er

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Contents

English[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Mimetic (sound of hesitation)

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

er

  1. (UK) Said when hesitating in speech.

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

er (third-person singular simple present ers, present participle erring, simple past and past participle erred)

  1. (informal) To utter the word "er" when hesitating in speech, found almost exclusively in the phrase um and er.
    He ummed and erred his way through the presentation.

See also[edit]

Statistics[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Afrikaans[edit]

Noun[edit]

er (plural erre or ers, diminutive erretjie)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter R/r.

Breton[edit]

Contraction[edit]

er

  1. e (preposition "in") + ur (indefinite article "a(n)")
  2. e (preposition "in") + ar (definite article "the")

Cornish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

er (an eagle)

From Proto-Celtic *eriro- (eagle) (compare Breton erer, Welsh eryr, Old Irish irar), from Proto-Indo-European *or (large bird).

Noun[edit]

er m (plural eryon, eres)

  1. eagle

Etymology 2[edit]

Noun[edit]

er m (plural erys)

  1. heir

Crimean Tatar[edit]

Adjective[edit]

er

  1. every

Danish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

er

  1. present tense of være

Dutch[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Weak form of daar ("there")

Adverb[edit]

er

  1. there (unspecific to distance)
  2. (with a preposition) him, her, it, them.
    Ik heb ermee gewerkt.
    I have worked with it/them.
    Je kunt er de bergen boven zien.
    You can see the mountains above it/them.
Usage notes[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Dutch iro, genitive of the personal pronoun (3rd person plural).

Adverb[edit]

er

  1. (partitive pronoun) of them, of those (often not translated in English)
    Mijn broer heeft drie kinderen en ik heb er twee.
    My brother has three children and I have two. (literally: two of those)
    Ik zie er geen meer.
    I don't see any more (of them).

Synonyms[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

See Category:Dutch pronominal adverbs

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

Anagrams[edit]


Faroese[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

er

  1. he, she, it is, 3rd person singular present form of vera (to be)

Conjugation[edit]


German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old High German er, from Proto-Germanic *iz. Displaced the northern Old High German forms with h-, i.e. , her (see he).

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (standard) IPA(key): /eːɐ̯/, /ɛʁ/
  • (colloquially in unstressed position) IPA(key): /ɐ/

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. (personal) he.
    Wo ist Klaus? Wo ist er? — Where is Klaus? Where is he?
    (file)
  2. (personal) it (when the grammatical gender of the object/article/thing/animal etc., being referred to, is masculine (der)).
    Dies ist mein Hund. Er heißt Waldi. — This is my dog. Its name is Waldi.
    (file)
    Dort steht ein Baum. Er ist über 100 Jahre alt. — There stands a tree. It is more than 100 years old.
    (file)

Inflection[edit]

In contemporary German, the genitive forms of personal pronouns are restricted to formal style and are unfrequent even there. They may be used

  • for the genitive object still found in a handful of verbs: Ich erbarmte mich seiner. – "I had mercy on him". (Colloquially one would either use the dative case, or a prepositional object, or replace the verb with another.)
  • after the preposition statt ("instead of, in place of"): Ich kam statt seiner in die Mannschaft. – I joined the team in his place. (This sounds antiquated, for which reason an seiner Statt or an seiner Stelle is preferable. Nota bene: seiner here is not a genitive, but a possessive pronoun!)



Icelandic[edit]

Verb[edit]

er

  1. First-person singular indicative present form of vera.
    Ég er skemmtilegur.
    I am fun (masculine)
    Hver er ég?
    Who am I?
  2. Third-person singular indicative present form of vera.
    Veit einhver hvar pabbi minn er?
    Does anybody know where my dad is?
    Hver er hann?
    Who is he?

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. (relative) which
    Maður er , er Jón heitir.
    There is a man who is named John.
    Konan, er hann vartala við.
    The woman to whom he was talking.
    Þetta er borgin, er hann kom frá.
    This is the city from which he originated.
    Bærinn, er hún ætlar til.
    The town to which she's heading.
  2. (archaic) in relations with a demonstrative pronoun (this, that, these) or personal pronoun (I, we, they), which represents the genitive of a relative pronoun.
    Það er bók, er menn þekkja eigi höfund hennar.
    There is a book whose author people don't know.

Conjunction[edit]

er

  1. (with an "indexical"; ábendingarorð) of a place, of a time
    • Judges 2:19
      En er dómarinn andaðist, breyttu þeir að nýju verr en feður þeirra, með því að elta aðra guði til þess að þjóna þeim og falla fram fyrir þeim. Þeir létu eigi af gjörðum sínum né þrjóskubreytni sinni.
      But when the judge died, the people returned to ways even more corrupt than those of their ancestors, following other gods and serving and worshiping them. They refused to give up their evil practices and stubborn ways.
    Þar er ég kom.
    There whence I came.
    Þá er þegar myndin var búin.
    When the movie was finished.

Derived terms[edit]


Latin[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

er (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the letter R.

