User:Visviva/Nature 20090115

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This is a list of lowercase non-hyphenated single words found in the 2009-01-15 issue of Nature which did not have English entries in the English Wiktionary when this list was created.

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80341 tokens ‧ 60330 valid lowercase tokens ‧ 7577 types ‧ 157 (~ 2.072%) words before cleaning ‧ 125 (~ 1.65%) accepted words

2009-01-15[edit]

  1. acanthodian
  2. acanthodians
  3. accutase
    • 2008 December 21, Allison D. Ebert, Junying Yu, Ferrill F. Rose, Virginia B. Mattis, Christian L. Lorson, James A. Thomson, Clive N. Svendsen, “Induced pluripotent stem cells from a spinal muscular atrophy patient”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07677: 
      To induce neuron and astrocyte differentiation, spheres were dissociated with accutase (Chemicon) and plated onto poly-ornithine/laminin (Sigma)-coated coverslips in Stemline/2% B27 without bFGF, EGF and heparin for 1 week.
      add - notemp
  4. allopolyploidy
  5. amphotericin
    • 2008 December 31, Michael Tri H. Do, Shin H. Kang, Tian Xue, Haining Zhong, Hsi-Wen Liao, Dwight E. Bergles, King-Wai Yau, “Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07682: 
      Patch-clamp recordings used a KCl-based pipette solution (pH 7.2; see Methods) supplemented with (in mM): 2 glutathione, 4 MgATP, and 0.3 Tris-GTP for whole-cell recordings or, alternatively, 125–250  M amphotericin B for perforated-patch recording.
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  6. antimere
  7. antinodal
  8. arthrodire
  9. autopalatine
  10. backcrossed
    • 2008 December 31, Michael Tri H. Do, Shin H. Kang, Tian Xue, Haining Zhong, Hsi-Wen Liao, Dwight E. Bergles, King-Wai Yau, “Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07682: 
      To label ipRGCs, a linearized mouse BAC 20 containing tdTomato was injected into B6SJL embryos, with transgenics backcrossed to C57BL/6J. Melanopsin immunostaining 3 confirmed specific expression. For recordings, mice ( P20–90) were dark-adapted overnight, anaesthetized, enucleated and killed. The retina was flat-mounted or dissociated ( Supplementary Information S1 ).
      add - notemp
  11. basicranial
  12. basicranium
  13. basipterygoid
  14. basisphenoid
  15. bioconductor
  16. bistability
    • 2008 December 31, Michael Tri H. Do, Shin H. Kang, Tian Xue, Haining Zhong, Hsi-Wen Liao, Dwight E. Bergles, King-Wai Yau, “Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07682: 
      Defining the single-photon-response kinetics is particularly important given the supposed bistability of melanopsin 9, 11, 12, 17, 18, 19 , whereby photon absorption by active melanopsin can revert it to the inactive state.
      add - notemp
  17. bodyweight
    • 2008 November 12, Sonja B. Hofer, Thomas D. Mrsic-Flogel, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Mark H, “Experience leaves a lasting structural trace in cortical circuits”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07487: 
      C57BL/6 mice (postnatal day 45–100) expressing enhanced GFP under the Thy-1 promoter in a small subset of cortical neurons (line GFP-M 18 ) were anaesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (0.14 mg per gram of bodyweight) and xylazine (0.01 mg per gram of bodyweight).
      add - notemp
  18. collagenase
    • 2008 December 21, Allison D. Ebert, Junying Yu, Ferrill F. Rose, Virginia B. Mattis, Christian L. Lorson, James A. Thomson, Clive N. Svendsen, “Induced pluripotent stem cells from a spinal muscular atrophy patient”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07677: 
      iPS spheres were generated by lifting intact iPS colonies from the feeder layers after collagenase treatment (1 mg ml -1 , Gibco) and placing them directly into a human neural progenitor growth medium ( Stemline , Sigma) supplemented with 2% B27 (Gibco), 100 ng ml -1 basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, Chemicon), 100 ng ml -1 epidermal growth factor ( EGF , Chemicon), and 5  g ml -1 heparin (Sigma) in polyhema-coated flasks to prevent attachment and were passaged weekly using a chopping technique 24 .
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  19. concorsi
    • 2009 January 16, Nature: 
      The existing concorsi system is similar, but it allowed universities to have more control over selection — a privilege that was sometimes abused to make appointments based on local politics rather than on merit.
