User:Visviva/Nature 20090129

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This is a list of lowercase non-hyphenated single words found in the 2009-01-29 issue of Nature which did not have English entries in the English Wiktionary when this list was created.

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87729 tokens ‧ 55313 valid lowercase tokens ‧ 7120 types ‧ 187 (~ 2.626%) words before cleaning ‧ 

2009-01-29[edit]

  1. aeroallergy
  2. agronomically
    • 2009 January 28, Baltazar A. Antonio Takuji Sasaki, “Plant genomicsSorghum in sequence”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457547a, pages 547-548: 
      In general, standard genome-sequence information is used for identifying variations in gene sequence that are useful for cloning and marker-assisted selection, both of which are now commonly incorporated in many breeding programmes involving agronomically important traits.
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  3. allografted
  4. anammox
  5. antiendotoxic
  6. arundinoid
  7. autoanalyser
  8. biosimilar
    • 2009 January 28, Nathan Blow, “GlycobiologyA spoonful of sugar”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457617a, pages 617-620: 
      Because many different glycoforms can exist, an extensive knowledge of glycosylation patterns and how they change during drug manufacturing is important for he development of biosimilar drugs, says Ilana Belzer, Procognia's vice-president of research and development.
      add - notemp
  9. bronchioalveolar
  10. bronchoalveolar
  11. chemolithoautotroph
  12. chemolithotrophic
    • 2008 December 10, Gaute Lavik et al., “Detoxification of sulphidic African shelf waters by blooming chemolithotrophs”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07588, pages 581-584: 
      Hence, 1 mol nitrate was consumed per 2.3 mol sulphide, which is very close to the 1:2.5 stoichiometry for chemolithotrophic oxidation of sulphide with nitrate according to the following equation: The detection of elemental sulphur (S 0 ) at a concentration of 22  M and a water depth of 87 m ( Fig. 2b ) in the centre of the nitrate and sulphide mixing zone is evidence for this reaction pathway.
      add - notemp
  13. chemolithotrophs
  14. chlorinations
  15. chlorines
    • 2009 January 28, Christopher D. Vanderwal D. Karl Bedke, “Organic chemistryChlorine lends a helping hand”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457548a, pages 548-549: 
      The authors introduced all of the polar atoms — the chlorines and the oxygen of the sulphate — into the polychlorinated region of the molecule by adding them to carbon–carbon double bonds (C=C bonds).
      add - notemp
  16. chlorosulfolipids
  17. chlorosulpholipid
  18. chromatographically
  19. clonally
    • 2009 January 11, Joseph C. Sun et al., “Adaptive immune features of natural killer cells”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07665, pages 557-561: 
      Top of page Conclusion Because the innate immune system is considered to be evolutionarily older than the adaptive immune system, NK cells bearing receptors that recognize major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and MHC-like molecules may have arisen as a predecessor to T cells, which express clonally selected receptors for the recognition of a limitless antigen repertoire in the context of MHC. Alternatively, NK cells may have co-evolved with T cells.
      add - notemp
  20. coccoidal
  21. connectome
    • 2009, Nature, pages 524-527: 
      In recent years, he has become a leading proponent of a new field that is working to create a connectome, a complete map of neural wiring in the mammalian brain.
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  22. crossreactive
    • 2009 January 28, Eric Vivier Sophie Ugolini, “ImmunologyNatural killer cells remember”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457544a, pages 544-545: 
      By contrast, memory T and B cells show a strong response only to the specific antigen that initially triggered their expansion, or possibly to another antigen recognized by the same receptor — a crossreactive antigen 8 .
      add - notemp
  23. cryomicroscopic
  24. cytotoxins
  25. deconvolute
    • 2009 January 28, Nathan Blow, “GlycobiologyA spoonful of sugar”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457617a, pages 617-620: 
      With additional isolation and fragmentation using either matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization or electrospray ionization followed by tandem MS (MS/MS), researchers can deconvolute the configuration of sugars, a process very similar to protein sequencing.
