burocracy

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English[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From French bureaucratie, coined by Jean Claude Marie Vincent de Gournay (died 1759) from bureau (office) + -cratie (rule of), equivalent to buro +‎ -cracy.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

burocracy (plural bureaucracies)

  1. Structure and regulations in place to control activity. Usually in large organizations and government operations.
    • 1963, Henry Louis Mencken, The American language: an inquiry into the development of English in the United States.[1], edition Digitized, published 2009, page 491:
      … 1962 Style Book, p63, specifies the following: aging, altho, ameba, analog, apolog, burocracy, burocratic, …
    • 2009, Joan Cabestany, Francisco Sandoval, Alberto Prieto, Bio-Inspired Systems: Computational and Ambient Intelligence[2], Springer, ISBN 9783642024771, page 525:
      In this way, inter-unit relationships can be specified in order to define at communication level some well-known agent organizations model such as hierachies, burocracies, federations, etc.
    • 2010, Bert Hedeman, Gabor Vis van Heemst, Hans Fredriksz, Project Manaagement Based on Principle2, 2009[3], Van Haren Publishing, ISBN 9789087534967, page 173:
      Burocracy is a choice!
    • 2011, Geoff Turner, Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on on Intellectual Capital[4], Academic Conferences Limited, ISBN 9781906638948, page 190:
      … namely the non human structure that enables a country generate future benefits: business structure, burocracy, …
    • 2012, Armando P Ribas, Rule of Law: The Path to Freedom[5], Stockcero, ISBN 9781934768518, page 107:
      But still more, even Marx himself in his criticism of Hegel's Theory of the State recognized the actual behavior of burocracy in contradiction …

Related terms[edit]

Translations[edit]