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  20. decoloured
  21. deletor
  22. deoxynucleoside
    • 2008 November 23, Samir M. Hamdan, Joseph J. Loparo, Masateru Takahashi, Charles C. Richardson, Antoine M. van Oijen, “Dynamics of DNA replication loops reveal temporal control of lagging-strand synthesis”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07512: 
      Figure 1c shows the length of an individual DNA molecule as a function of time in the flow of a buffer containing purified gp4, T7 DNA polymerase, gp2.5, Mg 2+ , four deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates and the ribonucleotides adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and cytidine triphosphate (CTP) required for primase activity 13 .
      add - notemp
  23. digoxigenin
  24. dimethylation
  25. diphenylprolinol
  26. diribonucleotide
  27. dissipative
  28. dopings
  29. dorsoventrally
  30. dura
  31. eclose
  32. electroantennogram
    • 2009 January 14, Tristram D. Wyatt, “Fifty years of pheromones”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/457262a: 
      Schneider's solution was the electroantennogram, still used today: wires inserted into both ends of a moth antenna are used to measure electrical signals as different extracts are presented.
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  33. electrophysiologically
    • 2008 December 31, Michael Tri H. Do, Shin H. Kang, Tian Xue, Haining Zhong, Hsi-Wen Liao, Dwight E. Bergles, King-Wai Yau, “Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07682: 
      The pigment content is difficult to measure biochemically or spectroscopically 16 because ipRGCs are sparse ( 700 per mouse retina 3 ), but it can be evaluated electrophysiologically if the response to a single absorbed photon is measurable.
      add - notemp
  34. endocranial
  35. endoskeletal
  36. endoskeletons
  37. ethmosphenoid
  38. ethnoecologist
    • 2009 January 16, Nature: 
      "Xishuangbanna will be pushed over the edge if no immediate action is taken to prevent further forest destruction," says Xu Jianchu, an ethnoecologist at the Kunming Institute of Botany and China's representative at the World Agroforestry Centre, an international think tank headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya.
      add - notemp
  39. exocranial
  40. fieldmaps
    • 2009 January 16, Nature: 
      From experience working in an fMRI lab - there are students and faculty who are very knowledgeable and have a really strong grasp of their methodology, from both the data acquisition end [experimental design (hybrid, ER, etc.), pulse sequencing, explain their use of certain image imaging parameters (slice thickness, etc.)] to the data analysis [can explain what each data manipulation is doing to the data (things like 3dDeconvolve, unwarping, fieldmaps, motion correction, etc.)].
      add - notemp
  41. fmoles
  42. fortecortin
  43. glossopharyngeal
    • 2009 January 14, “50 & 100 years ago”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/457273b: 
      In 1949 it was found that water applied to the tongue of the frog elicited an electrical response from the glossopharyngeal nerve.
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  44. gnathostome
  45. grantmaking
    • 2009 January 16, Nature: 
      One such example is Joseph Cirincione, president of the Ploughshares Fund, a grantmaking facility in San Francisco, California, that supports projects to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons.
      add - notemp
  46. haile
    • 2009 January 14, Tristram D. Wyatt, “Fifty years of pheromones”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/457262a: 
      Charles Butler had warned in The Feminine Monarchie (1609) that if you are stung by one honeybee, "other Bees smelling the ranke favour of the poison cast out with the sting will come about you as thick as haile".
      add - notemp
  47. hepcidin
    • 2008 November 26, Masako Kohyama, Wataru Ise, Brian T. Edelson, Peter R. Wilker, Kai Hildner, Carlo Mejia, William A. Frazier, Theresa L. Murphy, Kenneth M. Murphy, “Role for Spi-C in the development of red pulp macrophages and splenic iron homeostasis”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07472: 
      The known genetic defects of iron metabolism 14, 25, 26 frequently involve proteins that function as iron transporters/exporters (for example, ferroportin 18 ), as receptors for iron-binding proteins (for example, transferrin receptor 27 and hemochtomatosis 28 ), or to regulate the activity of these transporters or receptors (for example, hepcidin 29 ).
