du

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Contents

Alemannic German[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. you

Declension[edit]


Amanab[edit]

Noun[edit]

du

  1. a kind of bird

Breton[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *dubus (black), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ- (black).

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

du

  1. black
  2. swollen
  3. starved

Noun[edit]

du m

  1. black

Mutation[edit]


Cornish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *dubus (black), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ- (black).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Revived Middle Cornish) IPA(key): [dyː]
  • (Revived Late Cornsh) IPA(key): [diˑʊ]

Adjective[edit]

du

  1. black

Danish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂ (you).

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du (objective dig)

  1. (personal) you (2nd person singular subject pronoun, informal)
See also[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse duga.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • IPA(key): /duː/, [d̥uːˀ]

Verb[edit]

du (imperative du, present dur or duer, past duede, past participle duet)

  1. be good
  2. be fit

Dena'ina[edit]

Particle[edit]

du

  1. interrogative particle (placed at the end of the sentence to make a question)

Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Middle Dutch du, from Old Dutch thū, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. (obsolete or dialectal) Second-person singular, subjective; thou.

Elfdalian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂. Cognate with Swedish du.

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. you (singular), thou

Esperanto[edit]

Esperanto cardinal numbers
1 2 3
    Cardinal : du
    Ordinal : dua
    Adverbial : due
    Multiplier : duobla

Etymology[edit]

From Latin duo, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁.

Pronunciation[edit]

Cardinal numeral[edit]

du

  1. (cardinal) two (2)

Derived terms[edit]


French[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Contraction[edit]

du

  1. contraction of de + le (of the).
  2. contraction of de + le, forms the partitive article.
    The partitive article signifies "some", but it often is not translated in English, Dutch, or German.

German[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • Du (pre-reform orthography, now becoming rare)

Etymology[edit]

From Old High German du (akin to Old Saxon thu and English thou), itself from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (standard, generally) IPA(key): /duː/
  • (standard, after the verb ending -st) IPA(key): /uː/ (not using this contraction sounds pedantic)
  • (colloquially in unstressed position) IPA(key): /də/

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. you (singular familiar)

Usage notes[edit]

  • As a simplified rule one can say that du is used among friends, relatives, and young people up to 25~30 years. Du is always used to address children up to 14~16 years, as well as gods, animals, and other creatures.
  • Usage also depends a lot on the setting in which people meet: two unacquainted, middle-aged persons are quite likely to use du when they meet, for example, in a pub, but much less so when they meet in the street.
  • Native English-speakers often use Sie too much. It is nevertheless advisable to use Sie in any case of doubt, because it may be rude to use du when the dialogue partner expects Sie.

Inflection[edit]

In contemporary German, the genitive forms of personal pronouns are restricted to formal style and are unfrequent even there. They may be used

  • for the genitive object still found in a handful of verbs: Er erbarmte sich deiner. – "He had mercy on you". (Colloquially one would either use the dative case, or a prepositional object, or replace the verb with another.)
  • after the preposition statt ("instead of, in place of"): Ich kam statt deiner in die Mannschaft. – "I joined the team in your place." (This sounds antiquated, for which reason an deiner Statt or an deiner Stelle is preferable. Nota bene: deiner here is not a genitive, but a possessive pronoun!)

Derived terms[edit]

External links[edit]

  • du in Duden online

Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

du

  1. Romanization of 𐌳𐌿

Ido[edit]

Cardinal numeral[edit]

du

  1. (cardinal) two (2)

Kurdish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Iranian *duu̯a (compare Persian دو (do), Pashto دوه (dwa), Avestan 𐬛𐬬𐬀 (dva)), from Proto-Indo-Iranian (compare Sanskrit द्व (dvá), Marathi दोन (don), Hindi दो (do)/Urdu دو (do), Punjabi ਦੋ ()), from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁ (compare Russian два (dva), Lithuanian du, Greek δύο (dýo), Spanish dos, English two).

Cardinal numeral[edit]

du

  1. (cardinal) two (2)

Lithuanian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Baltic *duwō, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁. Compare Latvian divi. Cognate to Latin duo.

Cardinal numeral[edit]

du m (feminine dvi)

  1. (cardinal) two (2)

Declension[edit]


Lojban[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Derived from dunli.

