bourgeois

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English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from French bourgeois (a class of citizens who were wealthier members of the Third Estate), from Anglo-Norman burgeis (town dweller), from Old French borjois, from borc (town), from Proto-Germanic *burgz (fortress), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰrgʰ- (fortified elevation). The path from Proto-Germanic to Old French is unclear. Perhaps via Frankish *burg or Late Latin *burgus, or possibly both. See also the related word burgess.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (UK) IPA(key): /ˈbɔːʒ.wɑː/, /ˈbʊəʒ.wɑː/
  • (file)
  • (US) IPA(key): /bu(ɹ)ʒ.ˈwɑː/, /ˈbu(ɹ)ʒ.wɑː/, /ˈbʊəʒ.wɑː/
  • (file)

Adjective[edit]

bourgeois (comparative more bourgeois, superlative most bourgeois)

  1. Of or relating to the middle class, (chiefly pejorative) their presumed overly conventional, conservative, and materialistic values.
    bourgeois opinion
  2. (historical) Of or relating to the bourgeoisie, the Third Estate of the French Ancien Regime.
  3. (Marxism) Of or relating to the upper class, (usually pejorative) the capitalist exploitation of the proletariat.
Derived terms[edit]
Synonyms[edit]
  • (conventional, conservative): square
Translations[edit]

Noun[edit]

bourgeois (uncountable)

  1. (politics, collectively, usually plural) The middle class.
  2. (rare) An individual member of the middle class.
  3. (usually pejorative) A person of any class with bourgeois (i.e., overly conventional and materialistic) values and attitudes.
  4. (historical) An individual member of the bourgeoisie, the Third Estate of the French Ancien Regime.
  5. (Marxism) A capitalist, (usually pejorative) an exploiter of the proletariat.
Related terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English burjois, from French Bourgois, probably from Bourges (the French city) + -ois (forming adjectives) but possibly from bourgeois above or from Jean de Bouregois who worked as a printer in Rouen c. 1500.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bourgeois (uncountable)

  1. (printing, dated) A size of type between brevier and long primer, standardized as 9-point.
Synonyms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Translations[edit]

Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from French bourgeois.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

bourgeois m (plural bourgeois, diminutive bourgeoistje n)

  1. bourgeois

Related terms[edit]


French[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Anglo-Norman burgeis (town dweller), from Old French borjois, from borc (town), from Proto-Germanic *burgz (fortress), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰrgʰ- (fortified elevation). The path from Proto-Germanic to Old French is unclear. Perhaps via Frankish *burg or Late Latin *burgus, or possibly both, and probably through the Late Latin intermediate burgensis. Compare Italian borghese, Portuguese burguês, Spanish burgués.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

bourgeois m (feminine bourgeoise, masculine plural bourgeois, feminine plural bourgeoises)

  1. bourgeois

Derived terms[edit]

Noun[edit]

bourgeois m (plural bourgeois, feminine bourgeoise)

  1. member of the middle class
  2. bourgeois

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

External links[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From French, itself from a Germanic origin.

Adjective[edit]

bourgeois (comparative bourgeoiser, superlative am bourgeoisesten)

  1. bourgeois

Declension[edit]

External links[edit]