User:Visviva/Nature 20090212

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This is a list of lowercase non-hyphenated single words found in the 2009-02-12 issue of Nature which did not have English entries in the English Wiktionary when this list was created.

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129216 tokens ‧ 83022 valid lowercase tokens ‧ 8476 types ‧ 237 (~ 2.796%) words before cleaning ‧ 

2009-02-12[edit]

  1. adenosylcobalamin
    • 2008 December 21, Partho Sarothi Ray et al., “A stress-responsive RNA switch regulates VEGFA expression”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07598, pages 915-919: 
      The switch comprises a single domain that alternates between two conformers in response to mutually exclusive binding of ligands, thereby functioning as an uncommon 'AND NOT' Boolean logic gate (Fig. 4f ) distinct from the S-adenosyl methionine and adenosylcobalamin riboswitches in Bacillus clausii metE mRNA, which bind their cognate ligands independently to form a NOR logic gate 28 .
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  2. aggressivity
  3. agroecological
    • 2009 February 11, Dorian Q. Fuller Michael D. Purugganan, “The nature of selection during plant domestication”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07895, pages 843-848: 
      Several of these adaptations may proceed from unconscious selective pressures that act in the same way as natural selection in the wild, albeit under the imposed agroecological environments of the cultivated field 13, 17, 18 .
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  4. akiapolaau
    • 2009 February 11, Robert E. Ricklefs Jonathan B. Losos, “Adaptation and diversification on islands”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07893, pages 830-836: 
      These include the Malagasy aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a lemur that uses its elongated finger to probe holes in wood; the tool-using woodpecker finch of the Galapagos (Camarhynchus pallidus), which probes holes with a cactus spine; the New Zealand huia (Heteralocha acutirostris), sadly now extinct, for which the short-billed male chiselled into wood to capture insects, and the female (which had a narrower but longer curved bill) reached into crevices inaccessible to the male to extract prey, essentially dividing between the sexes the two functions served by the woodpecker's stout bill and long, extensible tongue; and the Hawaiian akiapolaau (Hemignathus munroi), which excavates holes with its short lower mandible and then extracts prey with its long and decurved upper mandible.
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  5. alignable
  6. amorphization
    • 2009 January 28, Artem R. Oganov et al., “Ionic high-pressure form of elemental boron”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07736, pages 863-867: 
      In experiments, the room-temperature compression of -B 106 showed metastable amorphization 11 at 100 GPa and the onset of superconductivity 13 at 160 GPa. When using laser heating to overcome kinetic barriers, it was found that -B 106 transforms into the T-192 phase above 10 GPa at 2,280 K (ref. 14 ).
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  7. annelidan
  8. anomalocaridid
  9. anomalocaridids
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      In recent years, Cambrian lobopodian diversity has expanded to include several taxa — Kerygmachela 58 , Pambdelurion 59 and Megadictyon 60 — that share some features with the first animals widely recognized to be stem-group euarthropods: the anomalocaridids (Fig. 3c ) and the related Opabinia 61, 62 .
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  10. antenniform
  11. antifade
  12. antitermination
  13. antivirals
  14. apomorphies
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      All these assignments are highly questionable 52 for three reasons: first, they share no definite apomorphies with the arthropods; second, the forms that are superficially similar to the trilobites imply a considerable 'ghost lineage' of other arthropods, no trace of which is found in the Ediacaran record; and third, arthropod-like trace fossils are lacking until the Cambrian 53 .
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  15. arachnomorph
  16. archaeobotanical
    • 2009 February 11, Dorian Q. Fuller Michael D. Purugganan, “The nature of selection during plant domestication”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07895, pages 843-848: 
      How can archaeobotanical evidence constrain molecular, evolutionary and genetic models of domestication by providing more realistic estimates of the time span for the evolution of these domestication traits, as well as the timing and strength of selection events?
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  17. artefactually
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      The consensus amongst systematists, however, is that the rapidly evolving nematode genome causes a systematic error, known as long-branch attraction, in tree reconstruction in these studies, which artefactually places the nematode distant from the arthropods towards the root of the tree.