Usage notes[edit]

  • Multiple Latin names for the letter R, r have been suggested. The most common is er or a syllabic r, although there is some evidence which also supports, as names for the letter, , rrr, ər, , and even (in the fourth- or fifth-century first Antinoë papyrus, which gives Greek transliterations of the Latin names of the Roman alphabet’s letters) ιρρε (irre).

Coordinate terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • Arthur E. Gordon, The Letter Names of the Latin Alphabet (University of California Press, 1973; volume 9 of University of California Publications: Classical Studies), especially pages 30–31, 42–44, and 63

Latvian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

er m (invariable)

  1. The Latvian name of the Latin script letter R/r.

See also[edit]


Low German[edit]

Preposition[edit]

er

  1. Alternative spelling of er.

Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

er (Zhuyin ㄦ˙)

  1. Pinyin reading of
  2. Pinyin reading of
  3. Nonstandard spelling of ér.
  4. Nonstandard spelling of ěr.
  5. Nonstandard spelling of èr.

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Manx[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Irish for.

Preposition[edit]

er

  1. on
  2. onto
  3. during
  4. for

Inflection[edit]

Singular Plural
Person 1st 2nd 3rd m. 3rd f. 1st 2nd 3rd
Normal orrym ort er urree orrin erriu orroo
Emphatic orryms orts ersyn urreeish orrinyn erriuish orroosyn

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. 3rd person singular of er
    on him/it

Derived terms[edit]


Norwegian Bokmål[edit]

Verb[edit]

er

  1. Present tense of være (to be)

Norwegian Nynorsk[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

er

  1. present tense of vera and vere

Old Frisian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. he

Old High German[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *airiz, whence also Old English ær.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

ēr

  1. early

Adverb[edit]

ēr

  1. ere, before
  2. formerly

Conjunction[edit]

ēr

  1. before, until

Preposition[edit]

ēr (+ dative)

  1. before

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *aiz, akin to Old English ār, Old Norse eir.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ēr n

  1. ore
  2. brass

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *iz (he), akin to Gothic 𐌹𐍃 (is, he), Latin is (he).

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. he
Descendants[edit]
  • Middle High German: er
    • German: er

References[edit]

  • Joseph Wright, An Old High German Primer

Old Norse[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Old Norse es. The final -s was replaced by -r due to analogy to the plural forms of vera.

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. who, which, that

Conjunction[edit]

er

  1. where
  2. when

Verb[edit]

er

  1. third-person singular indicative present tense of vera

Descendants[edit]

  • Icelandic: er

Old Saxon[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *airiz, whence also Old English ær.

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

ēr

  1. early
Declension[edit]


Adverb[edit]

ēr

  1. before, ere
  2. formerly

Conjunction[edit]

ēr

  1. before

Preposition[edit]

ēr (+ dative)

  1. before

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *aiz, whence also Old English ār.

Pronunciation[edit]

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with IPA then please add some!

Noun[edit]

ēr ?

  1. copper, bronze
  2. ore

Polish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

er

  1. genitive plural of era

Scots[edit]

Verb[edit]

er

  1. (South Scots) Second-person simple present form of ti be
  2. (South Scots) Plural simple present form of ti be
  3. (South Scots) First-person singular simple present form of an obscure form of ti be
    A'm er so!

Usage notes[edit]

Used emphatically. See ir.


Swedish[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Contraction of earlier eder, from Old Norse yðr, from Proto-Germanic *izwiz, dative/accusative of *jūz, from Proto-Indo-European *yū́.

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

er c (neuter possessive only ert, plural era)

  1. you (plural, object)
  2. (possessive) your, yours; (speaking to more than one person, about one object)
  3. (reflexive) of ni; compare yourselves
    Skulle ni vilja lära er jonglera?
    Would you guys like to learn how to juggle?

Usage notes[edit]

  • See ni for a note on its use as a courteous 2nd person singular.
  • Even though er (2) and its archaic form eder is the possessive pronoun, it does have a genitive form ers and eders, which is only used in expressions like ers majestät (your majesty) and ers höghet (your highness).

Declension[edit]


Turkish[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Turkic er, from Proto-Turkic *ẹ̄r (early), possibly from Proto-Altaic *ḗre ("early"), compare Korean irɨ- ("early").

Adjective[edit]

er

  1. early

References[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Turkic er, from Proto-Turkic *ēr (man), possibly from Proto-Altaic *ā́ri (~ *ḗra) ("man"). Related to noun-forming suffix -er.

Noun[edit]

er (definite accusative eri, plural erler)

  1. brave
  2. man, male
  3. noble
  4. private (soldier of the lowest rank of the army)
  5. tribesman
  6. warrior
Declension[edit]

Verb[edit]

er

  1. reach (imperative)

References[edit]


West Frisian[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

er

  1. he

Usage notes[edit]

  • (he): Er is used before the object of the sentence or after the verb, if there is one. It is never the first word of a sentence.
    • Doe't er in swolch naam -- "When he took a swallow", (literally "When he a swallow took")

Especially in narrative, er is used in the past tense. In other cases, hy is used.