instrumentāl

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Livonian[edit]

Noun[edit]

instrumentāl

  1. (grammar) instrumental case

Declension[edit]

Usage notes[edit]

Instrumental case is a term used by some authors (including Viitso). Its suffix (-ks) is cognate with Estonian (-ks) and Finnish (-ksi) translative case endings (which is one of its functions in Livonian) with which a comitative function (Estonian affix -ga) has been syncretized. To avoid calling it "translative/comitative" it is called "instrumental" for short.