User:Physchim62/Catalan verbs

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Catalan verb grammar is broadly similar to that of other Romance languages, with tense and mood being indicated by the use of both inflection and auxiliary verbs. Subject pronouns are normally omitted, as the person and number of the verb form are evident from the ending.

Impersonal forms[edit]

Infinitive[edit]

The infinitive (infinitiu) is the basic form of the verb, that which is usually listed in dictionaries, wordlists etc.

Past participle[edit]

Present participle[edit]

Simple tenses[edit]

Catalan has eight simple tenses:

Indicative/Indicatiu
Present Present
Imperfect Pretèrit imperfet
Preterite Pretèrit perfet simple
Future Futur simple
Conditional Condicional simple
Subjuctive/Subjuntiu
Present Present
Imperfect Pretèrit imperfet
Imperative Imperatiu

The preterite is virtually obsolete in modern Catalan, having been replaced by the periphrastic perfect.

Fabra originally termed the future tense as the "future imperfect" ("futur imperfet"), although this term seems to have fallen into disuse. The simple future tense is equivalent to the English future with "shall" or "will", whereas the conditional tense is used to express actions which occured after some point of time in the past:

  • Assegura que tu cantaràs; assegurava que tu cantaries.
  • He makes sure that you will sing; he was making sure that you would sing.

The future pefect can also be used in this sense:

  • Vaig assegurar que ja haurà cantat.
  • I've made sure that he will have already sung.

Compound tenses[edit]

haver
(as auxiliary)
he hem
has heu
ha han
anar
(as auxiliary)
vaig vam
vas vau
va van

Note that Catalan grammars often distinguish between "compound" tenses (with haver as the auxiliary) and "periphrastic" tenses (with anar as the auxiliary). The present tense conjugations of haver and anar when used as auxiliaries are slightly different from the normal conjugations (see table).

The periphrastic perfect is the most common past tense in Catalan. It is used for actions or events which occured in a timeframe which is already finished, eg yesterday, last week, 300 years ago, etc.

  • Piqué va dimitir per la "decepció" que li va causar Rajoy.
  • Piqué resigned because of the "disappointment" that Rajoy caused him.
(El Periódico de Catalunya, 20 January 2008)

The past indefinite is used for actions or events which occured in a timeframe which is not yet complete (eg, today), and for actions which commenced in the past but which continue into the present.

  • Avui ha plogut molt.
  • It's rained a lot today.
  • No hem aconseguit tot el que volíem…
  • We haven't obtained everything we wanted…
(El Periódico de Catalunya, 20 January 2008)

In modern Catalan, haver is the only auxiliary verb used for the past indefinite and related tenses. In medieval Catalan, ésser was used as the auxilliary in these tenses for intransitive verbs of movement and for the vebs ésser, estar and romandre.

Other tenses are used roughly as in English: the past anterior tenses are virtually obsolete in modern Catalan. An example of the use of the pluperfect is given below:

  • Mai abans … una cèl·lula de terroristes islàmics havia estat tan a prop de preparar un atemptat a Espanya.
  • Never before … had a group of Islamic terrorists been so close to preparing an attack in Spain.
(El Periódico de Catalunya, 20 January 2008)
Periphrastic perfect Pretèrit perfet perifràstic present tense of anar + infinitive
Past indefinite Pretèrit indefinit present tense of haver + past participle
Pluperfect Pretèrit plusquamperfet imperfect tense of haver + past participle
Past anterior Pretèrit anterior simple preterite tense of haver + past participle
Periphrastic past anterior Pretèrit anterior perifràstic periphrastic perfect tense of haver + past participle
Future perfect Futur compost future tense of haver + past participle
Conditional perfect Condicional compost conditional tense of haver + past participle
Preterite subjuctive Pretèrit perfet subjuntiu present subjunctive tense of haver + past participle
Periphrastic perfect subjuctive Pretèrit perfet perifràstic subjuntiu present subjunctive tense of anar + infinitive
Pluperfect subjuctive Pretèrit plusquamperfet subjuntiu imperfect subjunctive tense of haver + past participle

Other constructions[edit]

Passive voice[edit]

The passive voice is formed using either ésser or estar (depending on the sense) with the past participle. Catalan grammars usually consider this construction to be equivalent to the use of the past participle as a qualificative adjective. Accordingly, the past participle agrees in gender and number with the subject of the sentence.