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  26. defluorinated
    • 2009 January 21, Sue Gibson, “Journal club”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457515e, page 515: 
      This generates a mixture of the desired defluorinated radiotracer and undesired fluorine-rich molecules.
      add - notemp
  27. deoxycholate
    • 2008 December 10, Catherine D. Van Raamsdonk et al., “Frequent somatic mutations of GNAQ in uveal melanoma and blue naevi”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07586, pages 599-602: 
      Western blot analysis Cells were washed twice with ice-cold PBS and lysed in 50 m M Tris–HCl pH 7.8, 1% NP-40, 10% glycerol, 150 m M NaCl, 1% sodium deoxycholate, 1% sodium dodecyl sulphate, supplemented with protease inhibitor, phosphatase inhibitor and EDTA (Pierce Biotechnologies).
      add - notemp
  28. dermomyotome
  29. desilylation
  30. diacetoxyiodo
  31. diarrheagenic
  32. diarrhoeagenic
  33. dichlorination
    • 2009 January 28, Christopher D. Vanderwal D. Karl Bedke, “Organic chemistryChlorine lends a helping hand”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457548a, pages 548-549: 
      Specifically, they used two alkene dichlorination reactions (in which a chlorine atom is attached to each of the two carbons of the C=C bond) and an epoxide formation/ring-opening sequence (in which an 'epoxide' intermediate is attacked by a chloride ion, yielding a product in which an oxygen is attached to one of the carbons of the C=C bond, and a chlorine atom is attached to the other; Fig. 1a ).
      add - notemp
  34. digestions
    • 2009 January 28, Nathan Blow, “GlycobiologyA spoonful of sugar”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457617a, pages 617-620: 
      Using this information, a series of exoglycosidase digestions is performed and those data are fed back into the computer program to assign final structures.
      add - notemp
  35. dihydrochloride
  36. dihydroxylation
  37. diisobutylaluminium
  38. dikinase
  39. diploidization
  40. disincentives
    • 2009 January 28, Scott Kim et al., “Pruning the regulatory tree”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457534a, pages 534-535: 
      A report 8 by an interdisciplinary study group notes that the current system has "generated disincentives to engage in quality improvement" and produces "inconsistent decisions, increases costs, retards improvement, and undermines respect for research review".
      add - notemp
  41. disruptants
    • 2008 December 14, Takashi Hishida et al., “RAD6”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07580, pages 612-615: 
      Top of page Online Methods Strains BY4741 and its derivatives (KanMX disruptants), rad6 , rad18 , rad5 , rev1 , rad30 , rev3 , rad52 , rad14 , rad9 , chk1 , mrc1 and tel1 , were obtained from Invitrogen.
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  42. dissimilatory
    • '2008 December 10, Gaute Lavik et al., “Detoxification of sulphidic African shelf waters by blooming chemolithotrophs”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07588, pages 581-584: 
      In accordance with the findings from 16S rRNA phylogeny, we also identified gene sequences encoding the alpha subunits of two enzymes in the sulphur oxidation pathway, the dissimilatory adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate reductase (AprBA) and the reverse dissimilatory sulphite reductase (rDsrAB) most closely related to Candidatus Ruthia magnifica' ( Supplementary Fig. 4 ).
      add - notemp
  43. docosane
  44. domestications
    • 2009 January 29, Andrew H. Paterson et al., “The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07723, pages 551-556: 
      Of particular interest will be the identification of alleles selected during the earliest stages of sorghum cultivation, which are valuable towards testing the hypothesis that convergent mutations in corresponding genes contributed to independent domestications of divergent cereals 46 .
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  45. dorsoventral
  46. drillship
    • 2009 January 28, “Geoscience: Tell-tale ooze”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457515d, page 515: 
      The idea had been discounted, but the team obtained new data from trace elements locked in ice-age ooze, collected from the ocean bottom by a drillship.
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  47. enactive
    • 2009 January 28, Melvyn Goodale, “Thinking outside the box”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457539a, page 539: 
      He acknowledges that the "intimacy of brain, body, world, and action" must have implications for our perceptual experience, but ultimately rejects the idea of enactive perception championed by philosopher Alva Noë, in which our experience is seen as nothing more than the sensorimotor routines that we use to interact with the world.