Pronunciation[edit]

Cmavo[edit]

du (rafsi dub or du'o)

  1. (identity selbri) x1 equals x2, x3, x4, ...
    li pa su'i vo du li mu
    one plus four equals five

See also[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *jьdǫ (first-person singular) and *jьdǫtь (third-person plural), inflected forms of *jьti.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

du

  1. first-person singular present of hyś
  2. third-person plural present of hyś

Synonyms[edit]

  • (first-person singular) źom

Luxembourgish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *þū.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. second-person singular, nominative: you
    Wéi al bass du? — How old are you?

Declension[edit]


Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

du

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .
  4. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Middle Dutch[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch thū, from Proto-Germanic *þū.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. thou, you (singular, informal)

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

This pronoun began to be replaced by gi in formal address during the Middle Dutch period, and eventually fell out of use altogether.

Synonyms[edit]


Norman[edit]

Noun[edit]

du m

  1. duke

Related terms[edit]


Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronoun[edit]

du (objective case deg)

  1. you (second person, singular)

References[edit]

See also[edit]


Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du (objective case deg)

  1. you (second person, singular)

References[edit]

See also[edit]


Novial[edit]

Novial cardinal numbers
1 2 3
    Cardinal : du
    Ordinal : duesmi

Numeral[edit]

du

  1. (cardinal) two



Old French[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Contraction[edit]

du

  1. contraction of de + le (of the)

Old High German[edit]

one drawing of the inscription on the Bülach fibula

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *þū, whence also Old English þu, Old Norse þú, and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂. Perhaps the earliest attestation of the pronoun is the inscription on the Bülach fibula, which may show ᛞᚢ (du) already differentiated from other Germanic languages’ þu.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. you (second-person singular pronoun)
    • 3rd-6th century, inscription on the Bülach fibula:
      ᚠᚱᛁᚠᚱᛁᛞᛁᛚ / ᛞᚢ / ...
      frifridil / du / []
      Frifridil, you / []

Descendants[edit]

  • German: du

See also[edit]

  • fridil (a pet name for a male lover)

References[edit]

  • Heinz Klingenberg, Runenfibel von Bülach, Kanton Zürich. Liebesinschrift aus alemannischer Frühzeit, in the Alemannisches Jahrbuch (1973/75), page 308
  • Heinz Klingenberg, Die Runeninschrift aus Bülach, in Helvetia archaeologica, volume 7 (1976), pages 116–121
  • Stephan Opitz, Südgermanische Runeninschriften im älteren Futhark aus der Merowingerzeit (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1977)

Romanian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

du

  1. second-person singular imperative form of duce.
    Du-te acasă.
    Go home.

Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Swedish þu, from Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þū, from Proto-Indo-European *túh₂.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

du

  1. (personal) you (familiar sg.).
  2. (personal) thou.

Usage notes[edit]

While du is the traditionally familiar mode of address, it is since the early '70s the standard in almost all circumstances, possibly capitalized in formal communications. Recently, use of the second-person plural pronoun ni as a less familiar (and thus more formal) pronoun has appeared to some extent, but mainly amongst shopkeepers towards the customers.

The same pronoun ni has also been used historically as a formal way of address, but its use has (in particular in Sweden, not so much in Swedish-speaking parts of Finland) been restricted to addressing people of lower social status, whereby a plethora of different constructions were employed as to avoid the issue of pronouns whatsoever. See also the article about T-V distinction in Wikipedia.

Declension[edit]


Venetian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Compare Italian due

Numeral[edit]

du m

  1. two

Synonyms[edit]


Vietnamese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (Hà Nội) IPA(key): /z̻u˧˧/
  • (Huế) IPA(key): /jʊw˧˧/
  • (Hồ Chí Minh City) IPA(key): /jʊw˧˥/

Verb[edit]

du

  1. walk

Derived terms[edit]


Welsh[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *dubus (black) (compare Old Irish dub, Irish/Scottish Gaelic dubh), from Proto-Indo-European *dʰewbʰ- (black).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (North Wales) IPA(key): [dɨː]
  • (South Wales) IPA(key): [diː]

Adjective[edit]

du m & f (plural duon, equative dued, comparative duach, superlative duaf)

  1. black
    Mae ganddo fo fwstash du.
    He has a black mustache.

Mutation[edit]

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
du ddu nu unchanged