brīvs

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

A borrowing from Middle Low German or Middle Dutch vri, vrie (cf. German frei, Dutch vrij), from Proto-Germanic *frija- (with free neck (as opposed to slaves)). The sequence fr was changed to Latin br. First mentioned in 17th-century dictionaries, brīvs was originally used in the context of German political and administrative power, and referred to more specific German legal concepts (a certain privilege or right, etc.). All other senses were rendered, still in the 18th century, with other words, like svabads (free), svabadība (freedom), vaļa (free(dom)).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

brīvs (definite brīvais, comparative brīvāks, superlative visbrīvākais, adverb brīvi)

  1. free (politically, socially, economically or juridically independent)
    brīvs cilvēks, pilsonisfree person, citizen
    brīva valsts, tautafree country, people
    dzīvot brīvā zemē — to live in a free land
    brīva dzīvefree life
  2. free (not in prison or captivity)
    bet vai es biju cietumā? ne, es biju brīvs! — but was I in prison? no, I was free!
  3. free (of, from) (having no obligations or duties, no worries)
    brīvs kā putns kokāfree as a bird on a tree (i.e., carefree)
    brīvs no aizspriedumiemfree of prejudice, bias
    viņa vēlējās būt brīva no jebkādām raizēm — she wanted to be free of all worries
    viņa beidzot patiesi bija jutusies brīva no daudzām drūmām domām — she finally felt truly free from many gloomy thoughts
  4. free (not restrained, not regulated, without hindrance, without constraints)
    brīva prese, māksla, izvēlefree press, art, choice
    brīvas vēlēšanasfree elections
    brīva tirdzniecībafree trade
    brīvā tirgus saimniecībafree market economy
    brīvā konkurencefree competition
    brīva fantāzijafree fantasy, imagination
    brīvs kritiensfree fall
    brīvs tulkojumsfree (i.e., not literal) translation
    brīva dzejafree verse (i.e., without metric and rhyme)
  5. loose, comfortable
    pilnīgiem cilvēkiem apģērbs jāgatavo brīvs — clothes for full (i.e., overweight) people must be made loose (lit. free)
  6. free (loose, untied)
    brīvais virves gals — the free, loose end of the rope
    šīs rokas bija brīvas, nu važās kaltas — these hands were free, now they are in chains
  7. free, unconstrained, natural
    brīvas kustībasfree movements
    mākslinieces dejojuma rotaļīgums un grācija, viņas brīvā, nepiespiestā izturēšanās — the dance artist's playfulness and grace, her free, relaxed demeanor
  8. free (which does not need to be paid for)
    brīvs uztursfree food, eating
    par brīvu — for free (without pay)
    slidotavā ieeja būs brīva — in the skating rink entrance will be free
  9. (of time or space) free, vacant, empty, unoccupied, not in use
    brīva vieta vagonāfree place in the train car
    brīvs laukumsfree space
    brīvs krēslsfree chair
    vai šī vieta ir brīva? — is this place free?
    brīva pēcpusdienafree afternoon
    brīvs laiksfree time
    būšu brīvs pēc pusstundas — I will be free in half an hour
    nav neviena brīva brīža — there is no free moment
  10. (of work positions) free, vacant
    rūpnīcā bija brīva inženiera vieta — in the factory there is a free position for an engineer
  11. free (currently not in use, not busy, available)
    brīvi līdzekļifree resources, means
    brīva naudafree money
  12. (chemistry) free (not chemically combined with other substances)
    brīvs ūdeņradis, skābeklisfree hydrogen, oxygen
    brīva forforskābefree phosphoric acid

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Antonyms[edit]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ “brīvs” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.