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  48. enterocytes
  49. enteroendocrine
  50. enteropathogenic
  51. enterotoxins
  52. ependymoma
  53. epithelioid
  54. epoxyalcohol
  55. eritoran
  56. ethnobotanical
  57. exetainers
    • 2008 December 10, Gaute Lavik et al., “Detoxification of sulphidic African shelf waters by blooming chemolithotrophs”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07588, pages 581-584: 
      15 N-nitrate (final concentration, 20  M) was injected through the rubber stoppers, which were used to close the glass outlets of the bags, and 15-ml aliquots of water were extracted from each bag with a gas-tight syringe at each time point (after 0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h) and transferred to gas-tight exetainers containing 100  l saturated mercuric chloride.
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  58. exoglycosidase
    • 2009 January 28, Nathan Blow, “GlycobiologyA spoonful of sugar”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457617a, pages 617-620: 
      Using this information, a series of exoglycosidase digestions is performed and those data are fed back into the computer program to assign final structures.
      add - notemp
  59. exoprotein
  60. flagellins
  61. fluorous
    • 2009 January 21, Sue Gibson, “Journal club”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457515e, page 515: 
      A new approach to this problem has been reported that exploits fluorous solid-phase extraction, a technique that separates molecules on the basis of their fluorine content (R. Bejot et al.
      add - notemp
  62. germless
  63. glucuronoarabinoxylans
  64. gluteraldhyde
    • 2008 December 17, Liqin Zhu et al., “Prominin 1 marks intestinal stem cells that are susceptible to neoplastic transformation”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07589, pages 603-607: 
      -galactosidase staining To prepare sections of all organs except the retina, mice were perfused and fixed with 2% paraformaldehyde (PFA) overnight at 4 °C, cryo-protected in 20% sucrose overnight at 4 °C and frozen in OCT. Frozen sections were washed in PBS for 5 min and incubated in the dark in standard -gal substrate (5 mM potassium ferricyanide, 5 mM potassium ferrocyanide, 1 mg ml -1 X-gal, 2 mM MgCl 2 , 0.01% sodium deoxycholate, 0.02% NP-40 in PBS) overnight at 37 °C. To stain the retina, mouse eyes were removed and immersed immediately in cold PBS. The retina was isolated from the eyes and fixed at room temperature in 0.5% gluteraldhyde/PBS for 10 min, washed briefly and incubated in the rinse buffer (2 mM MgCl 2 , 0.01% sodium deoxycholate, 0.02% NP-40 in PBS) for 30 min.
      add - notemp
  65. glycobiologist
    • 2009 January 28, Nathan Blow, “GlycobiologyA spoonful of sugar”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457617a, pages 617-620: 
      MS is very good at defining the sugar profiles of cell surfaces," says James Paulson, a glycobiologist at the Scripps Research Institute who studies glycan binding proteins that mediate cellular communication in the immune system.
      add - notemp
  66. haemolysate
    • 2009 January 28, “50 & 100 years ago”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457546b, page 546: 
      By using the column chromatographic procedure described by Huisman and Prins, with some minor modifications, we were able to separate the three distinct fractions from the haemolysate of a four month old embryo ...
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  67. haloacid
  68. histomorphological
  69. hydrodynamical
  70. hydrophones
  71. immunocompromized
  72. immunogold
  73. immunolocalization
  74. immunostain
  75. inbreds
  76. intergenomic
  77. intragenomic
  78. intranasally
  79. intraperitonally
    • 2009 January 11, Joseph C. Sun et al., “Adaptive immune features of natural killer cells”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07665, pages 557-561: 
      Newborn mice were infected with 2   10 3 p.f.u. of MCMV. NK-cell enrichment and adoptive transfer NK cells were isolated with an NK-cell Isolation Kit (Miltenyi Biotec) and injected intravenously into adult recipients or intraperitonally into neonatal recipients one day before viral infection.
