Wiktionary:About Hungarian

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See also Category:Hungarian language and Wiktionary:About Hungarian/Todo

(based on Wiktionary:Entry layout explained)

Note 1: This guide is intended to provide guidelines both for creating Hungarian entries on English Wiktionary as well as for adding Hungarian translations to English words. The main guidelines for creating any entry on English Wiktionary is set forth in Wiktionary:Entry layout explained; this page is an addition to that page, not a replacement.

Note 2: If a change occurs in the basic wiktionary template (currently at Wiktionary:Entry layout explained that affects Hungarian entries, then that change should be reflected here.


Creating Hungarian entries[edit]

Each Hungarian entry should be created under its standard spelling, including accents. For example, the words gaz and gáz will have separate pages, since there is a difference in the accents.

Hungarian categories[edit]

Formatting Hungarian entries[edit]

Lemma:   ház    
Non-lemma: házakat

Wiktionary will contain all words in the Hungarian language. Since Hungarian is an inflected language, this will eventually include all the inflected forms. The term lemma is used to refer to that basic or main form of the word, that which is usually listed as a headword in bi-lingual dictionaries. The entry for the lemma form (eg ház) will give the main English meaning of the word. Other forms, the non-lemma entries (eg házakat), will refer back to the lemma form. For information about choosing the correct form as lemma for each part of speech, see the various sections on parts of speech headers below.

Each entry must contain at least two headers ==Hungarian== and a POS, where "POS" is shorthand for "Part of speech header". The entry below shows this portion of the text for a noun, further details will follow below, but first the pre-POS headers will be considered:

----(used to produce a horizontal line when not the first language.)
==Hungarian==
===Noun===     (the POS header)

When a single page contains both Hungarian and non-Hungarian entries (such as the page for bog), the languages are listed in alphabetial order, but with English coming before other languages. Each language is separated from the preceding language by a horizontal line produced by typing four dashes, as demonstrated above.

Preferred sequence of sections[edit]

Each Hungarian entry should eventually include several sections, though not every entry will have all possible sections. Each section has a standard, invariant header and the sections occur in a standard sequence for all languages (See WT:ELE and this vote).

The following is the preferred sequence for standard sections, but please note that the Noun header is only one possible part of speech that may appear as the header. If the entry being created is for a Hungarian verb, then "Verb" should appear in place of the word "Noun" in the example below.

==Hungarian==
===Alternative forms===
===Etymology===
===Pronunciation===
===Noun===       (the POS header)
====Usage notes====
====Inflection====
====Quotations====
====Synonyms====
====Antonyms====
====Derived terms====
====Related terms====

This sequence is standard across all languages, although some entries may modify this structure when there is more than one word in a language with the same spelling. In these cases, there will be more than one Etymology section and/or more than one Pronunciation section.

Pre-POS headers[edit]

Details will be given for each of the three common pre-POS headers and the "See also" header.

{{also|xxx|XXX|Xxx}}
 
==Hungarian==
===Alternative forms===
===Etymology===
===Pronunciation===
===Noun===     (the POS header)

Also[edit]

This is not a header, and is not placed under any header. It uses the template {{also}}, providing a navigational aid in the form of links to words in any language with a very similar spelling.

The template is used only when additional pages exist with the same basic sequence of letters or characters, but with differences in capitalization, accents, other diacritical marks, hyphenation, etc. When it is used, the Also template should appear at the very top of the page, before all languages on that page. There, it will be easily seen by a user who has mistyped or is uncertain of the capitalisation, hyphenation, or accents in a word. For example, on the page for pan, the template displays as:

See also Pan, PAN, pan-, and Pan-

This template should never appear within a language section; it is placed at the head of the page. As a result, only one such tempate should be used per page. Additional documentation may be found at Template talk:also.

Alternative forms[edit]

When there are other possible spellings/variants, list them here.

Etymology[edit]

When it is known that a Hungarian word is derived from another Hungarian word, or a word in another language, that information should be included in the Etymology section. The following templates can be used in this section:

{{back-form|vizsgál|lang=hu}}
{{compound|záró|vizsga|lang=hu}}
{{hu-suffix|hajnal|odik}}
{{hu-prefix|meg|ígér}}

For participles, please see the Participles section on the page.