This construction is relatively rare: in many cases where English would use the passive voice, Catalan uses a reflexive verb.

  • Aquí es parla francès.
  • French is spoken here.

Continuous tenses[edit]

The present tense of estar can be used with the present participle to form a construction which is analogous to the English present continuous tense. Catalan grammars usually consider this construction to be equivalent to the use of the present participle as a qualificative adjective.

This construction is used far less frequently than the English present continuous tense (which is usually translated by the Catalan present simple tense): however it may be used to particularly emphasise the ongoing nature of an action.

A past continuous tense may also be formed by the imperfect tense of estar and the present participle. This construction is also rare, as the imperfect tense is usually preferred.

Future tense with anar[edit]

Catalan forms a construction with the prsent tense of anar + a + the infinitive, which is analogous to the English future tense with "going".

  • Vaig a tancar el meu compte.
  • I'm going to close my account.

This construction is only used in Catalan in situations where there is physical movement involved in the action: as such, it is not considered a separate tense but merely a verbal construction with anar in its normal sense (and with its normal conjugation). It should not be confused with the periphrastic perfect tense, which it superficially resembles.

Reflexive verbs[edit]

Reflexive pronouns
em (m') ens
et (t') us
es (s') es (s')

Reflexive verbs (verbs pronominals) are indicated by the ending -se or 's on the infinitive, depending on whether the infinitive ends in a consonant or a vowel: eg, endur-se, creure's. The declension of the pronouns in Catalan is complex: for a full treament, see Appendix:Catalan pronouns. The most common forms of the reflexive pronouns are given in the table: forms in parentheses are used before a vowel or an h. The reflexive pronoun comes before the verb (or the auxilliary in compound tenses) in all forms except the infinitive, the present participle and imperative.

Polite forms[edit]

In formal language, the second person pronouns tu and vosaltres (or vós) are replaced by the forms vostè and vostès. These are contractions of the forms vostra mercè and vostres mercès (lit. "Your Grace", "Your Graces"), and so take third person forms of the verb (singular and plural respectively).

  • Vostè m'ho ha dit.
  • You told me it.
  • Vostès no hi eren.
  • You weren't there.

Unlike other subject pronouns, vostè and vostès are not usually omitted.

Conjugations[edit]

Fabra's
conjugation
Infinitive
ending
Type verb
I -ar cantar
II -re perdre
-er témer
-ur dur
-ir dir*
III sentir
*Dir, and verbs derived from it, are the only exceptions to the general rule that verbs whose infinitive ends in -ir belong to the third conjugation.

As with other Romance languages, Catalan shows an extensive and varied range of conjugations. One common desk-top guide lists 120 conjugation types, a number which is similar to languages such as French, Italian or Spanish. The description is made more complicated by the existence of alternative verb forms in many of the dialectical regions of Catalan, and occasionally within standard written Catalan itself.

The classical description of Catalan verb grammar (due to Pompeu Fabra) recognises three main conjugations, with cantar, perdre and sentir as the type verbs. More recent authorities have tended to increase the number of type verbs to five or six:

  • splitting the second conjugation between verbs whose infinitive ends in -re and those ending in -er;
  • splitting the third conjugation into verbs such as sentir which add -eix- to the stem in many cases, and the minority of verbs such as dormir which don't;
  • further splitting the third conjugation into verbs whose stem ends in a consonant (eg patir) and those whose stem ends in a vowel (eg trair).

The present description is based purely on the ending of the infinitive form. Fabra's classical conjugations can be found in the table opposite.

First conjugation: -ar[edit]

Type verb Other verbs Notes
cantar    
canviar evacuar, lloar, menysprear as for cantar except pr.subj. and imperative
esglaiar   as for cantar except pr.subj. and imperative
matar   as for cantar except p.p. (matat or mort)
donar   as for cantar except pr.ind.2,3 (dónes, dóna)
trencar all verbs in -car stem -c- changes to -qu- before e and i
començar all verbs in -çar stem -ç- changes to -c- before e and i
pregar all verbs in -gar stem -g- changes to -gu- before e and i
enaiguar all verbs in -guar except aguar stem -gu- changes to -- before e and i
envejar all verbs in -jar stem -j- changes to -g- before e and i
obliquar all verbs in -quar stem -qu- changes to -- before e and i
aguar    
anar    
dar   defective verb
estar    

Second conjugation: -re[edit]