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  18. autopod
  19. avifaunas
  20. bactoprenol
  21. barleys
  22. bilateria
  23. bioanthropologist
  24. bioanthropologists
  25. bioanthropology
  26. biosocial
  27. biotas
    • 2009 February 11, Robert E. Ricklefs David N. Reznick, “Darwin's bridge between microevolution and macroevolution”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07894, pages 837-842: 
      In both cases, older groups were replaced almost completely by more modern groups, leaving only sporadic relicts of the biotas — the Podocarpaceae and Gnetum in the case of gymnosperms, and swifts and woodpeckers, among others, in the case of European birds.
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  28. bipotent
  29. cardiomyocytic
  30. chaetognaths
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      Papillon, D., Perez, Y., Caubit, X. & Le Parco, Y. Identification of chaetognaths as protostomes is supported by the analysis of their mitochondrial genome .
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  31. chelicerae
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      Conversely, denying the link between the anomalocaridids and Kerygmachela 65 , or between the great appendage arthropods and the anomalocaridids 71 , allows megacheirans to be placed in the stem group of the chelicerates, implying that the great appendage is homologous to the chelicerae and is therefore deutocerebral.
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  32. claudin
  33. cloudshadow
  34. coevolving
    • 2009 February 11, Angus Buckling et al., “The Beagle in a bottle”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07892, pages 824-829: 
      Forde, S. E., Thompson, J. N. & Bohannan, B. J. M. Gene flow reverses an adaptive cline in a coevolving host–parasitoid interaction .
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  35. conceptuses
  36. corpuscules
  37. cotransfection
  38. crenarchaeota
  39. cycloneuralian
  40. cycloneuralians
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      The morphological support for Ecdysozoa remains slender, although several synapomorphies have been demonstrated or can be inferred 20 , including ecdysis, a trilaminate cuticle and a terminal mouth (seen in the cycloneuralians and inferred from the fossil record for the arthropods 21, 22 ).
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  41. decidua *
  42. decurved
    • 2009 February 11, Robert E. Ricklefs Jonathan B. Losos, “Adaptation and diversification on islands”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07893, pages 830-836: 
      These include the Malagasy aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a lemur that uses its elongated finger to probe holes in wood; the tool-using woodpecker finch of the Galapagos (Camarhynchus pallidus), which probes holes with a cactus spine; the New Zealand huia (Heteralocha acutirostris), sadly now extinct, for which the short-billed male chiselled into wood to capture insects, and the female (which had a narrower but longer curved bill) reached into crevices inaccessible to the male to extract prey, essentially dividing between the sexes the two functions served by the woodpecker's stout bill and long, extensible tongue; and the Hawaiian akiapolaau (Hemignathus munroi), which excavates holes with its short lower mandible and then extracts prey with its long and decurved upper mandible.
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  43. defensin
  44. deutocerebral
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      Conversely, denying the link between the anomalocaridids and Kerygmachela 65 , or between the great appendage arthropods and the anomalocaridids 71 , allows megacheirans to be placed in the stem group of the chelicerates, implying that the great appendage is homologous to the chelicerae and is therefore deutocerebral.
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  45. dimethylglycine
  46. dimethylsilyl
  47. douncer
  48. ecdysozoan
  49. ecdysozoans
  50. electrodeposited
    • 2009 February 12, Golden Kumar et al., “Nanomoulding with amorphous metals”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07718, pages 868-872: 
      Dalla Torre, F., Van Swygenhoven, H., Schaublin, R., Spatig, P. & Victoria, M. Mechanical behaviour of nanocrystalline electrodeposited Ni above room temperature .
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  51. electroforming
  52. electroporator
  53. enhanceosome
  54. euarthropod
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      Anomalocaridids have clear euarthropod features such as sclerotized and articulating frontal appendages, large eyes on stalks and gut diverticula, but they lack other features, such as complete sclerotization of the cuticle.
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  55. euarthropods
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      In recent years, Cambrian lobopodian diversity has expanded to include several taxa — Kerygmachela 58 , Pambdelurion 59 and Megadictyon 60 — that share some features with the first animals widely recognized to be stem-group euarthropods: the anomalocaridids (Fig. 3c ) and the related Opabinia 61, 62 .
