User:Maro/sandbox4

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Consonants[edit]

Phoneme Allophones Articulation Examples Notes
/p/ [p] voiceless bilabial plosive example notes
[pʲ] palatalized voiceless bilabial plosive example notes
/b/ [b] voiced bilabial plosive
[bʲ] palatalized voiced bilabial plosive
/m/ [m] bilabial nasal
[mʲ] palatalized bilabial nasal
[m̥] voiceless bilabial nasal
[m̥ʲ] palatalized voiceless bilabial nasal
/f/ [f] voiceless labiodental fricative
[fʲ] palatalized voiceless labiodental fricative
/v/ [v] voiced labiodental fricative
[vʲ] palatalized voiced labiodental fricative
/t̪/ [t̪] voiceless dental plosive
[t̪ʲ] palatalized voiceless dental plosive
[t] voiceless alveolar plosive
/d̪/ [d̪] voiced dental plosive
[d̪ʲ] palatalized voiced dental plosive
[d] voiced alveolar plosive
/n̪/ [n̪] dental nasal
[n̪̊] voiceless dental nasal
[n] alveolar nasal
[n̥]/[n̊] voiceless alveolar nasal
/s̪/ [s̪] voiceless dental sibilant fricative laminal
[s̪ʲ] palatalized voiceless dental sibilant fricative [kɔs̪ʲĩn̪us̪] laminal
/z̪/ [z̪] voiced dental sibilant fricative laminal
[z̪ʲ] palatalized voiced dental sibilant fricative laminal
/t͡s̪/ [t͡s̪] voiceless dental affricate laminal?
[t͡s̪ʲ] palatalized voiceless dental affricate laminal?
/d͡z̪/ [d͡z̪] voiced dental affricate laminal?
/ʂ/ [ʂ]  ? voiceless alveolar fricative It's not retroflex but alveolar. The same as Russian /ʂ/ (ш)
[ʃ]  ? palatalized voiceless alveolar fricative [xʲirɔˈʃĩma] It's palatalized, not palatal like in English.
/ʐ/ [ʐ]  ? voiced alveolar fricative It's not retroflex but alveolar. The same as Russian /ʐ/ (ж)
[ʒ]  ? palatalized voiced alveolar fricative It's palatalized, not palatal like in English.
/t͡ʂ/ [t͡ʂ]  ?? voiceless alveolar affricate It's not retroflex but alveolar.
[t͡ʃ]  ?? palatalized voiceless alveolar affricate It's palatalized, not palatal like in English.
/d͡ʐ/ [d͡ʐ]  ?? voiced alveolar affricate It's not retroflex but alveolar.
[d͡ʒ]  ?? palatalized voiced alveolar affricate It's palatalized, not palatal like in English.
/l/ [l] voiced alveolar lateral approximant
[lʲ] palatalized voiced alveolar lateral approximant
[l̥] voiceless alveolar lateral approximant [mɨɕl̥]
[l̥ʲ] palatalized voiceless alveolar lateral approximant
/r/ [r] voiced alveolar trill
[rʲ] palatalized voiced alveolar trill
[r̥] voiceless alveolar alveolar trill [ˈt̪ɛat̪r̥]
[r̥ʲ] palatalized voiceless alveolar trill
/ɕ/ [ɕ] voiceless alveolo-palatal (prepalatal) fricative
/ʑ/ [ʑ] voiced alveolo-palatal (prepalatal) fricative
/t͡ɕ/ [t͡ɕ] voiceless alveolo-palatal (prepalatal) affricate
/d͡ʑ/ [d͡ʑ] voiced alveolo-palatal (prepalatal) affricate
/ɲ/ [ɲ] voiced prepalatal nasal
[ɲ̊] voiceless prepalatal nasal
[ĩ̯]/[j̃] voiced prepalatal nasal approximant
/j/ [j] voiced prepalatal approximant
/c/ [c] voiceless postpalatal plosive
/ɟ/ [ɟ] voiced postpalatal plosive
/k/ [k] voiceless velar plosive
/ɡ/ [ɡ] voiced velar plosive
/x/ [x] voiceless velar fricative
[xʲ] palatalized voiceless velar fricative [xʲis̪t̪ɔˈrɨt͡ʂn̪ɨ]
[ɣ] voiced velar fricative
[ɣʲ] palatalized voiced velar fricative rare
/w/ [w] voiced labio-velar approximant
[w̥] voiceless labio-velar approximant
[wʲ] palatalized voiced labio-velar approximant
/w̃/ [w̃] nasal labio-velar approximant Also occurs in Portugese.
[ŋ] voiced velar nasal
[ŋ̊] voiceless velar nasal
[ŋʲ] palatalized voiced velar nasal
[ŋ̊ʲ] palatalized voiceless velar nasal

Vowels[edit]

Phoneme Allophones Articulation Examples Notes
/a/ [a] low central unrounded vowel example /a/ is always central in Polish. Actually, the correct symbol for this should be ӓ, but there could be problems to display nasalized ӓ̃ (dots and tilde above) in some fonts.
[ã] nasalized low central unrounded vowel [1]
[ɐ] raised low central vowel [2]
[ɐ̃] nasalized raised low central vowel [1]
/ɛ/ [ɛ] low-mid front unrounded vowel
[ɛ̃] nasalized low-mid front unrounded vowel [1]
[ɛ̝] raised low-mid front unrounded vowel [2]
[ɛ̝̃] nasalized raised low-mid front unrounded vowel [1]
/i/ [i] high front unrounded vowel
[ĩ] nasalized high front unrounded vowel [1]
/ɔ/ [ɔ] low-mid back rounded vowel
[ɔ̃] nasalized low-mid back rounded vowel [1]
[ɔ̝] raised low-mid back rounded vowel [2]
[ɔ̝̃] nasalized raised low-mid back rounded vowel [1]
/u/ [u] high back rounded vowel
[ũ] nasalized high back rounded vowel [1]
[u̝] raised high back rounded vowel [2]
[ũ̝] nasalized raised high back rounded vowel [1]
/ɨ̞/ [ɨ] lowered high near-central unrounded vowel something between /ɪ/ and /ɨ/ (see vowel diagram below)
[ɨ̃] nasalized lowered high near-central unrounded vowel [1]
Polish vowel diagram (phonemes)


Other symbols[edit]

Symbol Articulation Examples Notes
ʔ glottal stop [ʔaˈxa] ("aha"),
[ɲɛʔ] ("nie"),
[ˈfʔĩn̪ːɨ̃m] ("w innym") as opposite to [ˈvʲĩn̪ːɨ̃m] ("winnym")
Not a phoneme, but it can be heard in some words, especially interjections or in the word boundary.
ˈ stress mark
ː geminate or long vowel not used for plosives!
undertie used to represent linking on word boundary

Notes[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Nasalized vowels occur before nasal consonants.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Raised vowels occur between two palatal consonants or between palatalized and palatal consonant.

External links[edit]