degt

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *deg- (Proto-Balto-Slavic infinitive *deg-tei[1]), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰegʷʰ- (to burn). Cognates include Lithuanian dègti, Sudovian degt, Old Prussian dagis (summer) (cf. Lithuanian dagà (scorching sun)), Proto-Slavic *žeg- < *geg- < *deg- (Old Church Slavonic жєщи (žešti), Russian жгу (I burn), Belarusian жгаць (žhacʹ), Ukrainian dialectal жегти (žehty)), Middle Irish daig, genitive dega (fire, pain), Gothic 𐌳𐌰𐌲𐍃 (dags, day), English day, Sanskrit दहति (dáhati, to burn, to consume), Latin foveō (to keep warm), favilla (embers, cinders) (< *dʰogʷʰ-), Tocharian A tsäk-, Tocharian B tsak (to burn).[2]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Verb[edit]

degt intr., 1st conj., pres. degu, dedz, deg, past degu

  1. (of objects, substances) to burn (to be consumed by fire)
    degt lēni, strauji — to burn slowly, quickly
    degt ar spožu liesmu — to burn with a bright flame
    degt bez dūmiem — to burn without smoke
    papiross deg — the cigarette is burning
    māja, pilsēta, mežs deg — the house, the city, the forest is burning
    malka deg krāsnī — the firewood is burning in the stove
    slapjie žagari slikti deg — wet birches burn badly
  2. (only 3rd person, of fire itself) to burn
    pakalna vidū neliel ieplakā deg ugunskurs... deg gaiši, līksmi, priecīgi — in the middle of the hill, in a little hollow place, the campfire is burning... it burns bright, cheerful, happy
    krāsnī gaiši dega uguns, sarkanām mēlēm laizīdama lielās, sausās egļu pagales — in the stove the fire burned bright, licking the big, dry spruce logs with (its) red tongues
  3. (of food, pans, etc.) to burn (to be heated, roasted, baked etc. in excess)
    gaļa deg pannā — the meat is burning in a pan
    maize krāsnī deg — the bread is burning in the oven
    panna deg — the pan is burning
  4. (of substances) to burn (to be flammable, to be capable of burning)
    labi deg arī dažu viegli gaistošu šķidrumu: ētera, spirta, acetona, benzola, benzīna un citu — several volatile fluids also burn well: ether, alcohol, acetone, benzene, gasoline and others
  5. (of objects) to burn, to be on (to produce heat and/or light)
    gāzes plīts deg — the gas stove is burning (= on)
    sērkociņš deg — the match is burning
    lāpa deg — the torch is burning (= on)
    uz galda deg tauku svece — on the table a fat candle was burning
    pazemē šahtā deg dienasgaismas spuldzes — underground, in the mine, the fluorescent lights are burning (= are on)
    pārbaudīt, vai spuldzes deg — to check if the light bulb works (lit. burns)
    gaisma deg visās istabās — the light is on (lit. burning) in all rooms
  6. (of heavenly bodies) to burn, to shine brightly, to produce light
    bet augšā deg liela, liela, balta saule, un zilās debesis ir bezgalīgi dziļas un plašas — but up above a big, big white sun is burning, and the blue sky is infinitely deep and wide
    viņai likās, ka zvaigznes, kas spožas un dzirkstošas dega pie rudens debess, mirkšķina viņai — it seemed to her that the stars, which were burning (= shining) sparkingly on the autumn sky, were winking at her
  7. (of people, their body parts) to burn (to feel an intense feeling of heat, or an intense irritation, intense pain; also metaphorically)
    karstā ūdenī rokas deg — (one's) hands burn in hot water
    seja deg saulē — (his) face burns in the sun
    rokas deg no sala — (his) hands are burning from the frost
    vējā vaigi deg — (one's) cheeks burn in the cool wind
    vaigi deg aiz kauna — (one's) cheeks burn with shame
    kad lapsene iedur, tā vieta deg tikpat kā ugunī — when a wasp stings, the place burns just like fire
    ēšanu vēl varētu paciest, bet slāpes bija neizturamas... mute izkaltusi, un rīkle dega kā izplucināta — eating could be tolerated, but the thirst was unbearable... the mouth was dry, and the throat burned as if scalded
  8. (figuratively, of illnesses, ill people) to burn, to be hot (to have a fever)
    slimais deg kā ugunī — the sick person was burning as if in a fire (= had a strong fever)
    bērns dega kā uguns un drebēja no sala — the child was hot like fire and trembled from the cold
    mājās pārbraukusi, degu un karšu... laikam esmu apsaldējusies un man sacēlies drudzis, es domāju un izmērīju temperatūru — having returned home, I am burning and hot... maybe I've caught a cold and now have a fever, I think and measure (my) temperature
  9. (figuratively, colloquial, of hay, grass, etc.) to heat up in humidity, in humid conditions}}
    slapjais siens šķūnī deg — the wet hay is burning in the barn
    zaļbarība kaudzē deg — the grass fodder is burning in a pile
  10. (figuratively, of people, their feelings) to burn (to feel an emotion very strongly; to desire something very strongly)
    degt ilgās — to burn with (lit. in) longing, desire
    degt dusmās — to burn with (lit. in) anger
    degt aizrautībā — to burn with (lit. in) passion
    degt priekā — to burn with (lit. in) joy
    degt ziņkārē — to burn with (lit. in) curiosity
    degtin degt pēc darba — to burn (= yearn) for work
    viņš deg par moderno mūziku — he burns (= is enthusiastic) about modern music
    brīvības ilgas dega tautā visu garo verdzības nakti — the desire for freedom burned in the people all through the long night of slavery
    sejas dega satraukumā, un lūpas bija pavērtas brīvības saucienam — (their) faces burned with (lit. in) excitement, and (their) lips were open to cries of freedom
    degdams naidā pret latviešu tautas, tās valodas un kultūras noniecinātājiem, Kronvaldu Atis uzbrūk feodālajiem vācu kungiemburning with (lit. in) hate against those who belittled the Latvian people, their language and culture, Atis Kronvalds attacked the German feudal lords
    tu sajūti, ka esi dzīvs, ka vari degt par visu jauno — you feel that you are alive, that you can burn (= yearn) for everything new
  11. (figuratively, in the 3rd person, of fights, struggles) to burn (to happen intensely)
    deg nemieri valsts sirdī pašā — unrest is burning in the very heart of the country
  12. (figuratively, in the 3rd person, colloquial) to be urgent, to be in a hurry
    bet es varu pagaidīt; man vēl nedeg — but I can wait; I am not yet in a hurry (lit. it is not yet burning to me)
    es arī aizskrēju uz upmalu... pabradāju, papeldējos un tūlīt atkal uz mājām... “tu tā bizo? kas tev deg?” — I also ran to the river bank... I paddle and swim a little and then I go immediately back home. “(why) are you galloping like that? what is burning to you? (= why the hurry?)”

Conjugation[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Except in metaphorical uses (“to have a fever,” “to burn with anger,” etc.), degt usually occurs only in the third person.

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

prefixed verbs:
other derived terms:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ronald Kim (forth.), The phonology of Balto-Slavic, In: Handbook of Indo-European Studies, ed. M. Weiss & A. Garrett, OUP
  2. ^ “degt” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7