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  56. euchelicerate
  57. exaptations
    • 2009 February 11, Neil Shubin et al., “Deep homology and the origins of evolutionary novelty”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07891, pages 818-823: 
      Furthermore, because the adult pronotal horns are clearly derived from larval horns, the findings suggest that adult Onthophagus horns did not evolve from scratch for male combat but are exaptations (structures that first originated to serve another, unrelated, function).
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  58. exocoelomic
  59. facultatively
    • 2009 February 11, Angus Buckling et al., “The Beagle in a bottle”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07892, pages 824-829: 
      Because the benefits of sex can take considerable time to be realized in multicellular organisms, facultatively sexual microorganisms (such as yeast 11 and single-celled algae of the genus Chlamydomonas 12 ), provide a unique opportunity to determine the conditions under which sex is advantageous.
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  60. fibromuscular
    • 2009 February 12, Scott A. Tomlins et al., “Tomlins et al. reply”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07739: 
      Immunohistochemistry with smooth muscle actin (SMA) demonstrates a continuous fibromuscular layer around benign glands ( b ) and all mPIN lesions ( c ), whereas the basal cell marker p63 demonstrates the loss of circumferential basal cells in mPIN foci ( e ) compared to normal glands ( d ) in the dorsolateral prostate of a ARR2Pb-ETV1 mouse.
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  61. flightlessness
    • 2009 February 11, Robert E. Ricklefs Jonathan B. Losos, “Adaptation and diversification on islands”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07893, pages 830-836: 
      Other examples of deterministic patterns on islands are the evolution of flightlessness in many birds and insects, the repeated loss of dispersal abilities in both plants and animals, and the evolution of tameness in many vertebrates 4, 63 (all phenomena that were documented by Darwin 1, 62 ).
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  62. gastrulating
  63. genetical
  64. geophones
  65. geospizine
  66. geotherm
  67. glomerulonephritis
  68. glucosaminoglycans
    • 2009 February 11, Thomas Pietschmann, “VirologyFinal entry key for hepatitis C”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/457797a, pages 797-798: 
      Now, however, the list of factors involved in HCV entry has grown, and includes at least two other essential proteins — SR-BI and claudin-1 — and potentially additional accessory factors such as glucosaminoglycans and low-density-lipoprotein receptors 3, 4, 5 .
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  69. glumed
    • 2009 February 11, Dorian Q. Fuller Michael D. Purugganan, “The nature of selection during plant domestication”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07895, pages 843-848: 
      In some species, this selective pressure was not local but species-wide; evolution in maize, for example, turned the hard podcase of teosinte into easily milled, but still glumed, pod-corns and then into naked-grained cobs 41, 42 .
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  70. glutenin
  71. haematocrits
  72. headfold
  73. hemangioblastic
  74. hematogenic
  75. heritabilities
    • 2009 February 11, Erin S. Dunlop Nils Chr. Stenseth, “EvolutionUnnatural selection”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/457803a, pages 803-804: 
      Assuming that heritabilities are not systematically different among the various populations included in Darimont and colleagues' survey, it seems that the selection differential generated from harvesting is higher than that from other sources.
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  76. horticulturalists
  77. huia
    • 2009 February 11, Robert E. Ricklefs Jonathan B. Losos, “Adaptation and diversification on islands”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07893, pages 830-836: 
      These include the Malagasy aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), a lemur that uses its elongated finger to probe holes in wood; the tool-using woodpecker finch of the Galapagos (Camarhynchus pallidus), which probes holes with a cactus spine; the New Zealand huia (Heteralocha acutirostris), sadly now extinct, for which the short-billed male chiselled into wood to capture insects, and the female (which had a narrower but longer curved bill) reached into crevices inaccessible to the male to extract prey, essentially dividing between the sexes the two functions served by the woodpecker's stout bill and long, extensible tongue; and the Hawaiian akiapolaau (Hemignathus munroi), which excavates holes with its short lower mandible and then extracts prey with its long and decurved upper mandible.