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  48. holo
    • 2008 October 22, Georgiy A. Belogurov, Marina N. Vassylyeva, Anastasiya Sevostyanova, James R. Appleman, Alan X. Xiang, Ricardo Lira, Stephen E. Webber, Sergiy Klyuyev, Evgeny Nudler, Irina Artsimovitch, Dmitry G. Vassylyev, “Transcription inactivation through local refolding of the RNA polymerase structure”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07510: 
      For steady-state abortive initiation assays, holo RNAP (20 nM) in 16  l of 20 mM Tris-acetate, 20 mM sodium acetate, 2 mM magnesium acetate, 5% glycerol, 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT), 0.1 mM EDTA, pH 7.9, 1  M 70 , were supplemented with desired concentration of dMyx (2  l) and incubated for 15 min at 37 °C
      add - notemp
  49. immunoprecipitated
  50. immunostainings
  51. ingroup
  52. interorbital
  53. intracortical
    • 2008 November 12, Sonja B. Hofer, Thomas D. Mrsic-Flogel, Tobias Bonhoeffer, Mark H, “Experience leaves a lasting structural trace in cortical circuits”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07487: 
      Overall, our experiments not only show that the rearrangement of intracortical connections by way of dendritic spines is one mechanism contributing to experience-dependent plasticity, but also that these spines embody the history of previous adaptations by cortical circuits.
      add - notemp
  54. lamins
    • 2009 January 14, “Cell biology: Lost nuclei”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/457239b: 
      The disease, called autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (AD-EDMD), and others like it are puzzling because the mutant proteins — in this case lamins A and C — are expressed throughout the body, not just in affected tissues.
      add - notemp
  55. linearization
  56. lipocalin
    • 2009 January 14, Tristram D. Wyatt, “Fifty years of pheromones”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/457262a: 
      Some mammals, including elephants and mice, present their small-molecule pheromones in the cleft of highly variable urinary (or other lipocalin) proteins.
      add - notemp
  57. medetomidine
  58. microcavities
  59. midazolam
  60. mineralizations
  61. monophyly
  62. multidevice
  63. multimerization
    • 2009 January 14, Jeff Gore, Alexander van Oudenaarden, “Synthetic biologyThe yin and yang of nature”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/457271a: 
      This oscillator design was based on a previously published theoretical study 5 , although the authors 2 found it necessary to explicitly model intermediate steps such as multimerization, translation and protein folding.
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  64. mutationally
    • 2008 October 22, Georgiy A. Belogurov, Marina N. Vassylyeva, Anastasiya Sevostyanova, James R. Appleman, Alan X. Xiang, Ricardo Lira, Stephen E. Webber, Sergiy Klyuyev, Evgeny Nudler, Irina Artsimovitch, Dmitry G. Vassylyev, “Transcription inactivation through local refolding of the RNA polymerase structure”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07510: 
      Core wild-type and mutationally altered RNAPs were purified as described previously 18 except that the ionic strength was maintained at or above 0.2 M at all chromatographic steps.
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  65. nestin
    • 2008 December 21, Allison D. Ebert, Junying Yu, Ferrill F. Rose, Virginia B. Mattis, Christian L. Lorson, James A. Thomson, Clive N. Svendsen, “Induced pluripotent stem cells from a spinal muscular atrophy patient”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07677: 
      Neural induction was modified from previously published methods 26 , and immunological analyses were performed using standard protocols for nestin (Chemicon, 1:10,000), Tuj1 (Sigma, 1:5,000), GFAP (Dako, 1:1,000), OLIG2 (Santa Cruz, 1:1,000), HB9 (Hybrodoma bank, 1:100), ISLET1 (Hybrodoma bank, 1:100), ChAT (Chemicon, 1:250), SMI-32 (Covance, 1:500), SMN (4B7 (ref.
      add - notemp
  66. neurocranial
  67. neurocranium
  68. notochordal
  69. olivary
  70. outgroup
  71. overdoped
  72. palatoquadrate
  73. parachordal
  74. parachordals
  75. paraphylum
  76. plasmas
  77. platybasic
  78. polaronic
  79. positionally
    • 2009 January 15, Martin D. Brazeau, “The braincase and jaws of a Devonian ‘acanthodian’ and modern gnathostome origins”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07436: 
      Nevertheless, this foramen corresponds positionally to the opening for the palatine ramus of the facial nerve (N. VII) in many early gnathostomes 6, 9 . Near the ventral midline of the basicranium is a pair of anteroposteriorly elongate depressions that match the position of the pituitary vein foramina in certain arthrodires. Confirmation of the identity of these structures will have to await the discovery of more complete material.
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  80. posterolaterally
  81. postorbital
  82. prechordal
  83. prefactors
  84. pretectal
  85. pristinamycin
  86. proteinurea
  87. protochlorophyllide
  88. protochordate
  89. proventriculus
    • 2008 October 29, Helen Weavers, Silvia Prieto-S, “The insect nephrocyte is a podocyte-like cell with a filtration slit diaphragm”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07526: 
      Garland nephrocytes (including a small portion of oesophagus and the proventriculus) were dissected from third instar larvae in Shields and Sang medium (Sigma), and were then transferred to media containing AlexaFluor568-dextran (10,000 Da) and fluorescein-dextran (500,000 Da; Molecular Probes) at a concentration of 0.33 mg ml -1 , and incubated at 25 °C for 5 min.
