κκ kk kk kk c(ʰ) Before front vowels in Contemporary pronunciation.
l λ l l l l
ll λλ ll ll ll (l)l
m μ m m m m
(m) μ m m m Before ζ σ ς and after a vowel that is already long. The μ is suppressed in Ancient pronunciation.
(mm) μ ː m m m Before ζ σ ς and after a short vowel. The μ is suppressed in Ancient pronunciation and the preceding vowel is lengthened.
mb μβ mb mb ɱv ɱv
mm μμ mm mm mm (m)m
mp μπ mp mp mp ̃b
mph μφ mpʰ mpʰ ɱf ɱf
mps μψ mpʰs mps mps ̃bz
n ν n n n n
(n) ν n n n Before ζ σ ς and after a vowel that is already long. The ν is suppressed in Ancient pronunciation.
(nn) ν ː n n n Before ζ σ ς and after a short vowel. The ν is suppressed in Ancient pronunciation and the preceding vowel is lengthened.
nd νδ nd nd
nth νθ ntʰ ntʰ
nn νν nn nn nn (n)n
nt ντ nt nt nt ̃d
ntz ντζ zd ̃ʣ
nntz ντζ ːzd ̃ʣ After a short vowel.
nts ντσ, ντς s ̃ʣ
nnts ντσ, ντς ːs ̃ʣ After a short vowel.
ks ξ kʰs ks ks ks
ks$ ξ ɡʱz ɡz ɡz ɡz Before voiced consonants.
o ο o o
o' ό ó ˈo̞ ˈo̞ ˈo̞
o` ò ˈo̞ ˈo̞ ˈo̞
oi οι y(ː) i(ʷ) i
oi' οί óɪ ˈy(ː) ˈi(ʷ) ˈi
oi` οὶ òɪ ˈy(ː) ˈi(ʷ) ˈi
oi^ οῖ ȏɪ ˈy(ː) ˈi(ʷ) ˈi
ou ου u(ː) u u
ou' ού óː ˈu(ː) ˈu ˈu
ou` οὺ òː ˈu(ː) ˈu ˈu
ou^ οῦ ȏː ˈu(ː) ˈu ˈu
p π p p p p
pp ππ pp pp pp p(ʰ)
rh (h)r r r
r ρ r r r r
rrh ῤῥ, ρρ r̥r̥ rr rr (r)r
s σ, ς s s s s
s$ σ z z z z Before voiced consonants.
sz σζ zz zz zz (z)z
ss σσ ss ss ss (s)s
t τ t t t t
tz τζ zd ʣ ʣ ʣ
ts τσ, τς s ʦ ʦ ʦ
tt ττ tt tt tt t(ʰ)
u y y i(ʷ) i For short υ or υ of uncertain length (presumed to be short unless otherwise specified).
u' ύ (ῠ) ý ˈy ˈi(ʷ) ˈi
u` ὺ (ῠ) ˈy ˈi(ʷ) ˈi
uu y(ː) i(ʷ) i
uu' ύ (ῡ) ýː ˈy(ː) ˈi(ʷ) ˈi
uu` ὺ (ῡ) ỳː ˈy(ː) ˈi(ʷ) ˈi
uu^ y̑ː ˈy(ː) ˈi(ʷ) ˈi
ui υι yːj y(ː) i(ʷ) i
ui' υί ýːj ˈy(ː) ˈi(ʷ) ˈi
ui` υὶ ỳːj ˈy(ː) ˈi(ʷ) ˈi
ui^ υῖ y̑ːj ˈy(ː) ˈi(ʷ) ˈi
ph φ f f
phph φφ ppʰ ppʰ ff (f)f
kh χ x x
khj χ x ç Before front vowels in Contemporary pronunciation.
khkh χχ kkʰ kkʰ xx (x)x
khkhj χχ kkʰ kkʰ xx (ç)ç Before front vowels in Contemporary pronunciation.
ps ψ pʰs ps ps ps
ps$ ψ bʱz bz bz bz Before voiced consonants.
oo ω ɔː o̞(ː)
oo' ώ ɔ́ː ˈo̞(ː) ˈo̞ ˈo̞
oo` ɔ̀ː ˈo̞(ː) ˈo̞ ˈo̞
oo^ ɔ̑ː ˈo̞(ː) ˈo̞ ˈo̞
ooi ɔːj o̞(ː)
ooi' ɔ́ːj ˈo̞(ː) ˈo̞ ˈo̞
ooi` ɔ̀ːj ˈo̞(ː) ˈo̞ ˈo̞
ooi^ ɔ̑ːj ˈo̞(ː) ˈo̞ ˈo̞