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  78. hypostome
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      At the centre of the great appendage debate has been the labrum 70 , a small structure found in front of the mouth in all extant euarthropods (except the pycnogonids, in which it may have been incorporated into the proboscis) and distinct from the plate-like hypostome of trilobites and other fossil taxa 73 .
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  79. immunodepleted
    • 2008 December 21, Partho Sarothi Ray et al., “A stress-responsive RNA switch regulates VEGFA expression”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07598, pages 915-919: 
      d , VEGFA HSR RNA was incubated with lysates (lys.) from cells treated with IFN- for 24 h under normoxia (nmx.) or hypoxia (hpx.), or with lysates immunodepleted with anti-HNRNPL and anti-EPRS antibodies, and subjected to RNase-A-mediated cleavage under non-denaturing conditions after protein removal.
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  80. immunodepletion
  81. immunoprecipitating
    • 2008 December 7, Shigeru Oshima et al., “ABIN-1 is a ubiquitin sensor that restricts cell death and sustains embryonic development”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07575, pages 906-909: 
      Recruitment of co-associated signalling proteins was assayed by lysing cells in lysis buffer (10 mM Tris, 140 mM NaCl, 0.2% NP-40, 10% glycerol and protease inhibitors), immunoprecipitating Flag-tagged ABIN-1 protein with anti-Flag beads (Sigma), Myc-tagged ABIN-1 with anti-c-Myc antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology), or caspase 8 with anti-caspase 8 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) and immunoblotting co-associated FADD, caspase 8, A20, or RIP using commercial antibodies ( RIP (BD Transduction Labs, Santa Cruz Biotechnology), FADD (Assay Designs)).
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  82. infectable
  83. intermedium
  84. intraembryonic
  85. ionicity
    • 2009 January 28, Artem R. Oganov et al., “Ionic high-pressure form of elemental boron”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07736, pages 863-867: 
      We find that the ionicity of the phase affects its electronic bandgap, infrared adsorption and dielectric constants, and that it arises from the different electronic properties of the B 2 pairs and B 12 clusters and the resultant charge transfer between them.
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  86. kinorhynch
  87. kinorhynchs
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      There have been notes of dissent, however 6, 7 , and this minority view was vindicated by the publication in 1997 of a molecular analysis of ribosomal RNA genes that introduced the concept of the Ecdysozoa 8 , a clade consisting of panarthropods and a group of lesser-known worms named the Cycloneuralia, comprising the priapulids, kinorhynchs, loriciferans, nematodes and nematomorphs.
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  88. lamellipedians
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      The anterior sclerite has recently been identified in a wider range of taxa within the Fuxianhuia clade, notably Branchiocaris, which certainly bears a subchelate appendage 69 ; such a sclerite is also present in some lamellipedians, such as Helmetia species, suggesting that lamellipedians may be paraphyletic 69 .
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  89. lazuline
  90. lepidotrichia
  91. linescan
    • 2008 December 31, Chaoliang Wei et al., “Calcium flickers steer cell migration”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07577, pages 901-905: 
      b , Visualization of calcium entry through single SACCs. From top to bottom: suction through the patch pipette; single-channel currents; and linescan image and line plot of local calcium transients.
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  92. linescans
  93. lobeliads
    • 2009 February 11, Robert E. Ricklefs Jonathan B. Losos, “Adaptation and diversification on islands”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07893, pages 830-836: 
      Givnish, T. J., Montgomery, R. A. & Goldsteing, G. Adaptive radiation of photosynthetic physiology in the Hawaiian lobeliads: light regimes, static light responses, and whole-plant compensation points .
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  94. lobopod
  95. lobopodian
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      In recent years, Cambrian lobopodian diversity has expanded to include several taxa — Kerygmachela 58 , Pambdelurion 59 and Megadictyon 60 — that share some features with the first animals widely recognized to be stem-group euarthropods: the anomalocaridids (Fig. 3c ) and the related Opabinia 61, 62 .
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  96. loriciferans
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      There have been notes of dissent, however 6, 7 , and this minority view was vindicated by the publication in 1997 of a molecular analysis of ribosomal RNA genes that introduced the concept of the Ecdysozoa 8 , a clade consisting of panarthropods and a group of lesser-known worms named the Cycloneuralia, comprising the priapulids, kinorhynchs, loriciferans, nematodes and nematomorphs.
