User:Visviva/Science 20090918

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88174 tokens ‧ 78 valid lowercase tokens ‧ 78 types ‧ 78 (~ 100%) words before cleaning ‧ 

2009-09-20[edit]

  1. aeroelastic
    Our results show that the secret to doing so lies in building a wing that undergoes appropriate aeroelastic deformation through the course of the wingbeat.
  2. angritic
    However, it has been shown that eucrite-like and angrite-like partial melts can be generated from the same starting material simply by changing oxygen fugacity ( 18 ): Eucritic melts are produced at low fugacities (IW–1), angritic melts at higher fugacities (IW+2).
  3. areata
    To ascertain whether GRPR + neurons are also important for chronic itch, for which no effective treatment is available ( 21 , 22 ), we examined mice treated with diphenylcyclopropenone (DCP), a topical immunotherapy agent used in the treatment of alopecia areata that often results in severe side effects, including eczematous skin, contact dermatitis, and intense itching in both patients and mice ( 23 , 24 ).
  4. availabilty
    Emphasis is given to purpose, chief characteristics, and availabilty of products and materials.
  5. bedload
    Yet, after more than a century of work, there is no satisfactory theory for bedload, the component of the sediment load transported in contact with the stream bed.
  6. benchtop
    Biochrom For information +44-(0)-1223-423723 www.biochrom.co.uk Workstation for Transporter Research The Surfe2r Workstation 5 is a semiautomated, benchtop system designed for basic research and assay development that features proprietary Surface Electrogenic Event Reader technology.
  7. bianisotropic
    In this case, the eigenpolarizations correspond to circular polarization of light, whereas they are elliptic in the more general nonparallel (i.e., bianisotropic) case ( 15 , 16 ).
  8. bius
    She discusses Karl Kraepelin in Hamburg, Philipp Leopold Martin in Stuttgart, and a few others, but her emphasis is on M"bius and those professionally related to him—e.g., the schoolteacher Friedrich Junge (who turned Möbius's community concept into a wider program for school reform) and the Berlin museum curator Friedrich Dahl (who developed Möbius's ecological ideas into ecological animal biogeography).
  9. bombesin
    We selectively ablated GRPR + neurons in the spinal cord of mice by intrathecal administration of bombesin-saporin (bombesin-sap), a toxin coupled to bombesin that binds with high affinity to GRPR and results in GRPR internalization along with bombesin-sap and cell death (fig. S1) ( 14 , 15 ).
  10. boreoeutherian
    From ~100 to ~30 Ma, xenarthrans (red) were geographically isolated from primates (green) and other boreoeutherian mammals (blue).
  11. boreoeutherians
    SloEFV invasion of the sloth genome (>39 Ma, range from 34 to 45 Ma) thus occurred before the arrival of boreoeutherians in South America.
  12. cavicapture
    Thus, pHluorin-labeled vesicle proteins might escape during an event identified as K&R by Qdot analysis, akin to "cavicapture" ( 8 ).
  13. codiverged
    We have found an endogenous foamy virus within the genomes of sloths and show that foamy viruses were infecting mammals more than 100 million years ago and codiverged with their hosts across an entire geological era.
  14. contracept
    Over the next 10 years, Kirkpatrick showed that he could contracept wild horses with steroid shots that lasted through the breeding season.
  15. contracepted
    In field trials, Miller and colleagues contracepted deer, prairie dogs, and even kangaroos.
  16. contracepting
    "The concept of contracepting large wildlife was really off the screen," he says.
  17. destaining
    Co-occurring uptake of a fresh Qdot can be firmly excluded; there were no Qdots on the surface during destaining (removed by the 20-min wash), and only a single, vesicle-enclosed Qdot remained visible in the region of interest.
  18. diphenylcyclopropenone
    Sap, saporin; ET-1, endothelin-1; PAR2, protease-activated receptor 2; DCP, diphenylcyclopropenone.
  19. disproportionalities
    Samples were drawn to be nationally representative, and sample weights were provided to adjust for nonresponse disproportionalities.
