dzestrs

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Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Derived from dzest (an older, also dialectal, form of dzēst “to put out (fire), to extinguish, to erase” (q.v.); cf. also the related verb dzist “to go out (fire); to become cold, cool”), with an extra -ra: *dzes-ra-s > *dzesrs > dzestrs with an epenthetic t.[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

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Adjective[edit]

dzestrs (def. dzestrais, comp. dzestrāks, sup. visdzestrākais; adv. dzestri)

  1. (of air, wind) fresh, (pleasantly) cool
    dzestrs vējšcool, fresh wind
    pēc kodīgas nakts salnas krīt lapas... patīkami sajust dzestro gaisu — after the biting night frosts, leaves are falling... it is nice to feel the cool air
  2. (of weather, places, time periods) fresh, cool (characterized by fresh, cool air, wind, breezes)
    dzestrs laikscool weather
    dzestrs rītscool morning
    laukā ļoti dzestrs — it is very cool outside
    kļuva krietni dzestrs — it became quite cool
    dzestrā kapā likties — to lie down in a cool grave
    oktobra pēdējās dienas bija dzestras; pūta griezīgs vējš — the last days of October were cool; the wind blew shrill
  3. (of earth, sand, water) cool, also humid, damp
    dzestrs ūdenscool water
    dzestras smiltiscool, humid sand
    dzestra zemecool, humid earth
    pēdīgi, jūlija beigās, iepūtās spirgtākas vēsmas... dzestrāks ūdens ieplūda sasilušajā līča kaktā, parādījās zivis — at last, at the end of July, fresher breezes were blowing... cooler water flew into the warmer corner of the gulf, the fish came up
  4. (of light, the sun) cool (such that it does not provide warmth)
    visu pēcpusdienu spodra, bet dzestra novembra saule spīdēja pār Daugavu — the whole afternoon a shiny but cool November sun shone over the Daugava (river)
  5. (figuratively, of people, their behavior) cold, chilly (without tenderness, without warmth, distant, aloof)
    pret māti es biju vienmēr dzestra, bet tēvu mīlēju — to mother I was always cold, but father I loved
    savādi dzestra un atturīga bija viņa izturēšanās — her behavior was oddly cold and restrained
    “Tad es tevi netraucēšu vairāk. Sveika!” viņa balss bija kļuvusi pavisam dzestra — “In this case I will not disturb you any longer. Goodbye!” his voice had become completely cold

Declension[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ “dzestrs” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7