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  97. macrobiota
    • 2009 February 11, Angus Buckling et al., “The Beagle in a bottle”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07892, pages 824-829: 
      However, biologists unfamiliar with microorganisms may be surprised at how similar the lives of microbiota and macrobiota are.
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  98. macrofloras
  99. mechanogated
  100. megacheiran
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      The anterior paired origin of the labrum and its possible appendiculate nature suggest homology with the anterior antennae of the onychophorans and the megacheiran great appendage 66 (Fig. 4 ).
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  101. megacheirans
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      These groupings — the lamellipedians, the megacheirans and the group containing Fuxianhuia — are now broadly accepted, but whether they are genuinely monophyletic or merely paraphyletic assemblages, as well as where they should be placed on the euarthropod and/or chelicerate and crustacean stem groups, remains unsettled.
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  102. megaprimer
  103. melanogenic
  104. mesopodial
    • 2009 February 11, Neil Shubin et al., “Deep homology and the origins of evolutionary novelty”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07891, pages 818-823: 
      There are four important features of this late-phase expression: first, expression occurs in a distal segment of the limb, the 'paddle', that does not overlap with more proximal zones; second, this expression occurs while the digits and mesopodial bones are being specified; third, the domains of expression of the 5' Hoxd genes display 'reverse colinearity', such that Hoxd13 expression (for example) extends more anteriorly than the expression domains of more 3' genes; and fourth, late-phase expression is regulated independently from early-phase expression by a separate enhancer that drives distal expression 26 .
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  105. metabolomic
  106. methyltrienolone
  107. microclimatic
  108. microevolutionary
  109. microparts
    • 2009 February 12, Golden Kumar et al., “Nanomoulding with amorphous metals”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07718, pages 868-872: 
      Figure 2:  Optical and scanning electron microscope images of three-dimensional microparts, including tweezers (top left), scalpels (bottom left), a gear (top right) and a membrane (bottom right).
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  110. microtitre
  111. midgestation
  112. mitogenomics
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      Rota-Stabelli, O. & Telford, M. J. A multi criterion approach for the selection of optimal outgroups in phylogeny: recovering some support for Mandibulata over Myriochelata using mitogenomics .
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  113. monophylum
  114. morphospecies
  115. mouldable
    • 2009 February 12, Golden Kumar et al., “Nanomoulding with amorphous metals”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07718, pages 868-872: 
      It is important to understand from equation (1) that the moulding process benefits from lower viscosities only in terms of aspect ratios, whereas the smallest mouldable size is dictated by the capillary forces.
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  116. multimode
  117. multispecies
  118. murein
  119. mutator
  120. mycoplasmas
  121. myriapod
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      Gene-expression evidence suggests that, in the case of insect and myriapod tracheae, the same pre-existing structures (gills attached to the base of appendages) may have been co-opted to this function in both cases, and this may also be the case for the air-breathing apparatus of terrestrial chelicerates 75 .
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  122. myriapods
  123. nanoforging
    • 2009 February 12, Golden Kumar et al., “Nanomoulding with amorphous metals”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07718, pages 868-872: 
      Saotome, Y., Okaniwa, S., Kimura, H. & Inoue, A. Superplastic nanoforging of Pt-based metallic glass with dies of Zr-BMG and glassy carbon fabricated by focussed ion beam .
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  124. nanomoulding
  125. nanopatterning
  126. nematomorphs
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      There have been notes of dissent, however 6, 7 , and this minority view was vindicated by the publication in 1997 of a molecular analysis of ribosomal RNA genes that introduced the concept of the Ecdysozoa 8 , a clade consisting of panarthropods and a group of lesser-known worms named the Cycloneuralia, comprising the priapulids, kinorhynchs, loriciferans, nematodes and nematomorphs.
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  127. nonhemogenic
  128. nonhepatic
  129. nucleofected
  130. nucleofection
  131. occludin
  132. ocelli
  133. onychophoran
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      One test of this hypothesis would be a comparison of the molecular patterning of the onychophoran antenna and the euarthropod labrum 70 , which the great appendage–labrum theory requires to be homologous structures.