Type verb Other verbs Notes
perdre    
admetre   as for perdre except p.p. (admès)
rebre apercebre, concebre, decebre, percebre as for perdre except pr.ind.2,3 (reps, rep)
cabre   as for perdre except for pr.ind., pr.subj., imperative
cerndre   as for perdre but with "cern" as the stem in all tenses except fut. and cond.
prendre fendre  
absoldre dissoldre, remoldre, resoldre, toldre as for prendre except p.p. (absolt)
aprendre defendre, dependre, despendre, ofendre, suspendre as for prendre except pr.ind.3 (aprèn), p.p. (après)
atendre distendre, entendre, estendre, pretendre as for prendre except pr.ind.3 (atén), p.p. (atès)
compondre correspondre, descompondre, despondre's, pondre, recompondre, respondre as for prendre except p.p. (compost)
doldre condoldre's as for prendre except p.p. (dolgut)
fondre   as for prendre except p.p. (fos)
confondre difondre, infondre, refondre, transfondre as for prendre except p.p. (confós)
enfondre   as for prendre except p.p. (enfús)
moldre   as for prendre except p.p. (mòlt)
romandre   as for prendre except p.p. (romàs)
vendre   as for prendre except p.p. (venut)
malvendre   as for vendre except pr.ind.3 (malvèn)
complaure displaure, plaure
cloure   as for complaure except p.p. (clos)
descloure encloure, incloure as for complaure except p.p. (desclòs)
coure   as for complaure except p.p. (cuit)
noure   as for complaure except p.p. (nogut)
jeure ajeure  
creure asseure, descreure, lleure, seure, sobraseure as for jeure but without the stem vowel change
treure bestreure, distreure, retreure as for jeure except p.p. (tret)
traure   as for treure except pr.ind., pr.sub., imper.
jaure   as for traure except p.p. (jagut)
beure deure, moure, ploure  
caure decaure, escaure, recaure  
escriure all verbs in -scriure  
heure    
riure    
veure entreveure, preveure, reveure  
viure conviure, malviure  
caldre   defective verb

Second conjugation: -er[edit]

Type verb Other verbs Notes
témer    
atènyer   as témer except p.p. (atès)
constrènyer   as témer except p.p. (constret)
aparèixer comparèixer, parèixer  
conèixer desconèixer, reconèixer as aparèixer except pr.ind.1 (conec)
córrer acórrer, concórrer, encórrer, escórrer  
créixer merèixer  
ésser    
fer    
desfer estrafer, refer as fer except impr.2, impf.subj.1,3
haver    
nàixer    
néixer péixer  
pertànyer    
poder    
saber    
valer equivaler, prevaler, soler  
vèncer    
voler    

Second conjugation: others[edit]

Type verb Other verbs Notes
dir desdir, predir  
contradir as for dir except imperative
dur    
endur    

Third conjugation: -ir[edit]

Type verb Other verbs Notes
servir argüir  
complir suplir as for servir except p.p. (complert)
cobrir sofrir as for servir except p.p. (cobert)
imprimir   as for servir except p.p. (imprès)
reduir agrair, posseir as for servir except unaccented -i- in endings takes diaresis after stem a-, e- or u-
oir    
dormir adormir, ajupir, arrupir-se, brumir, bullir, consentir, consumir, munyir, pressentir, punyir, sentir Arrupir-se, brumir and consumir can also be conjugated as servir
mentir   as for dormir or as for servir
morir   as for dormir except p.p. (mort)
cruixir   as for dormir except pr.ind.2 (cruixes)
fugir   as for dormir except pr.ind., imperative
pudir   as for dormir except pr.ind., imperative
obrir   as for dormir except pr.ind., imperative, p.p.
omplir   as for obrir except p.p. (omplert)
collir escopir, recollir, ressortir, sortir as for dormir except pr.ind., pr.subj., imperative
cosir   as for dormir except pr.ind., pr.subj., imperative
descosir   as for cosir except pr.ind.3 (descús)
pruir   as for dormir except unaccented -i- in endings takes diaresis after stem u-
lluir   as for pruir or as for reduir, depending on the meaning
eixir    
reeixir   as for eixir except pr.ind., pr.subj.
tenir    
obtenir derivatives of tenir as for tenir except imperative
venir    
intervenir   as for venir except pr.ind.2,3 and impr.2
prevenir   as for venir except pr.ind.2,3 and impr.2
revenir   as for venir except pr.ind., imperative

References[edit]