  20. eigenpolarizations
    In this case, the eigenpolarizations correspond to circular polarization of light, whereas they are elliptic in the more general nonparallel (i.e., bianisotropic) case ( 15 , 16 ).
  21. ejov
    1 IARC, Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK. 2 Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences, Fri ova 298, CZ-251 65 Ond ejov Observatory, Czech Republic.
  22. exocytosed
    The alternative scenario, immediate recapture of the exocytosed Qdot by an adjacent clathrin-coated, endocytosis-ready vesicle, was disfavored by the limited movement of Qdots during the deacidification period, which was mostly less than the minimal center-to-center distance (100 nm) between a fused vesicle and a putative endocytosis-ready vesicle next to it ( Fig. 2B ).
  23. ferrromagnetism
    What is the evidence, then, for Stoner-type ferrromagnetism caused by strong repulsion in ultracold gases?
  24. fmol *
    The Desulfotomaculum cell density at the onset of sulfate reduction can be estimated by dividing the bulk rate (1.3 nmol cm –3 hour –1 at 16 hours based on the exponential function in Fig. 2A ) by a mean cell-specific sulfate reduction rate of 2.0 fmol cell –1 hour –1 [based on 33 pure cultures during exponential growth ( 20 ), and representative of thermophilic Desulfotomaculum spp.; see SOM].
  25. geofluids
    Widespread seeding of the oceans by geofluids from deep biosphere habitats may therefore contribute broadly to the high microbial diversity observed in the marine environment.
  26. gyrotropy
    For example, chiral metallic metamaterial structures have led to giant gyrotropy ( 9 ), circular dichroism ( 10 ), and negative phase velocities ( 8 ) at microwave ( 11 ) and far-infrared frequencies ( 12 ).
  27. highstand
    During T-I, the "benthic plateau" ( 33 ) was attained by 10.1 ± 0.5 ka ( 34 ), when sea levels were ~40 m below present (40 mbsl) ( 35 ), and preceded the Holocene SST maximum off the Iberian margin (8 to 9 ka) by about 1 to 2 ky ( 17 , 18 ) and the Holocene highstand (6.4 ± 1 ka) by 3.7 ± 1.1 ky ( 14 ).
  28. howardites
    Eucrites are part of a larger clan (the howardites, eucrites, and diogenites, or HEDs) that has been linked, via similarities in reflectance spectra, to asteroid 4 Vesta ( 6 , 7 ).
  29. immunocontraception
    So in 1988, Kirkpatrick says he "chucked everything out the window" and tried a new approach called immunocontraception.
  30. intraplantar
    We further tested inflammatory pain responses and found that licking and flinching behaviors elicited by intraplantar injection of 5% formalin in both phases were indistinguishable between the treated group and the control group ( Fig. 3F ).
  31. logarithimic
    The greater sampling resolution accounts in part for the higher variability in the stalagmite 18 O. ( B ) Ice-rafted debris (grains g –1 ) from Heinrich Event 11 from MD01-2444 ( 9 ) (plotted on an inverted, logarithimic scale).
  32. longheld
    In it, Williamson promoted his longheld, intriguing—and, say most other biologists, almost certainly misguided—theory about the origins of caterpillars and butterflies.
  33. memcapacitance
    The principle underlying the persistent tuning of our hybrid device is that of memory-capacitance (memcapacitance for short), which was recently suggested theoretically ( 15 ).
  34. meridiem *
    Although orbital data for achondrites have been lacking, it has been suggested that symmetric ante meridiem and post meridiem achondrite fall times can occur only if orbital maturity has been achieved ( 19 , 20 ).
  35. mouseopause
    As a first step, she had created a mouse model of menopause--she calls it "mouseopause"--by administering a compound that destroys eggs without harming ovaries.
  36. multiproxy
    The Iberian margin sediments preserve an excellent multiproxy paleoclimate record through T-II and the Last Interglacial ( 9 , 17 21 ) (figs. S10 and S11).