Slavic borrowings[edit]

Hungarian contains a number of prehistoric Slavic borrowings. Due to the scarcity of written evidence as well as the significant time distance that we're dealing with, it is impossible to pinpoint the exact origin. At best, in can be said that the Slavic word exhibits some features characteristic of South Slavic or West languages/dialects. The preferred way of formatting etymologies of such words is as follows (adopted from the etymology of ábráz):

===Etymology===
From a {{etyl|sla|hu}} language; compare Common Slavic {{term/t|sla-pro|*obrazъ}}.

In other words, no exact Slavic language is mentioned as the etymon (since individual Slavic languages were not yet "invented" in the period that these borrowings occurred), and a link is provided to Late Proto-Slavic (Common Slavic) reconstruction so that the interested reader can look up cognates in other (South and West) Slavic languages that the word is likely to originate from.

Pronunciation[edit]

The pronounciation section may contain among others the IPA template, the hyphenation template and the audio template.

  • IPA: Use // if the pronunciation is broadly explained, and not overly precise.
  • IPA: Use [] if the pronunciation transciption is precise and specific (such as for a particular regional dialect).
  • The lang=hu parameter in the IPA template will make IPA to point to the Wikipedia article on the Hungarian phonology. If the lang=hu parameter is missing, IPA will be linked to IPA chart for English.
  • The hyphenation indicates how a word is separated in printed text, not the spoken breaks (syllabification). These two kinds of breaks often do not occur in the same place for the written and spoken forms of a word. Use the {{hyphenation}} template and vertical bars according to the Hungarian hyphenation rules [1].
  • If there is an audio file uploaded to Commons, it can be added to the entry using the audio template. The file name must be Hu-xxx.ogg where xxx is the exact entry name.
===Pronunciation===
* {{IPA|/ˈhaːzon/|lang=hu}}
* {{audio|Hu-házon.ogg|Audio}}
* {{hyphenation|há|zon|lang=hu}}

Adjectives[edit]

Hungarian adjectives are genderless.

Lemma form[edit]

The lemma form of Hungarian adjectives is the nominative case and singular number. Entries for the lemma, for example magas should contain English translations of the word plus any relevant headers, such as Etymology, from the list above.

 ==Hungarian==             language header
 
 ===Adjective===           POS header
 {{hu-adj|abb}}            inflection line
 
 # [[high]]                English definition
 # [[tall]]

The inflection line is the line immediately following the parts of speech header. For the lemma this will usually have the extended form shown below for the example word magas.

magas (comparative magasabb, superlative legmagasabb, exaggerated legeslegmagasabb

Standard inflection lines are listed below with a brief explanation. For more information about this template, read the Template talk:hu-adj page.

{{hu-adj|-}}              for non-comparable adjectives
{{hu-adj|abb}}            for comparable adjectives
{{hu-adj|ebb}}            for comparable adjectives
{{hu-adj|bb}}             for comparable adjectives
{{hu-adj|comp=}}          for comparable adjectives with irregular comparative
{{hu-adj|comp=|sup=}}     for comparable adjectives with irregular comparative and superlative

Comparative form[edit]

  • Add comparative forms using the following model for magasabb:
==Hungarian==

===Adjective===
'''magasabb'''

# {{comparative of|magas|lang=hu}}

Superlative form[edit]

  • Add superlative forms using the following model for legmagasabb:
==Hungarian==

===Adjective===
'''legmagasabb'''

# {{superlative of|[[magas]]|lang=Hungarian}}

Exaggerated form[edit]

==Hungarian==

===Adjective===
'''legeslegmagasabb'''

# {{exaggerated of|magas|lang=hu}}

Nouns[edit]

==Hungarian==

===Noun===
{{head|hu|noun}}

# [[English definition]]
  • Use {{hu-noun}} if the noun has a plural that can be added to the stem:
{{hu-noun|k}}             hajó - hajók
{{hu-noun|ok}}            bolt - boltok
{{hu-noun|ek}}            kép - képek
{{hu-noun|ök}}            tőr - tőrök
{{hu-noun|ak}}            ház - házak
  • Use {{hu-noun}} with pl=full plural argument if the stem is modified in plural:
{{hu-noun|pl=álmok}}      álom - álmok
  • The following inflection line format may still be found in old entries and should be replaced with any of the above standards:
==Hungarian==

===Noun===
'''bolt'''

# [[shop]]

[[Category:Hungarian nouns]]

Plural forms[edit]

Create the plural form of nouns in the following format. Example:

asztalok

==Hungarian==

===Noun===
{{head|hu|noun form}}

# {{hu-inflection of|asztal|nom|p}}

The templates will place the noun into two categories: Category:Hungarian noun forms and Category:Hungarian noun forms - nominative.