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  134. onychophorans
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      It has long been recognized that two other living groups, the soft-bodied onychophorans (velvet worms) and the microscopic tardigrades (water bears), are close relatives of the euarthropods.
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  135. oribatid
  136. orthopterans
    • 2009 February 11, Robert E. Ricklefs Jonathan B. Losos, “Adaptation and diversification on islands”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07893, pages 830-836: 
      As a result, the fauna of pre-human New Zealand was unlike that of anywhere else 50, 51 and included the following: a radiation of moas (flightless browsing ratites up to 3 m in height); a flightless, nocturnal, herbivorous parrot; a carrion-eating parrot; kiwis; enormous raptors; giant orthopterans and weevils; copepods that lived on the forest floor; and primarily terrestrial bats that "represent the bat family's attempt to produce a mouse" 52 .
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  137. osmotically
  138. outbreeding
  139. overwater
    • 2009 February 11, Robert E. Ricklefs Jonathan B. Losos, “Adaptation and diversification on islands”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07893, pages 830-836: 
      This detailed account of diversification shows that most of New Zealand's biota results from overwater colonization, rather than survival since New Zealand separated from Australia .
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  140. palaeosciences
    • 2009 February 11, Ricki Lewis, “Darwin 200  Beyond bones”, Nature, DOI:10.1038/nj7231-922a: 
      Directing such research teams requires a wide range of skills beyond the scientific: managerial and project management, diplomatic, financial and people skills," says Darren Curnoe, co-director of the palaeosciences laboratory at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia.
      add - notemp
  141. paleolatitudinal
  142. palynofloras
  143. panarthropods
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      Although they are traditionally regarded as the closest living relatives of the euarthropods, some molecular phylogenies place them basal within the panarthropods, or even as a sister group to the nematodes 5, 6 , but this may be an artefact resulting from their derived and rapidly evolving genome 4, 5 .
      add - notemp
  144. panderichthyids
  145. permissivity
  146. phanaeine
    • 2009 February 11, “Zoology: Horny?”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/457767c, page 767: 
      Mark Rowland at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque and Douglas Emlen at the University of Montana in Missoula trapped and studied closely related dung beetles, the phanaeine.
      add - notemp
  147. phyletic
  148. phylogeographical
    • 2009 February 11, Dorian Q. Fuller Michael D. Purugganan, “The nature of selection during plant domestication”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07895, pages 843-848: 
      Combining phylogeographical analysis with molecular genetic analysis allows researchers to determine which geographical regions gave rise to various traits and to chronicle the spatial spread of alleles subject to Darwinian selection.
      add - notemp
  149. plakoglobin
  150. planctomycete
  151. podcase
    • 2009 February 11, Dorian Q. Fuller Michael D. Purugganan, “The nature of selection during plant domestication”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07895, pages 843-848: 
      In some species, this selective pressure was not local but species-wide; evolution in maize, for example, turned the hard podcase of teosinte into easily milled, but still glumed, pod-corns and then into naked-grained cobs 41, 42 .
      add - notemp
  152. polybrene
  153. preliver
  154. probasin
    • 2009 February 12, Scott A. Tomlins et al., “Tomlins et al. reply”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07739: 
      1 question our recent report that mice expressing ETV1 under the control of the probasin promoter (ARR2Pb) develop mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN) 2 .
      add - notemp
  155. pronotal
    • 2009 February 11, Neil Shubin et al., “Deep homology and the origins of evolutionary novelty”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07891, pages 818-823: 
      Armin Moczek and colleagues have shown that although certain members of the dung beetle genus Onthophagus develop pronotal horns during the late larval period and retain them to adulthood 38 , many other species transiently develop horns as larvae and then resorb them in the pupal period.
      add - notemp
  156. propidium
  157. protocerebrally
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      Although it is not universally accepted 73 , most evidence points to the common origin of the labrum in all extant euarthropods as a protocerebrally derived structure that may be a modified appendage.