      add - notemp
  80. johnsongrass
  81. kafirin
  82. knockin
  83. lipofectamine
    • 2008 December 10, Catherine D. Van Raamsdonk et al., “Frequent somatic mutations of GNAQ in uveal melanoma and blue naevi”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07586, pages 599-602: 
      Two different pools, each comprised of four siRNA duplexes (pool 1, 5'-CAAUAAGGCUCAUGCACAAUU-3', 5'-CGACGAGAAUAUCAAUUAUUU-3', 5'-GCAAGAGUACGUUUAUCAAUU-3', 5'-UAGUAGCGCUUAGUGAAUAUU-3'; pool 2, 5'-AUGCACAAUUAGUUCGAGAUU-3', 5'-UAUGAUAGACGACGAGAAUUU-3', 5'-CAGACAAUGAGAACCGAAUUU-3', 5'-CGCCACAGACACCGAGAAUUU-3') against GNAQ and ON-TARGETplus controls (all Dharmacon), were transfected in lipofectamine RNAiMax (1  l pmol -1 siRNA) at 100 nM. siRNA complexes were formed in Optimem.
      add - notemp
  84. lithogenic
    • 2009 January 29, Raymond T. Pollard et al., “Southern Ocean deep-water carbon export enhanced by natural iron fertilization”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07716, pages 577-580: 
      It is possible that iron supply was higher to the KEOPS bloom before the late-summer observation period on which the seasonal iron supply was based, owing either to enhanced vertical supply before surface-water stratification in spring, coupled with luxury iron uptake 27 (that is, more than is absolutely necessary), or to horizontal input of lithogenic material from nearby islands 28, 29 .
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  85. malhamensilipin
  86. mediolateral
  87. melanocytosis
  88. methylsulphate
    • 2009 January 11, Joseph C. Sun et al., “Adaptive immune features of natural killer cells”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07665, pages 557-561: 
      Ex vivo stimulation of NK cells Tissue culture plates treated with N-(1-(2,3-dioleoyloxyl)propyl)-N,N,N-trimethylammonium methylsulphate (Sigma) were coated with anti-NK1.1 or anti-Ly49H (provided by W. Yokoyama) and cells were incubated for 5 h at 37 °C in the presence of Golgiplug (BD Pharmingen), followed by staining for intracellular cytokines.
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  89. microadenomas
  90. microalgae
  91. microdissected
  92. microsynteny
  93. misannotations
  94. monoubiquitination
    • 2008 December 14, Takashi Hishida et al., “RAD6”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07580, pages 612-615: 
      The first, translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), requires Rad18-dependent monoubiquitination of Lys 164 of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and involves error-prone DNA polymerases 14, 15 .
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  95. mucosae
  96. multimerization
  97. multipolar
  98. multiwell
  99. myotome
  100. naevi
  101. naphthoflavone
  102. nestin
    • 2008 December 17, Liqin Zhu et al., “Prominin 1 marks intestinal stem cells that are susceptible to neoplastic transformation”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07589, pages 603-607: 
      -galactosidase staining (left column), Prom1 protein (middle column, immunofluorescence) and markers (right column) of neural stem and progenitor cells (nestin), Clara cells (Clara cell specific protein (CCSP)), pancreatic ductal cells (Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA)–fluorescein), proximal renal tubular endothelial cells (Lotus tetragonolobus lectin (LTL)–fluorescein) and photoreceptors (rhodopsin) are shown.
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  103. neuroenhancers
  104. nevi
  105. noncutaneous
  106. nonhomologies
  107. olefination
  108. palaeoanthropological
    • 2009 January 28, Xu Xing, “Old bones unearth a new passion”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457538a, pages 538-539: 
      P. GOETGHELUCK/SPL The connections between palaeoanthropological discoveries, the public understanding of science in twentieth-century China, and broader issues of cultural transformation and national identity are the main themes of The People's Peking Man, a highly original book by US historian Sigrid Schmalzer.
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  109. palaeopolyploidization
  110. pancreatin
  111. paneth
  112. paraxis
  113. pentadecane
  114. perenniality
    • 2009 January 29, Andrew H. Paterson et al., “The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07723, pages 551-556: 
      Genetic variation in the partitioning of carbon into sugar stores versus cell wall mass, and in perenniality and associated features such as tillering and stalk reserve retention 2 , make sorghum an attractive system for the study of traits important in perennial cellulosic biomass crops.
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  115. perruthenate
  116. pharmacotherapies
  117. phosphotungstic
  118. picomolar
  119. pili
  120. polycistronic
  121. polyploidization
    • 2009 January 28, Baltazar A. Antonio Takuji Sasaki, “Plant genomicsSorghum in sequence”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457547a, pages 547-548: 
      The genomes of many extant plants, grasses included, arose through wholesale genome duplications, a phenomenon known as polyploidization.