  37. muropeptides
    The glycan chains in stationary phase PG from the bsrV mutant were ~80% the length of the wild type; pentapeptides were reduced by ~50%; and there was an increase in trimer muropeptides (table S1).
  38. naturwissenschaftliche
    Jahrhundert: Bürgerliche Kultur, naturwissenschaftliche Bildung und die deutsche Öffentlichkeit 1848–1914 (R. Oldenbourg, Munich, 1998).
  39. neurokinin
    Expression of neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) and prodynorphin was not affected in lamina I of mice treated with bombesin-sap ( Fig. 1, D to F , and fig. S3), nor was neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1) ( Fig. 1, G to I ), a lamina I and III gene expressed in a subset of neurons known for their involvement in nociceptive transmission ( 15 , 16 ).
  40. neuromedin
    Expression of neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) and prodynorphin was not affected in lamina I of mice treated with bombesin-sap ( Fig. 1, D to F , and fig. S3), nor was neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1) ( Fig. 1, G to I ), a lamina I and III gene expressed in a subset of neurons known for their involvement in nociceptive transmission ( 15 , 16 ).
  41. nonimported
    The country's stringent measures to keep out the virus—early on, screening overseas passengers before they disembarked and quarantining all cases and contacts—appear to have worked, for a while: China reported its first nonimported case of pandemic H1N1 on 29 May, 2 weeks before the World Health Organization (WHO) raised the global pandemic alert to phase 6.
  42. nonmonotonic
    The observation of nonmonotonic behavior of lifetime, kinetic energy, and size for increasing repulsive interactions provides strong evidence for a phase transition to a ferromagnetic state.
  43. nonprof
    "They saw the train wreck coming years before it got here," says Kirkpatrick, now the director of the Science and Conservation Center, a Billingsbased nonprof it dedicated to managing wildlife.
  44. nonresponse
    Samples were drawn to be nationally representative, and sample weights were provided to adjust for nonresponse disproportionalities.
  45. oftenbrutal
    The U.S. Congress had just passed the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act, which sought to prevent the oftenbrutal hunting of feral horses in the American West for pet food.
  46. pellucida *
    He traveled to Assateague Island off the coast of Maryland and Virginia, which was dealing with its own impending horse overpopulation problem, and spent months wading through marshes and forests, darting mares with the zona pellucida vaccine.
  47. percolative
    The IMT is percolative in nature and is initiated by the formation of nanoscale metallic puddles in the insulating host ( 20 ).
  48. picoeukaryote
    Similar results have been reported for other microbial plankton groups, such as picoeukaryote algae and foraminifera ( 17 , 24 ).
  49. precoat
    ( 3 ) but worth considering, is that K&R occurs but is supported by a hypothetical clathrin precoat rather than de novo clathrin assembly.
  50. precoating
    Nonetheless, if K&R arises because of mechanical constraints on what would otherwise be FCF, clathrin precoating is a possible candidate ( 2 ) that would be consistent with Zhu et al.
  51. prodynorphin
    Expression of neuromedin U receptor 2 (NMUR2) and prodynorphin was not affected in lamina I of mice treated with bombesin-sap ( Fig. 1, D to F , and fig. S3), nor was neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1) ( Fig. 1, G to I ), a lamina I and III gene expressed in a subset of neurons known for their involvement in nociceptive transmission ( 15 , 16 ).
  52. pruritogenic
    These mice showed profound scratching deficits in response to all of the itching (pruritogenic) stimuli tested, irrespective of their histamine dependence.
  53. pseudoreplicates
    Some insights can be gained from natural pseudoreplicates in space or time.
  54. radiometrically
    Several previous attempts to establish its timing from radiometrically dated archives have challenged the NHSI model ( 10 12 ).
  55. reacidifying
    Acute exposure to a vesicular H + -pump blocker, bafilomycin, abolished the rapid phase ( Fig. 1D ), indicating that it corresponds to internalization of probe into a reacidifying compartment, the lumen of retrieved vesicles.
