ju

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See also: , , , , JU, and ju1

Albanian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Nominative-accusative from Proto-Albanian *ju(s), from Proto-Indo-European dual *yúh₁(s) (compare Lithuanian jùs, Gothic 𐌾𐌿𐍃 (jus, you (plural))). Older clitic u comes from clitic *u̯os, and ablative jush is from Proto-Albanian *ju-su (similarly Lithuanian locative jū́su).

Pronoun[edit]

ju (accusative ju, dative juve, ablative jush)

  1. you (plural or polite)

Declension[edit]

See also[edit]


Borôro[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

ju

  1. manioc

Dalmatian[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Vulgar Latin *eo < Latin ego.

Pronoun[edit]

ju

  1. (first person singular pronoun) I

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]


Dutch[edit]

Interjection[edit]

ju

  1. Said to a horse to make it start moving.

Esperanto[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Swedish ju, German je.

Particle[edit]

ju

  1. the; used with des and either pli (more) or malpli (less) to form the second half of a coordinated comparative.
    • 1903, Ben Elmy, “La Lingvo de la floroj”, in The Esperantist: The Esperanto Gazette for the Spreading of the International Language, page 138,
      Ju pli ni studas la florojn, des pli ni konstatas, ke multe da ili posedas nesuspektitajn lertecojn, kiujn apud besto ni volonte nomus instinkto aŭ еĉ prudento.
      “The more we study the flowers, the more we establish that many of them possess unexpected abilities, which in an animal we would willingly call instinct or even foresight.”

See also[edit]


Gothic[edit]

Romanization[edit]

ju

  1. Romanization of 𐌾𐌿

Greenlandic[edit]

Affix[edit]

ju (after long vowels)

  1. to be
    tulukkaajuvoq - It is a young raven.

Japanese[edit]

Romanization[edit]

ju

  1. rōmaji reading of じゅ
  2. rōmaji reading of ジュ
  3. rōmaji reading of ぢゅ
  4. rōmaji reading of ヂュ

Ladin[edit]

Adverb[edit]

ju

  1. down, below
  2. downstairs

Lojban[edit]

Cmavo[edit]

ju (rafsi juv)

  1. (conjunction) whether (or not). Joins two predicate words in a complex predicate.

Derived terms[edit]

Related terms[edit]


Lower Sorbian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ju

  1. accusative of wóna

Related terms[edit]

  • nju (after preposition)

Mandarin[edit]

Romanization[edit]

ju

  1. Nonstandard spelling of .
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of .
  4. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes[edit]

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Maquiritari[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • (De'kwana): juu

Noun[edit]

ju

  1. (Ye'kwana dialect) hair of the head

References[edit]

  • Ed. Key, Mary Ritchie and Comrie, Bernard. The Intercontinental Dictionary Series, Carib (De'kwana).
  • Cáceres, Natalia. Grammaire Fonctionelle-Typologique du Ye'kwana.

Old French[edit]

Noun[edit]

ju m (oblique plural jus, nominative singular jus, nominative plural ju)

  1. alternative form of geu

Old Frisian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *izwiz.

Pronoun[edit]

  1. Accusative and dative form of

Declension[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • West Frisian: jo

Saterland Frisian[edit]

Article[edit]

ju f

  1. the

Serbo-Croatian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Clitic of nju

Pronunciation[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

ju (Cyrillic spelling ју)

  1. her (clitic accusative singular of òna (she))
Declension[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Form of iju

Alternative forms[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Interjection[edit]

(Cyrillic spelling ју)

  1. Used to express surprise.

Swedish[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Adverb[edit]

ju

  1. Used to indicate an expectation of common understanding, or that what is said is an obvious fact.
    Bussen går ju klockan tre.
    The bus of course leaves at three o' clock. (with an expectation that the second party in the conversation is aware of the fact)

ju...desto

  1. The...the (when comparing)
    Ju större, desto bättre.
    The larger, the better.

Wauja[edit]

Interjection[edit]

ju

  1. my dear(s), dearie (intimate yet very courteous term of address from one woman to another, esp. to a female sibling, close relative, or companion)
    Hai, ju! Aya awauta apisun wiu. Ume eu. Aya awauta apisun wiu, ju. Hoona! Iseju, wi.
    "Well, dear! Let's find ourselves a lover," she said. "Let's look for a lover for ourselves, my dear." "Agreed!" [said] her younger sister.
    Pitsu neke, ju! uma pakai paiseju ipitsi. Pitsu neke, ju.
    "Your turn now, dearie," the woman said to her younger sister. "Your turn, my dear."
    Munyakawaka wi, kamwo putukawiu, naatsa kamwi eu whun. Hoona! Hai, ju! Aya waku wiu, ju! Hoona! uma pakai. Aya waku wi! Tuma ulepiu!
    It began to be light, the sun showed itself, it was just here on the horizon. So! [The women said to one another:] "Hey there, my dear! Let's go to the riverside, dear!" "Yes, let's do!" came the reply. "Let's go to the river, indeed!" They began to make fresh manioc bread [to give their lover when they met him at the river's edge].
    Ayama ju! Hoona! Iyapai otepo. Onupene otepoga akain! Eh! Ewetemewi, ju! Hokotawi tsiiiii!
    "Let's go [visit the tree] once again, dear!" [the older sister said to the younger]. "All right!" [the younger sister agreed]. [They] went under [the tree]. They saw pequi fruit [on the ground] beneath [the tree]! "Ah! Let's taste it, dear!" [She] cut [it] open: tsiiiii! [sound of slicing open the fruit]

Usage notes[edit]

  • "My dear" is a rough translation of the term ju, as there is no counterpart in modern English. This is a traditional term of address between women who are speaking in a tone that is both intimate and gracious. It is simultaneously polite and tender, expressing feminine solicitude at its most comforting. Though this term was routinely used by well-spoken female elders in 1981, it was already beginning to be seen by young people as archaic. Older women would teach the anthropologist to use this lovely old term, and remark that young women nowadays no longer bothered to use it. Meanwhile, young female relatives within earshot typically would just giggle. A few decades later, it was rarely heard in daily speech, and more likely to be encountered in traditional stories. Note that it is not a kinship term, but more like a term of gender solidarity.

See also[edit]

  • tya (my man, guys, fellas)

References[edit]

  • "Hai, ju!" (transcript, p. 9), "Pitsu neke" (p. 33), "Munyakawaka wi" (p. 57), and "Ayama ju!" (p. 72), uttered by Aruta, storyteller and elder, as he recounted the traditional tale, "The Caiman Spirit" (Yakaojokuma). Recorded in Piyulaga village in the presence of assembled elders and others, November 1989. In this story, a chief, who already has two wives, takes two additional ones, causing the first two wives to feel neglected, and to decide to take a lover. The dialogue between the two women makes extensive use of ju in a comedic manner, showing the two woman so utterly jealous at their husband's taking two new wives that they completely — and quite unnaturally — put aside any jealousy between themselves. With utmost courtesy and decorum, the women in the story calmly take turns receiving the amorous attentions of their shared paramour, something it is impossible to imagine any Wauja woman tolerating, which makes the story all the more amusing.