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  90. pseudobranchial
  91. quantised
  92. ranke
    • 2009 January 14, Tristram D. Wyatt, “Fifty years of pheromones”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/457262a: 
      Charles Butler had warned in The Feminine Monarchie (1609) that if you are stung by one honeybee, "other Bees smelling the ranke favour of the poison cast out with the sting will come about you as thick as haile".
      add - notemp
  93. renminbi
    • 2009 January 16, Nature: 
      Farmers in Xishuangbanna can earn a net income of 15,000 renminbi (US$2,200) per hectare for rubber a year, compared with 2,000–3,000 renminbi for rice or tea.
      add - notemp
  94. replisomes
  95. repressilator
  96. resampling
  97. resynthesized
  98. semiquantitative
  99. sniffable
  100. stomatin
  101. streamflow
    • 2009 January 16, Nature: 
      As a result, streamflow has dropped and wells have dried up in many villages in Xishuangbanna.
      add - notemp
  102. sublinear
  103. sublinearity
  104. superclusters
    • 2009 January 14, Saul A. Teukolsky, Ira Wasserman, “ObituaryEdwin Salpeter (1924–2008)”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/457275a: 
      In the 1970s and 1980s, Salpeter turned towards still-larger scales of galaxies and the Universe, writing crucial papers on dark matter, on the rotational velocities of galaxies, and on the development of galaxy clusters and superclusters.
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  105. symmetrization
  106. synapomorphies
  107. synapsin
    • 2008 December 21, Allison D. Ebert, Junying Yu, Ferrill F. Rose, Virginia B. Mattis, Christian L. Lorson, James A. Thomson, Clive N. Svendsen, “Induced pluripotent stem cells from a spinal muscular atrophy patient”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07677: 
      Although synapses were not observed after 6 weeks of differentiation, by 8 weeks synapses were identified by punctate synapsin staining on iPS-WT SMI-32-positive motor neurons and non-motor neurons ( Fig. 3i and Supplementary Fig. 6 ), suggesting that pre-synaptic maturation of the neurons was occurring in this system.
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  108. taphonomic
  109. tetraribonucleotide
  110. tobramycin
  111. transactivator
    • 2009 January 15, Marcel Tigges, Tatiana T. Marquez-Lago, J, “A tunable synthetic mammalian oscillator”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07616: 
      Antisense transcription of tTA is driven by the pristinamycin-responsive promoter (P PIR ; P hCMV*-1 tTA P PIR ; pMT35) and triggered by the pristinamycin-dependent transactivator (PIT) 17 , whose expression is induced by P hCMV*-1 and thus feedback controlled by tTA (P hCMV*-1 PIT; pMT36).
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  112. treelength
  113. unanaesthetized
    • 2008 December 31, Michael Tri H. Do, Shin H. Kang, Tian Xue, Haining Zhong, Hsi-Wen Liao, Dwight E. Bergles, King-Wai Yau, “Photon capture and signalling by melanopsin retinal ganglion cells”, Nature, volume 457, number 7227, DOI:10.1038/nature07682: 
      Consensual pupillary light reflex measurements followed previous work 14 , with one eye of the unanaesthetized mouse videoed under infrared and the other stimulated by Ganzfeld light ( Supplementary Information S1 ).
      add - notemp
  114. underdoped
  115. underdoping
  116. univariance
  117. unmineralized
  118. unobservable
  119. unpreserved
  120. unsupplemented
  121. unwarping
    • 2009 January 16, Nature: 
      From experience working in an fMRI lab - there are students and faculty who are very knowledgeable and have a really strong grasp of their methodology, from both the data acquisition end [experimental design (hybrid, ER, etc.), pulse sequencing, explain their use of certain image imaging parameters (slice thickness, etc.)] to the data analysis [can explain what each data manipulation is doing to the data (things like 3dDeconvolve, unwarping, fieldmaps, motion correction, etc.)].
      add - notemp
  122. utilizable
    • 2009 January 16, Nature: 
      It is known beyond doubt the Pakistan has no known utilizable Uranium ore in her territory.
      add - notemp
  123. valproic
  124. zonula

Sequestered[edit]

  1. vectashield: trademark, not in everyday use