Wiktionary:About Marshallese

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Alphabet issues[edit]

There are currently display problem issues with five Marshallese letters:

Description Letter Unicode Issue
L-cedilla Ļ, ļ U+013B, U+013C Most fonts display this letter with a comma-below diacritic instead of a cedilla, to accommodate the expectations of the Latvian alphabet.
M-cedilla M̧, m̧ U+004D-U+0327, U+006D-U+0327 Not encoded as single glyph, and as such requires a combining diacritic that does not display or align properly in most fonts. When displayed properly, the cedilla is placed either beneath the middle of the letter or underneath the rightmost column of the letter (but not too far to the right).
N-cedilla Ņ, ņ U+0145, U+0146 Most fonts display this letter with a comma-below diacritic instead of a cedilla, to accommodate the expectations of the Latvian alphabet.
N-macron N̄, n̄ U+004E-U+0304, U+006E-U+0304 Not encoded as single glyph, and as such requires a combining diacritic that does not display or align properly in most fonts.
O-cedilla O̧, o̧ U+004F-U+0327, U+006F-U+0327 Not encoded as single glyph, and as such requires a combining diacritic that does not display or align properly in most fonts.

The characters given here are only approximations of the actual characters that are used in careful typesetting, but they are conditionally used until a better solution is found. Note especially that the sequences involving the combining macron character (U+304) or the combining cedilla character (U+0327) will not display correctly in the majority of fonts.

Only the standard diacritics are used in Wiktionary entries for Marshallese. Alternative schemes (particularly the Ḷ ḷ Ṃ ṃ Ṇ ṇ Ñ ñ Ọ ọ alternatives promoted by the Marshallese-English Dictionary) are not used. Three other letters with diacritics, Ā ā Ō ō Ū ū, are already well-displayed in most modern default browser fonts; alternative forms à ã Ä ä Õ õ Ö ö Ũ ũ Ü ü are not used.

Compare:

  • Arial: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Arial Unicode MS: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Calibri: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Cambria: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Candara: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Charis SIL: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Code2000: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Consolas: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Constantia: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Corbel: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Courier New: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Doulos SIL: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Gentium: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Gentium Plus: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Lucida Sans Unicode: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Segoe UI: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Tahoma: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū
  • Times New Roman: Ā ā Ļ ļ M̧ m̧ Ņ ņ N̄ n̄ O̧ o̧ Ō ō Ū ū

Pronunciation template[edit]

Marshallese pronunciations are embedded using a special template, {{mh-ipa-rows}}. For example:

{{mh-ipa-rows|mh|hah|ah|J|yeh|lh}}

embeds:

  • MED Phonemes: {m̧ahjeļ}
  • IPA Phonemes: /mˠaɰtʲɜlˠ/
  • IPA Articulation: [mˠɑɑ̯zʲɛ͡ʌɫ]

The template describes both phonology and articulation, with each of the phonetic transcriptions accepting or ignoring certain details. See Marshallese phonology on Wikipedia for details on Marshallese phonotactics. For each code argument:

