ciešs

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the same stem as Latvian ciets (hard, solid), from which it was a variant yo-stem: Proto-Indo-European *key- (to set in motion, to move) with a variant -tyo-s of an (adjectivizing) suffix -to-s > Proto-Baltic *keityas > *kietyas > ciešs. It is also possible that the adverbial form cieti of ciets first gave rise to a variant *cieši via palatalization, from which came the adjective ciešs. In some dialects, ciešs still means the same as ciets, but in the standard literary language they are semantically distinct.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

ciešs (def. ciešais, comp. ciešāks, sup. visciešākais; adv. cieši)

  1. dense, tight (with component parts that are linked or very close to each other)
    ciešs audumstight fabric, cloth
    cieša ziedkopatight, dense inflorescence
    ciešs krāvums, tinumstight stacking, winding
  2. tight, close (with people standing close to each other)
    sastāties ciešā lokā — to stand in a tight, close circle
    cieša kolonnatight, close column
  3. (figuratively) close, united
    ciešā saimē izcīnīsim cīņu — as (lit. in) a close family we will win the fight
  4. (of clothes, ties, etc.) tight, close (strongly bound, tied)
    ciešs līmējums, mezglstight bond, knot
    cieša apkaklītetight collar
  5. (of movements) tight, strong, determined
    ciešs rokas spiedienstight handshake
    cieši sakost zobus — to clech one's teeth tight
  6. (of relations) tight, close, strong
    cieša sadarbībaclose cooperation
    ciešas saites ar kolektīvuclose ties with the team
    uzturēt ciešus sakarus ar draudzīgām zemēm — to maintain close contact, relations with friendly countries
  7. (of thoughts, ideas, promises) tight, strong, rigid, unalterable
    cieša parliecība, ticība, norunastrong belief, faith, agreement
    ciešs solījumssolemn promise
  8. (of sleep) tight, deep
    viņš gan naktī neesot nekā dzirdējis, gulējis ciešu miegu — he had heard nothing during the night, (he) slept a tight sleep
  9. (of looks) tight, hard, attentive, concentrated
    Frickalna pelēkajām acīm arvien bija ciešs skatiens, it kā viņš pētītu to, ko sarunu biedrs nepasaka — Frickalns' gray eyes had a tight, concentrated look, as if he were studying what his conversation partner did not say
  10. (adverbial form; of people, objects) tightly close, very near (syn. ciets)
    pienākt cieši klāt — to come very close
    sēdēt cieši kopā — to sit close together

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

  • (of "with parts very close to each other"): blīvs
  • (of "sleep"; "close by"; "strong (movement)"; "concentrated (look)"): ciets

Antonyms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “ciets” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (Rīga: AVOTS) ISBN: 9984-700-12-7.