  56. reracking
    Both instruments allow 384-well detection, 16-channel simultaneous readout, biosensor regeneration and reracking, and automation capabilities for biotherapeutic and pharmaceutical drug discovery assays.
  57. saporin
    Sap, saporin.
  58. semipalmated
    Within seconds, he confidently identifies it as a very lost (and thus very rare) semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) from North America.
  59. spanwise
    We then used the validated model to explore the effects of wing topography and deformation, first by removing camber while keeping the same time-varying twist distribution, and second by removing camber and spanwise twist.
  60. spinothalamic
    Our data also suggest that GRPR + neurons are different from the spinothalamic tract neurons that have been the focus of the debate.
  61. stricto
    This is a necessary condition that precedes the delineation of biogeographic provinces sensu stricto ( 6 , 9 ) and controls the development of global species richness.
  62. submodality
    E-mail: chenz{at}wustl.edu Itch has long been considered to be a submodality or subquality of pain ( 1 4 ), because the two sensations share many similarities ( 5 ).
  63. submodel
    Spread models generally consist of two submodel components: local population growth and dispersal ( 1 ).
  64. submodels
    We used the full stochastic spatial model, combining the best-fitting, independently estimated growth and dispersal submodels, to forecast population spread.
  65. subquality
    E-mail: chenz{at}wustl.edu Itch has long been considered to be a submodality or subquality of pain ( 1 4 ), because the two sensations share many similarities ( 5 ).
  66. superphysiological
    D-Amino acids released in stationary phase might influence B. subtilis PG synthesis by their incorporation into PG (as shown for D-Tyr in fig. S9) and/or by other mechanisms, such as alterations of the activity of B. subtilis PBPs. Gross changes in cell morphology occurred when B. subtilis was treated with superphysiological concentrations of D-Tyr (fig. S7), reinforcing the idea that D-amino acids regulate cell wall structure.
  67. thermotoga
    "Integrative Biology of Thermotoga maritima" Workshop, San Diego, CA, 9 to 10 July 2007 ( http://metagenomics.calit2.net/2007/thermotoga/ ).
  68. tricoated
    The assays are available with tissue culture treated plates, collagen I coated plates, fibronectin coated plates, or a tricoated version with all three surfaces.
  69. triosephosphate
    The surprisingly small number of folds arises from the fact that the most popular folds [e.g., the P-loop, triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel, and Rossmann folds] are overrepresented as compared with their frequency in the general protein population ( Fig. 3 ).
  70. tunablity
    Yet, the simplicity of cold gases, and in particular the tunablity of interaction strengths, makes them an ideal tool to understand basic many-body problems that have remained open for decades.
  71. uncambered
    The full-fidelity model achieved greater power economy than the uncambered model, which performed better than the untwisted model, showing that the details of insect wing topography and deformation are important aerodynamically.
  72. underlooked
    As the author wryly notes, "Many rare birds are undoubtedly overlooked just because the common ones are underlooked."
  73. unkown
    The interpretation of the loss rate is complicated because f(a,T) is unkown for k F a 1.
  74. unquenches
    When exocytosis is triggered, the loss of protons from the vesicle interior unquenches the pHluorin to generate a fluorescence increase, and this signal decays when the vesicle is reacidified after retrieval.
  75. upwash
    The simulation accurately captures the measured turning points in the downwash distribution at about one-third and two-thirds of wing length and also the crossing to upwash near the wingtip.
  76. uropathogenic
    Indeed, D-Ser present in human urine regulates uropathogenic E. coli virulence gene expression ( 10 ), and D-amino acids induce sporulation in Myxococcus xanthus ( 11 ).
  77. uti *
    uti , J. Fabian, S. Das Sarma, Rev. Mod. Phys.'
  78. wagtails
    This ability to perceive variation is especially important when studying hybrids, subspecies, cryptic species, and so-called "ring species" among already challenging-to-identify birds such as gulls, wagtails, and even some species of ducks and tits.

Sequestered[edit]