Noun forms[edit]

  • Use {{head|hu|noun form}} in the inflection line.
  • Use {{hu-inflection of}} in the definition line. This will put the noun form into the appropriate category.
  • No need to add wikilinks to this entry.

See for example tavat, the singular accusative form of :

==Hungarian==

===Noun===
{{head|hu|noun form}}

# {{hu-inflection of|tó|acc|s}}
#: ''[[szeret|Szeretem]] ezt a tavat.'' - I like this lake.

Proper nouns[edit]

==Hungarian==

===Proper noun===
{{hu-proper noun}}

# [[English translation]]
==Hungarian==
{{wikipedia|lang=hu|Szilárd (keresztnév)}}

===Pronunciation===
* {{IPA|/ˈsilaːrd/|lang=hu}}
* {{hyphenation|Szi|lárd|lang=hu}}

===Proper noun===
{{hu-proper noun}}

# {{given name|male|lang=hu}}. Hungarian equivalent of [[Constantine]].
==Hungarian==

===Pronunciation===
* {{IPA|/ˈibojɒ/|lang=hu}}
* {{hyphenation|Ibo|lya|lang=hu}}

===Proper noun===
{{hu-proper noun}}

# {{given name|female|lang=hu}}. Hungarian equivalent of [[Violet]].

Declension[edit]

Use two templates under the Declension header. Template usage is described on the templates' talk page:

For example, asztal (table):

====Declension====
{{hu-decl-ok|aszta|l}}{{hu-pos-otok|asztal||ai}}

Numerals[edit]

Cardinal numbers[edit]

==Hungarian==
{{cardinalbox|hu|2|3|4|kettő|négy|ord=harmadik|wplink=3 (szám)}}

===Pronunciation===
* {{IPA|/ˈhaːrom/|lang=hu}}
* {{audio|Hu-három.ogg|Audio}}
* {{hyphenation|há|rom|lang=hu}}

===Numeral===
{{head|hu|numeral}}

# {{context|cardinal|lang=hu}} [[three]]
#: '''''Három''' könyvet vettem.'' - I bought three books.

Below is the list of cardinal numbers from 1 to 100, with 0 = nulla.

Ordinal numbers[edit]

==Hungarian==
{{ordinalbox|hu|2.|3.|4.|második|negyedik|card=három}}

===Pronunciation===
* {{IPA|/ˈhɒrmɒdik/|lang=hu}}
* {{hyphenation|har|ma|dik|lang=hu}}

===Numeral===
{{head|hu|numeral}}

# {{context|ordinal|lang=hu}} [[third]]
#: ''Boldog '''harmadik''' születésnapot!'' - Happy third birthday!

Below is the list of ordinal numbers from 1st to 100th, with 0th = nulladik.

Pronouns[edit]

Verbs[edit]

Lemma[edit]

  • Enter the lemma in third-person singular, e.g. nevet instead of the infinitive nevetni.
  • Add at least the minimal information shown below.
  • Use only the standard headers from the list above in the given order.
  • For the inflection line, there are two choices. The verb will automatically be added to Category:Hungarian verbs in both cases:
    {{head|hu|verb}}
    {{hu-verb}}
 ==Hungarian==
 
 ===Verb===
 {{head|hu|verb}}
 ==Hungarian==
 
 ===Verb===
 {{hu-verb}}

Conjugation[edit]

Add the conjugation template under the ====Conjugation==== header. For documentation, see Template:hu-conj/doc. If none of the current conjugation templates can be used for a particular verb, do not add a conjugation section.

Infinitive[edit]

==Hungarian==

===Verb===
{{head|hu|verb form}}

# {{hu-infinitive of|olvas|ni}}
  • If the infinitive and the lemma are different in structure (e.g. enni - eszik), use the lemma and ni:
==Hungarian==

===Verb===
{{head|hu|verb form}}

# {{hu-infinitive of|eszik|ni}}

Infinitive forms[edit]

==Hungarian==

===Verb===
{{head|hu|verb form}}

# {{hu-infinitive of|küld|enem}}

Participles[edit]

  • Use the {{hu-participle}} template to enter present, past, future, and adverbial participles.
  • The template will place the entry into the correct category based on the ending.
  • The template can be used in the Etymology section if there are adjective and noun meanings, or it can be placed in the verb section.