      add - notemp
  158. provirus
  159. proximally
    • 2009 February 11, Neil Shubin et al., “Deep homology and the origins of evolutionary novelty”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07891, pages 818-823: 
      What is most interesting is the parallel between the loss of the lepidotrichia and the enhanced mobility of the fin joints; the greatest reduction of the fin rays occurs proximally in the regions over the elbow and presumptive wrist joints, not distally as previously supposed.
      add - notemp
  160. proximodistal
    • 2009 February 11, Neil Shubin et al., “Deep homology and the origins of evolutionary novelty”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07891, pages 818-823: 
      Both arthropod appendages and tetrapod limbs develop as outgrowths of the body wall that are patterned along three axes — the proximodistal, anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes — often using homologous genes to establish the ordinate axes.
      add - notemp
  161. pseudopotential
    • 2009 January 28, Artem R. Oganov et al., “Ionic high-pressure form of elemental boron”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07736, pages 863-867: 
      Pseudopotential calculations Computational conditions were similar to the PAW calculations, except the use of a norm-conserving pseudopotential and the associated higher plane-wave cut-off of 884 eV to enable similar convergence.
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  162. pseudotyped
  163. psychometricians
  164. punctuational
  165. pycnogonids
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      At the centre of the great appendage debate has been the labrum 70 , a small structure found in front of the mouth in all extant euarthropods (except the pycnogonids, in which it may have been incorporated into the proboscis) and distinct from the plate-like hypostome of trilobites and other fossil taxa 73 .
      add - notemp
  166. pyoverdine
    • 2009 February 11, Angus Buckling et al., “The Beagle in a bottle”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07892, pages 824-829: 
      Study of pyoverdine type and production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cystic fibrosis patients: prevalence of type II pyoverdine isolates and accumulation of pyoverdine-negative mutations .
      add - notemp
  167. rachillae
  168. ratiometric
    • 2008 December 31, Chaoliang Wei et al., “Calcium flickers steer cell migration”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07577, pages 901-905: 
      For ratiometric imaging, cells were excited at 488 nm, emission was detected at 505–550 nm (Fluo-4 signal) and >633 nm (Fura red signal), and the differential interference contrast transmission image was acquired simultaneously.
      add - notemp
  169. receptosomes
  170. recoupling
  171. regulatorily
  172. renaturation
  173. renatured
  174. rhabdomeric
  175. sacculus *
  176. sarcosine
  177. sclerite
  178. sclerites
  179. sclerotization
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      Anomalocaridids have clear euarthropod features such as sclerotized and articulating frontal appendages, large eyes on stalks and gut diverticula, but they lack other features, such as complete sclerotization of the cuticle.
      add - notemp
  180. sclerotized
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      Anomalocaridids have clear euarthropod features such as sclerotized and articulating frontal appendages, large eyes on stalks and gut diverticula, but they lack other features, such as complete sclerotization of the cuticle.
      add - notemp
  181. semipurified
  182. shallowing
    • 2009 February 12, C. A. Nielsen H. Thybo, “Magma-compensated crustal thinning in continental rift zones”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07688, pages 873-876: 
      Conventional models of rift zones include three characteristic features: surface manifestation as an elongated topographic trough, Moho shallowing due to crustal thinning, and reduced seismic velocity in the uppermost mantle due to decompression melting or heating from the Earth's interior 2, 3, 4 .
      add - notemp
  183. sialomucin
  184. spiralian
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      Eernisse, D. J., Albert, J. S. & Anderson, F. E. Annelida and Arthropoda are not sister taxa — a phylogenetic analysis of spiralian metazoan morphology .
      add - notemp
  185. stomodeum
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      Typically, the labrum develops at the anterior of the head as paired lobes (or at least its position is marked by paired expression domains of the appendage-patterning gene Distal-less) that fuse centrally and move posteriorly following the stomodeum (Fig. 4d, e ).
      add - notemp
  186. storability
  187. subaortic
  188. subchelate
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      The anterior sclerite has recently been identified in a wider range of taxa within the Fuxianhuia clade, notably Branchiocaris, which certainly bears a subchelate appendage 69 ; such a sclerite is also present in some lamellipedians, such as Helmetia species, suggesting that lamellipedians may be paraphyletic 69 .
