Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
- (economics) The integrating of identical stages in the production or marketing process under the ownership or control of a single management organization.
2003, Rachel Schurman and Dennis D. Kelso, chapter 1, Engineering trouble: biotechnology and its discontents, ISBN 0520240073, page 28:
- This process of vertical and horizontal integration has resulted in consolidation of control over basic transformation technologies used in the genetic modification of crops; control over proprietary traits; and control over the elite germplasm resources for many of the world's most important commercial crops.
The integrating of identical stages in the production or marketing process