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  122. preinitiation
    • 2008 December 14, Takashi Hishida et al., “RAD6”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07580, pages 612-615: 
      Zou, L. & Stillman, B. Formation of a preinitiation complex by S-phase cyclin CDK-dependent loading of Cdc45p onto chromatin .
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  123. probilivator
  124. prominin
  125. pronase
    • 2008 December 14, Takashi Hishida et al., “RAD6”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07580, pages 612-615: 
      Media and growth conditions Cells were grown in YPD media containing 0.01% adenine sulphate (YPAD) at 30 °C. To synchronize cells in G1, 10  g ml -1 -factor (Sigma) was added to cells in mid-log phase ( 5   10 6  cells ml -1 ), followed by incubation for 2.5 h at 30 °C. The cells were then washed with water and released into fresh media containing 100  g ml -1 pronase (Sigma).
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  126. propidium
  127. proson
    • 2009 January 28, Victor Thijssen, “One less concern”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457628a, page 628: 
      On that day, the ring was presented to him as a memento of his discovery of the probability particle, or proson.
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  128. protofilament
  129. proximally
  130. quasielectrons
    • 2009 January 28, Jan Zaanen, “Condensed-matter physicsThe pnictide code”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457546a, pages 546-547: 
      According to BCS theory, at very low temperatures the exchange of phonons (atomic lattice vibrations in the metal) leads to a weak attractive interaction between the quasielectrons, causing these to bind in Cooper pairs, which condense into a superconducting state.
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  131. recombinationally
  132. recombineering
  133. remineralization
  134. reputational
  135. rhynchocephalian
    • 2009 January 28, “Biogeography: On jaws and geography”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457514c, page 514: 
      Marc Jones of University College London and his colleagues identified fossil jaw bones and teeth (pictured) of a rhynchocephalian reptile, a relative of the extant New Zealand tuatara.
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  136. scramblings
  137. selfing
  138. serotyping
  139. solvolytic
  140. somitic
  141. spacebased
  142. spectroradiometer
  143. spheroplasted
    • 2008 December 14, Takashi Hishida et al., “RAD6”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07580, pages 612-615: 
      After spheroplasted cells were lysed by the addition of Triton X-100 to final a concentration of 1%, lysates were overlaid onto a 30% sucrose cushion and the chromatin-enriched fraction was isolated by high-speed centrifugation.
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  144. subantarctic
  145. subepithelium
  146. suboxic
  147. subventricular
  148. superconductiviy
    • 2009 January 29, V. B. Zabolotnyy et al., “(”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07714, pages 569-572: 
      Coexistence of the spin-density-wave and superconductiviy in the Ba 1-x K x Fe 2 As 2 .
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  149. superconducts
  150. superfused
  151. tetracosane
  152. tetramethylbenzidine
  153. translesion
    • 2008 December 14, Takashi Hishida et al., “RAD6”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07580, pages 612-615: 
      The first, translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), requires Rad18-dependent monoubiquitination of Lys 164 of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and involves error-prone DNA polymerases 14, 15 .
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  154. transprimers
  155. triflic
  156. trifluoroacetic
  157. trypsinized
  158. underdoped
  159. undoped
    • 2009 January 28, Jan Zaanen, “Condensed-matter physicsThe pnictide code”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/457546a, pages 546-547: 
      The electrons are subject to perpetual quantum motions, but can hinder each other's motions to such an extent that the electron 'traffic' jams completely, causing undoped cuprates to become insulating.
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  160. unilluminated
  161. unmanipulated
  162. uveal
  163. wavevectors
    • 2009 January 29, V. B. Zabolotnyy et al., “(”, Nature, volume 457, number 7229, DOI:10.1038/nature07714, pages 569-572: 
      If these excitations correspond to a fluctuating stripe-like order, the propeller structure could result from a superposition of two pairs of blades originating from folding associated with ( ,  ) and ( , - ) wavevectors.
      add - notemp
  164. zeins
  165. zonation

Sequestered[edit]