      add - notemp
  189. subgenomes
  190. subgenomic
  191. submicrometre
    • 2009 February 12, Golden Kumar et al., “Nanomoulding with amorphous metals”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07718, pages 868-872: 
      Imprinting, embossing and moulding on the submicrometre scale are well-established techniques for manufacturing CDs (compact disks), DVDs (digital versatile disks), diffraction gratings, and polymer parts 8, 9 .
      add - notemp
  192. subnitride
  193. subpallium
  194. subregions
  195. sulphurhodamine
    • 2008 December 31, Chaoliang Wei et al., “Calcium flickers steer cell migration”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07577, pages 901-905: 
      By visualization of sulphurhodamine fluorescence under similar conditions, we estimated an average PDGF concentration of 1 nM and an edge-to-edge difference of 0.4 nM across the leading lamella ( 40  m).
      add - notemp
  196. supervibrator
    • 2009 February 12, C. A. Nielsen H. Thybo, “Magma-compensated crustal thinning in continental rift zones”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07688, pages 873-876: 
      Seismic sources included 10 chemical explosions in 50-m-deep boreholes (500–2,500 kg of TNT), 234 air gun shots (total volume 60 l) in Lake Baikal, and 6 vibration sweeps (5.8—9.7 Hz over 45 min) by the stationary Babushkin supervibrator (100 ton weight).
      add - notemp
  197. talin *
  198. tetraspanin
  199. thapsigargin
  200. toastcakes
  201. trilaminate
    • 2009 February 11, Maximilian J. Telford Graham E. Budd, “The origin and evolution of arthropods”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07890, pages 812-817: 
      The morphological support for Ecdysozoa remains slender, although several synapomorphies have been demonstrated or can be inferred 20 , including ecdysis, a trilaminate cuticle and a terminal mouth (seen in the cycloneuralians and inferred from the fossil record for the arthropods 21, 22 ).
      add - notemp
  202. tyramide
  203. ulnare *
  204. underplated
  205. underplating
  206. unimagining
    • 2009 February 11, Henry Nicholls, “Darwin 200A flight of fancy”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/457790a, pages 790-791: 
      But even with more information, seeing pigeons as Darwin saw them will be extraordinarily tricky because it requires unimagining so much of what we now take for granted.
      add - notemp
  207. uninfectable
    • 2009 January 28, Alexander Ploss et al., “Human occludin is a hepatitis C virus entry factor required for infection of mouse cells”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07684, pages 882-886: 
      Here we show, using an iterative complementary DNA library screening approach, that human occludin (OCLN) is an essential HCV cell entry factor that is able to render murine cells infectable with HCVpp. Similarly, OCLN is required for the HCV-susceptibility of human cells, because its overexpression in uninfectable cells specifically enhanced HCVpp uptake, whereas its silencing in permissive cells impaired both HCVpp and HCVcc infection.
      add - notemp
  208. unjointed
  209. vangas
    • 2009 February 11, Robert E. Ricklefs Jonathan B. Losos, “Adaptation and diversification on islands”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07893, pages 830-836: 
      A favourite pastime of evolutionary biologists is to take an island radiation, such as Darwin's finches or Malagasy vangas, and, for each of its species, identify a continental ecological analogue, each usually from a different family.
      add - notemp
  210. xestospongin

Sequestered[edit]

  1. einkorn
    • 2009 February 11, Dorian Q. Fuller Michael D. Purugganan, “The nature of selection during plant domestication”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07895, pages 843-848: 
      The rate of increase of the non-shattering, domesticated, form of barley, einkorn wheat and rice can be estimated from the archaeological record and reflects the strength of selection on this trait (Fig. 4 ).
      add - notemp
  2. silversword
    • 2009 February 11, Robert E. Ricklefs Jonathan B. Losos, “Adaptation and diversification on islands”, Nature, volume 457, number 7231, DOI:10.1038/nature07893, pages 830-836: 
      Every naturalist has a favourite example, perhaps the 30-odd species of silversword plant (Asteraceae) that occupy almost all terrestrial habitats in the Hawaiian islands and exhibit a vast range of morphologies, including trees, erect and compact shrubs, lianas, and branched and unbranched rosettes.
      add - notemp