gaišs

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See also: gaiss

Latvian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Originally the yo-stem variant of an earlier u-stem form *gaisus (a parallel o-stem variant yielded Latvian dialectal adjective gaiss), from Proto-Baltic *gais- (some researchers suggest *gaid-, i.e. *gaid-sus), from Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰēy-, *gʷʰəy- (bright, shining) with an extra -s. Cognates include Lithuanian gaidrùs (light, bright, clear), Old Prussian gaylis (white), Ancient Greek φαιός (phaiós, gray, dark) (< *gʷʰəywos or *gʷʰəysos).[1]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adjective[edit]

gaišs (def. gaišais, comp. gaišāks, sup. visgaišākais; adv. gaiši)

  1. (of lights, light sources) bright (strong; such that it produces strong light)
    gaiša spuldzebright (light) bulb
    gaiša liesma, ugunsbright flame, fire
    gaišs zibens uzliesmojumsbright flash of lightning
    gaišs ugunskursbright (camp)fire
    aiz vecām, līkām ābelēm spīdēja gaiša mēnesnīca — behind the old, hooked apple trees shone the bright moonlight
  2. (of places, time periods) light, bright, well lit
    gaiša istababright, well lit room
    gaiša ielabright, well lit street
    šodien ir gaišs — today is bright (= well lit)
    no rīta jau kļūst gaišs — in the morning it already becomes bright
    diena bija gaiša un zeltaina kā dzintara grauds — the day was bright and golden like a grain of amber
    debesis kļuva aizvien gaišākas un gaišākas; nakts bija pagājusi — the sky became brighter and brighter; the night was over
  3. (of objects, their colors) light, bright (white or with a large white admixture; without dark tones)
    gaišs tērpsbright dress
    gaiša drānalight (not dark) fabric
    gaiša apkaklītelight collar
    gaiši ziedilight, bright flowers
    gaiši matilight, fair hair
    gaišas ūsaslight mustache (i.e., fair-haired)
    gaiši zilslight blue
    viņam ir atklāta seja un gaišas, it kā izbalējušs uzacis — he has an open face and light, almost faded, eyebrows
    vienmēr atceries, ka gaišie toņi telpu it kā palielina, tumšie pamazina — always remember that light tones make the room look bigger, (while) dark ones (= tones, colors) make it small
  4. (of liquids, drinks) light (relatively clear, transparent; not saturated, concentrated)
    gaišais aluslight beer
    tēja ir vēl gan tāda gaiša — the tea is still so light
  5. clear, obvious, unambiguous
    skaidri un gaiši — loud and clear (lit. clear and bright)
    visa latviešu tautas daiļrade, it sevišķi dziesmas un pasakas, dod gaišu liecību par darbaļaužu optimistisko dzīves skatījumi — the entire Latvian folk art, especially the songs and tales, give clear testimony of the working people's optimistic view of life
  6. bright (smart, intelligent, advanced; educated; morally, ethically evolved)
    gaišs prātsbright mind
    gaiša, gudra galvabright, smart head (= intelligent person)
    Verns nešaubīgi tic cilvēka gaišā gara uzvarai, zinātnes spēkam — Verns firmly believes in the victory of man's bright spirit, in the power of science
    Ieva diendienā redz šo zēnu, tas ir gudrs un attīstīts, un gaišā prāta dēļ tam droši varētu piedot kaut pusi viņa nedarbu — Ieva sees this boy every day, he is intelligent and developed, and because of (his) bright mind one could perhaps forgive half of his misdeeds
  7. bright, light (mentally balanced; good-natured, well-disposed; also, happy)
    viņa ir tāds gaišs, allaž priecīgs bērns — she is such a bright, always happy child
    viņa acu priekšā stāvēja Zentas tēls, jauns, gaišs, priecīgs — before his eyes (there) stood an image of Zenta, young, bright, happy
    Mariju sāpes padarījušas gaišāku un mierīgāku — the pain made Mary lighter and calmer
  8. (of people, their behavior) bright (good, optimistic, happy; expressing such feelings)
    gaišas cerībasbright hopes, expectations
    gaiši sapņibright dreams
    gaiša laimebright, light happiness
    gaišas atmiņasbright, happy memories
    gaišs skatiensbright look
    gaišs smaidsbright smile
    gaiša runabright, happy talk
    mans tēvs bija gaiša rakstura, nekad nerājās, nesūdzējās — my father had a bright disposition, he never quarreled or complained
    māte guļ un domā... nakts ir tumša, bet domas gaišas: domas par dēlu — the mother lay down and thought... the night is dark, but (her) thoughts are light: thoughts about (her) son
    tiem gaišas un priecīgas sejas; un cik bezbēdīgi tie smejas! — they (have) bright, happy faces; and how freely they laugh!
    sarunas bija gaišas, dzīves priecīgas, un tajās varēja manīt stipru ticību uzvarai — the talks were bright (= optimistic, promising), life (was) happy, and one could notice in them a strong belief in victory
  9. (of social phenomena, time periods) bright, noble, free (with good perspectives; causing happiness)
    gaišas nākotnes valsts — a country with a bright future
    ticība gaišai rītdienai — belief in a bright tomorrow
    gaiša bērnība — a bright (= happy) childhood
    gaiši brīžibright (= happy) moments
    gaišas vecumdienas ir arī maniem agrākiem darba biedriem — many of my former colleagues have a bright (= happy) old age
  10. (of sounds, musical instruments) high, high-pitched; sonorous, pure
    gaišas vijoļu skaņasbright (= high-pitched) violin sounds
    gaišs zvansbright (= sonorous) bell
    viens cirtiens bija smagāks un dobjāks, otrs bija viegls, gaišs — one stroke was heavy and hollow, the second was light, bright

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References[edit]

  1. ^ “gaišs” in Konstantīns Karulis (1992, 2001), Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca, in 2 vols, Rīga: AVOTS, ISBN: 9984-700-12-7