Present participle:

{{hu-participle|tanul|ó}}

Past participle:

{{hu-participle|tanul|t}}

Future participle:

{{hu-participle|tanul|andó}}

Adverbial participle:

{{hu-participle|tanul|va}}

Verb forms[edit]

==Hungarian==

===Verb===
{{head|hu|verb form}}

# {{hu-conjugation of|tud|1|s|indic|pres|def}}

Abbreviations[edit]

  • Use the {{head|hu|abbreviation}} template to enter abbreviations. See jan. for an example.

Hungarian in non-Hungarian entries[edit]

Besides Hungarian entries, Hungarian words may appear in two places within entries for words in other languages: (1) the Translations section of English entries, and (2) the Etymology section of non-Hungarian words derived from Hungarian.

Hungarian translations for English words[edit]

Hungarian words will appear in the Translations sections of English words. In general, only the lemma form of the Hungarian translation should be given, as described for each part of speech listed above.

An abbreviated table from the entry for example is shown below: (Click [Show] to expand the translation table.)

The template {{t}} should be used, it speeds up entry and will enable any later, global changes in format to be made.

The syntax below will give the output in grey that follows:

* Hungarian: {{t|hu|példa}}
* Hungarian: példa

The template is explained at Template_talk:t; it has the following arguments:

  1. hu – the ISO code for Hungarian
  2. példa – the word

The superscript (hu)   provides a link to Wikiszótár, specifically to the relevant word should it exist there. The text példa links to the entry for the Hungarian word in the English Wiktionary.

Two variants of the {{t}} template exist. These are {{t+}} and {{t-}}. The + or - in the name indicates whether Wikiszótár does or does not have a corresponding entry with this name. It is not necessary to check this. A bot automatically checks the entries, so if you are not sure, you may simply use {{t}} and the bot will adjust the template as necessary.

Etymology of non-Hungarian words[edit]

Some words in English and other languages derive from Hungarian. Such words will appear in the Descendants section of the Hungarian entry (as described above), but the Etymology section of each of those words will also link back to the Hungarian word from which it descends.

An example from the Romanian entry for șoim is shown below. The syntax on the following line will give the output in grey that follows:

From {{etyl|hu|ro}} {{term|sólyom|lang=hu}}
From Hungarian sólyom

The first template {{etyl}} is used to explain etymologies. This template takes two arguments: the ISO code for the source language, in this case hu (Hungarian), then the ISO code of the entry itself (the target language), in this case ro (Romanian). For English words that come from Hungarian (e.g. shako), this second argument is optional. For all other languages, the second argument is required, since the template will categorize the entry by etymology. For the example above, the template adds the entry to Category:Romanian terms derived from Hungarian. The template builds the category name directly from the given ISO code, so a missing or incorrect argument will cause the entry to be categorized incorrectly. More on the use of this template and others like it is available at Wiktionary:Etymology#Etymology_language_templates.

The second template {{term}} is explained at Template talk:term. In the example above, it has the following arguments:

  1. sólyom – the word (identifies the source word to be linked)
  2. lang=hu – specifies the source word is Hungarian

The first argument is required, as it is the target for the link generated by {{term}}.

The additional (named) argument lang=hu is not required by the template to function. However, it should always be included as a courtesy to users. This named argument ensures the link will lead to the Hungarian section of the target page. Technically, this argument is optional, but if it is omitted, the link will lead to the top of the target page rather than to the Hungarian entry on that page. Therefore, it is better practice to include this named argument.

An optional argument providing the English translation of the Hungarian word may also be included, as in the example from the Serbo-Croatian entry for alaša shown below. The syntax on the following line will give the output in grey that follows:

From {{etyl|hu|sh}} {{term|halász| |fisherman|lang=hu}}
From Hungarian (fisherman)

The English translation is included in the position of the third argument, however this argument is not necessary for the template to function. The second argument position is blank, and is never used for Hungarian derivations. But even though it is a blank, it must be present whenever the English translation is included.

Other Hungarian aids[edit]

In Wiktionary

In Wikipedia

External Links

  • Inflection and conjugation [2]
  • Hyphenation [3] (scroll down about four pages)
  • SZTAKI Dictionary [4] (English-Hungarian, Hungarian-English)
  • Hungarian Catholic Lexicon [5] in Hungarian
  • Kulturális enciklopédia [6] in Hungarian
  • Paczolay Gyula: 750 Hungarian proverbs [7] in Hungarian and English
  • Historical Dictionary Corpus [8]
  • Hungarian Fish Dictionary [9] in Hungarian
  • Lexicon [10] in Hungarian
  • Magyar Néprajzi Lexikon [11]
  • Hungarian Reference [12] in English