Code MEDP IPAP IPAA Notes
_       Space character.
- - - - Dash character.
Consonants
m m
(m) m
^m
mh
(mh)
^mh
n n
(n) n
^n
nh ņ ɳˠ
(nh) ņ
^nh ɳˠ
nw ņʷ ɳʷ
(nw) ņʷ
^nw ɳʷ
ng g ŋ ŋ
(ng) g ŋ
^ng ŋ
ngw ŋʷ ŋʷ
(ngw) ŋʷ
^ngw ŋʷ
p p Voiceless.
P p Voiced.
(p) p
p' p Unreleased.
^p'
b b Voiceless.
B b Voiced.
(b) b
b' b Unreleased.
^b'
j j Voiceless.
J j Voiced.
(j) j
j' j Unreleased.
^j'
t t Voiceless.
T t Voiced.
(t) t
t' t Unreleased.
^t'
k k k k Voiceless.
K k k ɡ Voiced.
(k) k k
k' k k k Unreleased.
^k' k
kw Voiceless.
KW ɡʷ Voiced.
^KW ɡʷ
(kw)
kw' Unreleased.
^kw'
d d r̪ʲ
(d) d
^d r̪ʲ
r r
(r) r
^r
rw
(rw)
^rw
l l
(l) l
^l
lh ļ ɫ
(lh) ļ
^lh ɫ
lw ļʷ ɫʷ
(lw) ļʷ
^lw ɫʷ
Approximants / Semivowels
yu, uy y j
yo, oy y j
ye, ey y j ɛ̯
ya, ay y j æ̯
(y) y j
hu, uh h ɰ ɯ̯
ho, oh h ɰ ɤ̯
he, eh h ɰ ʌ̯
ha, ah h ɰ ɑ̯
(h) h ɰ
wu, uw w w
wo, ow w w
we, ew w w ɔ̯
wa, aw w w ɒ̯
(w) w w
Code MEDP IPAP IPAA Notes
Vowels / Diphthongs
yuy i ɨ i
^yuy (i) Epenthetic.
yuy' i' ɨ̯ Asyllabic.
yuh i ɨ i͡ɯ
^yuh (i͡ɯ) Epenthetic.
yuh' i' ɨ̯ i̯͡ɯ̯ Asyllabic.
yuw i ɨ i͡u
^yuw (i͡u) Epenthetic.
yuw' i' ɨ̯ i̯͡u̯ Asyllabic.
huy i ɨ ɯ͡i
^huy (ɯ͡i) Epenthetic.
huy' i' ɨ̯ ɯ̯͡i̯ Asyllabic.
huh i ɨ ɯ
^huh (ɯ) Epenthetic.
huh' i' ɨ̯ ɯ̯ Asyllabic.
huw i ɨ ɯ͡u
^huw (ɯ͡u) Epenthetic.
huw' i' ɨ̯ ɯ̯͡u̯ Asyllabic.
wuy i ɨ u͡i
^wuy (u͡i) Epenthetic.
wuy' i' ɨ̯ u̯͡i̯ Asyllabic.
wuh i ɨ u͡ɯ
^wuh (u͡ɯ) Epenthetic.
wuh' i' ɨ̯ u̯͡ɯ̯ Asyllabic.
wuw i ɨ u
^wuw (u) Epenthetic.
wuw' i' ɨ̯ Asyllabic.
yoy ɘ e
^yoy (e) Epenthetic.
yoy' ẹ' ɘ̯ Asyllabic.
yoh ɘ e͡ɤ
^yoh (e͡ɤ) Epenthetic.
yoh' ẹ' ɘ̯ e̯͡ɤ̯ Asyllabic.
yow ɘ e͡o
^yow (e͡o) Epenthetic.
yow' ẹ' ɘ̯ e̯͡o̯ Asyllabic.
hoy ɘ ɤ͡e
^hoy (ɤ͡e) Epenthetic.
hoy' ẹ' ɘ̯ ɤ̯͡e̯ Asyllabic.
hoh ɘ ɤ
^hoh (ɤ) Epenthetic.
hoh' ẹ' ɘ̯ ɤ̯ Asyllabic.
how ɘ ɤ͡o
^how (ɤ͡o) Epenthetic.
how' ẹ' ɘ̯ ɤ̯͡o̯ Asyllabic.
woy ɘ o͡e
^woy (o͡e) Epenthetic.
woy' ẹ' ɘ̯ o̯͡e̯ Asyllabic.
woh ɘ o͡ɤ
^woh (o͡ɤ) Epenthetic.
woh' ẹ' ɘ̯ o̯͡ɤ̯ Asyllabic.
wow ɘ o
^wow (o) Epenthetic.
wow' ẹ' ɘ̯ Asyllabic.
yey e ɜ ɛ
^yey (ɛ) Epenthetic.
yey' e' ɜ̯ ɛ̯ Asyllabic.
yeh e ɜ ɛ͡ʌ
^yeh (ɛ͡ʌ) Epenthetic.
yeh' e' ɜ̯ ɛ̯͡ʌ̯ Asyllabic.
yew e ɜ ɛ͡ɔ
^yew (ɛ͡ɔ) Epenthetic.
yew' e' ɜ̯ ɛ̯͡ɔ̯ Asyllabic.
hey e ɜ ʌ͡ɛ
^hey (ʌ͡ɛ) Epenthetic.
hey' e' ɜ̯ ʌ̯͡ɛ̯ Asyllabic.
heh e ɜ ʌ
^heh (ʌ) Epenthetic.
heh' e' ɜ̯ ʌ̯ Asyllabic.
hew e ɜ ʌ͡ɔ
^hew (ʌ͡ɔ) Epenthetic.
hew' e' ɜ̯ ʌ̯͡ɔ̯ Asyllabic.
wey e ɜ ɔ͡ɛ
^wey (ɔ͡ɛ) Epenthetic.
wey' e' ɜ̯ ɔ̯͡ɛ̯ Asyllabic.
weh e ɜ ɔ͡ʌ
^weh (ɔ͡ʌ) Epenthetic.
weh' e' ɜ̯ ɔ̯͡ʌ̯ Asyllabic.
wew e ɜ ɔ
^wew (ɔ) Epenthetic.
wew' e' ɜ̯ ɔ̯ Asyllabic.
yay a a æ
^yay (æ) Epenthetic.
yay' a' æ̯ Asyllabic.
yah a a æ͡ɑ
^yah (æ͡ɑ) Epenthetic.
yah' a' æ̯͡ɑ̯ Asyllabic.
yaw a a æ͡ɒ
^yaw (æ͡ɒ) Epenthetic.
yaw' a' æ̯͡ɒ̯ Asyllabic.
hay a a ɑ͡æ
^hay (ɑ͡æ) Epenthetic.
hay' a' ɑ̯͡æ̯ Asyllabic.
hah a a ɑ
^hah (ɑ) Epenthetic.
hah' a' ɑ̯ Asyllabic.
haw a a ɑ͡ɒ
^haw (ɑ͡ɒ) Epenthetic.
haw' a' ɑ̯͡ɒ̯ Asyllabic.
way a a ɒ͡æ
^way (ɒ͡æ) Epenthetic.
way' a' ɒ̯͡æ̯ Asyllabic.
wah a a ɒ͡ɑ
^wah (ɒ͡ɑ) Epenthetic.
wah' a' ɒ̯͡ɑ̯ Asyllabic.
waw a a ɒ
^waw (ɒ) Epenthetic.
waw' a' ɒ̯ Asyllabic.

Entry collation[edit]

When sorting entries for categorization, a simple ASCII-based transcription can properly collate Marshallese entries in Marshallese word categories. Use all lowercase for sorting, and include spaces and dashes as normally included in the entry. And for letters with diacritics:

ā ļ ņ ō ū
a~ l~ m~ n~ n~~ o~ o~~ u~

So, a word like M̧ajōļ would be collated m~ajo~~l~.

Marshallese-English Dictionary reference template[edit]

The Marshallese-English Dictionary is the only complete Marshallese dictionary in existence, and has one significant online location. The template {{meod-ref}} links to that location, and the template can be updated in case that location changes. The template can accept up to five arguments, each a separate reference. For each reference, only the URL substring immediately following MOD/ need be provided.